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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 19, 2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051036

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium leprae and Toxoplasma gondii infections are both neglected tropical diseases highly prevalent in Brazil. Infection with certain parasite species can significantly alter susceptibility to other important pathogens, and/or influence the development of pathology. Here we investigated the possible influence of M. leprae/T. gondii co-parasitism on the manifestation of leprosy and its clinical forms. METHODS: Participants (n = 291) were recruited in Campos dos Goytacazes city, Rio de Janeiro state, southeast Brazil, from August 2015 to December 2019 and clinically diagnosed for leprosy. Participants were selected based on the presence (patients) or absence (healthy controls) of the leprosy disease. Contacts of patients were also recruited for this study. Serum samples from patients (n = 199) with leprosy, contacts (n = 40) and healthy controls (n = 52) were investigated for levels of IgM and IgG anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) by ELISA. Additionally, IgG antibody against soluble Toxoplasma antigen (STAg) was measured in sera samples from leprosy patients, contacts and healthy controls for Toxoplasma gondii serology by ELISA. Anti-PGL-1 IgG and IgM levels were compared using one-way ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney, while Spearman test was used to correlate levels of IgG anti-STAg and IgM/IgG anti-PGL-1 from seropositive and seronegative individuals for T. gondii infection. The risk of T. gondii infection for leprosy disease was assessed using Fisher's test. RESULTS: Levels of IgM anti-PGL-1 antibodies were significantly higher in multibacillary (MB) patients compared to paucibacillary (PB) patients (P = 0.0068). Higher IgM and IgG levels anti-PGL-1 were detected in patients with the lepromatous forms. The serologic prevalence for T. gondii infection was 74.9%. We detected increased anti-STAg antibody levels in leprosy patients (79.4%), reaching 88.8% within those with lepromatous form of this disease. The leprosy risk increase in T. gondii seropositive individuals was two-fold (odds ratio [OR] = 2.055; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI]: 1.18-3.51) higher than those seronegative, and considering the lepromatous leprosy risk this increase was even dramatic (OR = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.76-9.69) in T. gondii seropositive individuals. Moreover the leprosy risk in T. gondii seropositive individuals was weakly correlated to the levels of IgG anti-STAg and IgM/IgG anti-PGL-1. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results suggest that T. gondii infection may exert immunomodulatory properties that influence to the susceptibility of leprosy, mainly on its more severe clinical form. A better understanding of parasite immunomodulation can ultimately contribute to the development of medical applications.

2.
Lancet HIV ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035041

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir is being considered in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa instead of efavirenz for people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) because of superior tolerability and a lower risk of resistance emergence. WHO requested updated modelling results for its 2019 Antiretroviral Guidelines update, which was restricted to the choice of dolutegravir or efavirenz in new ART initiators. In response to this request, we modelled the risks and benefits of alternative policies for initial first-line ART regimens. METHODS: We updated an existing individual-based model of HIV transmission and progression in adults to consider information on the risk of neural tube defects in women taking dolutegravir at time of conception, as well as the effects of dolutegravir on weight gain. The model accounted for drug resistance in determining viral suppression, with consequences for clinical outcomes and mother-to-child transmission. We sampled distributions of parameters to create various epidemic setting scenarios, which reflected the diversity of epidemic and programmatic situations in sub-Saharan Africa. For each setting scenario, we considered the situation in 2018 and compared ART initiation policies of an efavirenz-based regimen in women intending pregnancy, and a dolutegravir-based regimen in others, and a dolutegravir-based regimen, including in women intending pregnancy. We considered predicted outcomes over a 20-year period from 2019 to 2039, used a 3% discount rate, and a cost-effectiveness threshold of US$500 per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. FINDINGS: Considering updated information on risks and benefits, a policy of ART initiation with a dolutegravir-based regimen rather than an efavirenz-based regimen, including in women intending pregnancy, is predicted to bring population health benefits (10 990 DALYs averted per year) and to be cost-saving (by $2·9 million per year), leading to a reduction in the overall population burden of disease of 16 735 net DALYs per year for a country with an adult population size of 10 million. The policy involving ART initiation with a dolutegravir-based regimen in women intending pregnancy was cost-effective in 87% of our setting scenarios and this finding was robust in various sensitivity analyses, including around the potential negative effects of weight gain. INTERPRETATION: In the context of a range of modelled setting scenarios in sub-Saharan Africa, we found that a policy of ART initiation with a dolutegravir-based regimen, including in women intending pregnancy, was predicted to bring population health benefits and be cost-effective, supporting WHO's strong recommendation for dolutegravir as a preferred drug for ART initiators. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

3.
Pharmacol Rep ; 72(1): 47-54, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016848

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy is a common cause of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression is increased in peripheral nerve samples from diabetes patients, suggesting a role for CXCR4 in PDN. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of Phα1ß, ω-conotoxin MVIIA, and AMD3100 in a model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced PDN in rodents and naïve model of rats with the activation of the CXCR4/stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) signal. METHODS: Diabetic neuropathy was induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of STZ in Wistar rats. Naïve rats were intrathecally injected with SDF-1 to test the CXCR4/SDF-1 signal. The effects of Phα1ß intrathecal (it), ω-conotoxin MVIIA intrathecal (it), and AMD3100 intraperitoneal (ip) on rat hypersensitivity, IL-6, and the intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i content of diabetic synaptosomes were studied. RESULTS: The drugs reduced the hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. SDF-1 (1.0 µg/it) administration in naïve rats induced hypersensitivity. Phα1ß (100 pmol/it) or AMD3100 (2.5 µg/ip) reduced this hypersensitivity after 2 h treatments, while ω-conotoxin MVIIA did not have an effect. IL-6 and [Ca2+]i content increased in the spinal cord synaptosomes in diabetic rats. The drug treatments reduced IL-6 and the calcium influx in diabetic synaptosomes. CONCLUSIONS: Phα1ß, ω-conotoxin MVIIA, and AMD3100, after 2 h of treatment of STZ-induced PDN, reduced hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. In naïve rats with CXCR4/SDF-1 activation, the induced hypersensitivity decreased after 2 h treatments with Phα1ß or AMD-3100, while ω-conotoxin MVIIA did not affect. The inhibitory effects of Phα1ß on PDN may involve voltage-dependent calcium channels.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 40-43, 2020 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945035

RESUMEN

Multiple genetically distinct influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses have cocirculated in the United States recently, circulating sporadically during the 2018-19 season and more frequently early during the 2019-20 season (1). The beginning of the 2019-20 influenza season in Louisiana was unusually early and intense, with infections primarily caused by influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses. One large pediatric health care facility in New Orleans (facility A) reported 1,268 laboratory-confirmed influenza B virus infections, including 23 hospitalizations from July 31 to November 21, 2019, a time when influenza activity is typically low. During this period, Louisiana also reported one pediatric death associated with influenza B virus infection. An investigation of the influenza B virus infections in Louisiana, including medical and vaccine record abstraction on 198 patients, primarily from facility A, with sporadic cases from other facilities in the state, found that none of the patients had received 2019-20 seasonal influenza vaccine, in part because influenza activity began before influenza vaccination typically occurs. Among 83 influenza B viruses sequenced from 198 patients in Louisiana, 81 (98%) belonged to the recently emerged B/Victoria V1A.3 genetic subclade. Nationally, to date, B/Victoria viruses are the most commonly reported influenza viruses among persons aged <25 years (2). Of the 198 patients in the investigation, 95% were aged <18 years. Although most illnesses were uncomplicated, the number of hospitalizations, clinical complications, and the reported pediatric death in Louisiana serve as a reminder that, even though influenza B viruses are less common than influenza A viruses in most seasons, influenza B virus infection can be severe in children. All persons aged ≥6 months should receive an annual influenza vaccination if they have not already received it (3). Antiviral treatment of influenza is recommended as soon as possible for all hospitalized patients and for outpatients at high risk for influenza complications (including children aged <2 years and persons with underlying medical conditions) (4).


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Influenza B/aislamiento & purificación , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Louisiana/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Adulto Joven
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 109975, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787382

RESUMEN

Coal plants represent one of the main sources of environmental pollution due to the combustion process of this mineral and the consequent release of gases and particles which, in significant quantities, can lead to a potential risk to health and the environment. The susceptibility of individuals to the genotoxic effects of coal mining can be modulated by genetic variations in the xenobiotic detoxification and DNA repair processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate if xenobiotic metabolism polymorphism, base excision repair polymorphisms and non-homologous end joining repair polymorphism, could modify individual susceptibility to genomic instability and epigenetic alterations induced in workers by occupational exposure to coal. In this study, polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the polymorphic sites. The sample population comprising 70 coal mine workers and 71 workers non-exposed to coal. Our results demonstrated the effect of individual genotypes on different biomarkers evaluated. Significant decrease in % of global DNA methylation were observed in CYP1A1 Val/- exposed individuals compared to CYP1A1 Ile/Ile individuals. Coal workers who carried the XRCC4 Ile/Ile genotype showed decrease NBUD frequencies, while the XRCC4 Thr/- genotype was associated with decrease in Buccal micronucleus cells for the group not exposed. No influence of GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, GSTP1 Ile105Val, hOGG1 Ser326Cys, XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphisms was observed. Thus, the current study reinforces the importance of considering the effect of metabolizing and repair variant genotypes on the individual susceptibility to incorporate DNA damage, as these processes act in a coordinated manner to determine the final response to coal exposure.

8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(1): 379-385, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392555

RESUMEN

In northeastern Brazil, with has a predominantly dry climate, farmers seek alternative sources of income and livelihood by the rearing pigs. The gastrointestinal parasites that affect these animals represent an obstacle in the production and can cause significant economic loss. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematodes and Coccidia in swine herds in the Sousa microregion, Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study, and the sampling was designed to determine the prevalence of endoparasite-positive farms and pigs. We randomly selected 51 farms and 187 pigs. Fecal samples were collected from each animal, and eggs per gram and oocysts per gram feces were recorded. The data collected in the epidemiological questionnaires were used to determine the possible risk factors associated with endoparasite-positive animal status. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and Coccidia in the pigs was 79.5% (149/187). Coccidia were the most prevalent parasite found, with 56.6% (106/187) of the pigs testing positive, followed by nematodes 22.9% (43/187). Strongylidae was the most common nematodes found (67.5%, 29/43), followed by Trichuris sp. (30.2%, 13/43) and Ascaris sp. (2.3%, 1/43). In 29 coprocultures, Strongylidae was identified: Oesophagostomum (82.2%, 25/29), Strongyloides (62.0%, 18/29), and Hyostrongylus (27.5%, 8/29). Mixed nematode and coccidial infection were observed in 72.4% (21/29) of the samples. Relevant risk factors were related to the type of management adopted by family farmers. Changes in management measures could improve the health profile of farms.

9.
J Physiother ; 66(1): 19-26, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843426

RESUMEN

QUESTIONS: In patients with a collection of fluid in the pleural space, do mobilisation and respiratory techniques: shorten the drainage period and length of hospital stay; improve respiratory function and oxygenation; and prevent pulmonary complications? Does the addition of positive airway pressure to this regimen further improve the effects? DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with three intervention arms, concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded assessment. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty-six inpatients with a fluid collection in the pleural space and with chest drainage in situ. INTERVENTION: Participants received usual care and were randomly assigned to: a control group that also received sham positive airway pressure (4 cmH2O) only (Con); an experimental group that received incentive spirometry, airway clearance, mobilisation and the same sham positive pressure (Exp1); or an experimental group that received the Exp1 regimen except that the positive airway pressure was 15 cmH2O (Exp2). Treatments were provided three times per day for 7 days. OUTCOME MEASURES: Days of chest tube drainage, length of hospital stay, pulmonary complications and adverse events were recorded until hospital discharge. Costs in each group were estimated. RESULTS: The Exp2 group had shorter duration of chest tube drainage and length of hospital stay compared with the Exp1 and Con groups. In addition, the Exp2 group had less antibiotic use (18% versus 43% versus 55%) and pneumonia incidence (0% versus 16% versus 20%) compared with the Exp1 and Con groups (all p < 0.01). The groups had similar rates of adverse events (10% versus 2% versus 6%, p > 0.05). Total treatment costs were lower in the Exp2 group than in the Exp1 and Con groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a fluid collection in the pleural space, the addition of positive pressure to mobilisation and respiratory techniques decreased the duration of thoracic drainage, length of hospital stay, pulmonary complications, antibiotic use and treatment costs. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.govNCT02246946.

10.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 111: 104553, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843592

RESUMEN

New effective compounds to treat tuberculosis are urgently needed. IQG-607 is an orally active anti-tuberculosis drug candidate, with promising preliminary safety profile and anti-mycobacterial activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of tuberculosis infection. Here, we evaluated the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of IQG-607, and its interactions with CYP450 isoforms. Moreover, we describe for the first time a combination study of IQG-607 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. Importantly, IQG-607 had additive effects when combined with the first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs rifampin and pyrazinamide in mice. IQG-607 presented weak to moderate inhibitory potential against CYP450 isoforms 3A4, 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 2E1. The Salmonella mutagenicity test revealed that IQG-607 induced base pair substitution mutations in the strains TA100 and TA1535. However, in the presence of human metabolic S9 fraction, no mutagenic effect was detected in any strain. Additionally, IQG-607 did not increase micronucleus frequencies in mice, at any dose tested, 25, 100, or 250 mg/kg. The favorable activity in combination with first-line drugs and mild to moderate toxic events described in this study suggest that IQG-607 represents a candidate for clinical development.

11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104549, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541844

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate different periods of exposure to clarified human saliva for the ability to protect enamel against erosive tooth wear. METHODS: For this purpose, sixty specimens (4 × 4 × 1.5 mm) were prepared from third human molars. For all groups, the period before abrasion was performed by remineralisation with human saliva (except in G1). The specimens were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the different remineralisation times of exposure to clarified human saliva: no exposure to saliva (G1) and 30 min (G2), 60 min (G3), 90 min (G4), 120 min (G5), and 240 min (G6) of exposure to human saliva. A 5-day cycling was performed with 5 min of erosion (1% citric acid; pH 2.3), 4x/day. After the first and last erosive episodes, the abrasion challenge was performed with slurry of fluoride toothpaste (1450 ppm F-, as sodium monofluorophosphate) plus human saliva (1:3), with an electric toothbrush (15 s, with a total of 120 s of slurry immersion). Surface loss (SL) was determined using an optical profilometer (n = 10) and for qualitative analysis, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was performed (n = 3). The SL data were statistically analysed by one-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: No significant differences were detected among the groups for SL (p > 0.05), and ESEM showed similar aspects of eroded enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The period of in vitro exposure to clarified human saliva was not able to protect against enamel erosion.


Asunto(s)
Esmalte Dental/patología , Saliva/química , Abrasión de los Dientes , Erosión de los Dientes , Humanos , Distribución Aleatoria , Cepillado Dental/instrumentación , Pastas de Dientes
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226691, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887164

RESUMEN

The establishment of diatom communities depends on environmental factors such as the type of substrate and geographic conditions that influence the dispersal processes of these organisms. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the similarity between diatom communities associated with the macroalgae Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing in relation to spatial distance from six sampled sites located in the South Shetland Islands, Maritime Antarctica. The diatom flora associated with Prasiola crispa was represented by 23 species distributed in 15 genera. Pinnularia australoschoenfelderi Zidarova, Kopalová & Van de Vijver, Luticola austroatlantica Van de Vijver, Kopalová, S.A.Spaulding & Esposito, Luticola amoena Van der Vijver, Kopalová, Zidarova & Levkov, Pinnularia austroshetlandica (Carlson) Cleve-Euler and Psammothidium papilio (D.E. Kellogg et al.) Kopalová & Zidarova were the most abundant species in our samples, together they represented 68% of the total number of individuals collected. There was great similarity and abundance of the diatom communites among the sampled points, which resulted in the absence of a linear relationship pattern with distance between sampling points. We conclude that distance was not a factor of differentiation of Antarctic diatom communities associated with terrestrial green macroalgae. This suggests that Antarctic environments may have unique characteristics with homogeneous abiotic factors, at least in relation to this substrate.

13.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(18): 1009-1018, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658881

RESUMEN

The use of natural products from herbs may be a therapeutic option in dyslipidemia treatment. Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart.) O. Berg (Myrtaceae) leaves have been used to decrease cholesterol levels. However, studies to determine activities of this plant on triglycerides metabolism have received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine anti-hyperlipidemic effects of a C. xanthocarpa aqueous leaf extract (CxAE) and assess protective actions against oxidative stress and DNA damage. The tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia model was used in Wistar rats. Rats were treated orally with CxAE either 250 or 500 mg/kg/day for 7 days prior to tyloxapol administration. Biochemical parameters, oxidative stress levels, and genomic instability were assessed in several tissues. CxAE decreased cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum and hepatic and renal DNA damage in tyloxapol-treated rats. There was no marked effect on the micronucleus frequency in bone marrow. The extract increased catalase activity and decreased glutathione S-transferase activity in kidney tissue. CxAE showed anti-hyperlipidemic effects, improved oxidative parameters, and protected DNA against damage induced by tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia, suggesting C. xanthocarpa leaves may be useful in preventing dyslipidemias.Abbreviations: ALP: Alkaline phosphatase; ALT: Aspartate aminotransferase; ANOVA: Analysis of variance; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; Ator: Atorvastatin; CAT: Catalase; Chol: Cholesterol; CxAE: Campomanesia xanthocarpa aqueous extract; GST: Glutathione S-transferase; HDL: High density cholesterol; i.p.: Intraperitoneal; NCE: Normochromatic erythrocyte; PBS: Phosphate buffer solution; PCE: Polychromatic erythrocyte; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; SD: Standard deviation; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; T: Tyloxapol; TBARS: Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances; TG: Triglyceride.

14.
Neuropsychobiology ; 78(4): 218-228, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and opioid systems play a crucial role in the neural modulation of innate fear organised by the inferior colliculus (IC). In addition, the IC is rich in GABAergic fibres and opioid neurons, which are also connected to other mesencephalic structures, such as the superior colliculus and the substantia nigra. However, the contribution of distinct opioid receptors (ORs) in the IC during the elaboration and expression of innate fear and panic-like responses is unclear. The purpose of the present work was to investigate a possible integrated action exerted by ORs and the GABAA receptor-mediated system in the IC on panic-like responses. METHODS: The effect of the blockade of either µ1- or κ-ORs in the IC was evaluated in the unconditioned fear-induced responses elicited by GABAA antagonism with bicuculline. Microinjections of naloxonazine, a µ1-OR antagonist, or nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI), a κ-OR antagonist, were made into the IC, followed by intramesencephalic administration of the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline. The defensive behaviours elicited by the treatments in the IC were quantitatively analysed, recording the number of escapes expressed as running (crossing), jumps, and rotations, over a 30-min period in a circular arena. The exploratory behaviour of rearing was also recorded. RESULTS: GABAA-receptor blockade with bicuculline in the IC increased defensive behaviours. However, pretreatment of the IC with higher doses (5 µg) of naloxonazine or nor-BNI followed by bicuculline resulted in a significant decrease in unconditioned fear-induced responses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a role played by µ1- and κ-OR-containing connexions and GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission on the organisation of panic attack-related responses elaborated by the IC neurons.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12715, 2019 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481722

RESUMEN

Mineral content affects the biological processes underlying beef quality. Muscle mineral concentration depends not only on intake-outtake balance and muscle type, but also on age, environment, breed, and genetic factors. To unveil the genetic factors involved in muscle mineral concentration, we applied a pairwise differential gene expression analysis in groups of Nelore steers genetically divergent for nine different mineral concentrations. Here, based on significant expression differences between contrasting groups, we presented candidate genes for the genetic regulation of mineral concentration in muscle. Functional enrichment and protein-protein interaction network analyses were carried out to search for gene regulatory processes concerning each mineral. The core genetic regulation for all minerals studied, except Zn, seems to rest on interactions between components of the extracellular matrix. Regulation of adipogenesis-related pathways was also significant in our results. Antagonistic patterns of gene expression for fatty acid metabolism-related genes may explain the Cu and Zn antagonistic effect on fatty acid accumulation. Our results shed light on the role of these minerals on cell function.

16.
Aquichan ; 19(3): e1932, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038330

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of educational strategies on sleep quality and its relation to diabetes-related distress and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Materials and methods: Randomized clinical trial involving two groups. Group 1 (G1, n = 45) received verbal guidance and leaflets on sleep hygiene strategies and group 2 (G2, n = 46) received usual health care guidelines on self-care with the feet. Sleep was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory and diabetes-related distress by the Diabetes Distress Scale. Linear mixed-effects models and linear regression model were used for the statistical analysis. Results: At the end of the follow-up, sleep quality improvement (p = 0.02) was verified in G1. Low diabetes-related distress score (p = 0.03), being male (p = 0.02), belonging to G1 (p = 0.002), and age (p = 0.04) contributed to better sleep quality. Conclusion: Educational guidelines on sleep hygiene in patients with DM2 were effective in improving sleep quality, measured by the PSQI instrument and emotional stress related to diabetes as assessed by the Diabetes Distress Scale.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de estrategias educativas en la calidad del sueño y su relación con el estrés emocional asociado con diabetes en personas con DM2. Materiales y método: ensayo clínico aleatorizado con dos grupos. El grupo 1 (G1, n = 45) tuvo orientaciones verbales y folletos acerca de estrategias de higiene del sueño; el grupo 2 (G2, n = 46), orientaciones usuales de las unidades de salud sobre autocuidado con los pies. El sueño se evaluó por el Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI-BR), y el estrés emocional, por el Diabetes Distress Scale (B-DDS). Se emplearon modelos lineales de efectos mixtos y modelo de regresión lineal para análisis estadísticas. Resultados: al término del seguimiento, se encontró mejoría de la calidad del sueño (p = 0,02) en el G1. Bajo índice de estrés emocional (p = 0,03), ser del sexo masculino (p = 0,02), pertenecer al G1 (p = 0,002) y edad (p = 0,04) contribuyeron a mejor calidad del sueño. Conclusión: orientaciones educativas acerca de la higiene del sueño en pacientes con DM2 fueron efectivas en la mejoría de la puntuación de la calidad del sueño, mensurada por el instrumento PSQI-BR, y del estrés emocional relacionado con diabetes, evaluado por el instrumento del B-DDS.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar o efeito de estratégias educativas sobre a qualidade do sono e sua relação com o estresse emocional associado com o diabetes em pessoas com DM2. Materiais e método: ensaio clínico randomizado com dois grupos. O grupo 1 (G1, n = 45) recebeu orientações verbais e folhetos sobre estratégias de higiene do sono; o grupo 2 (G2, n = 46), orientações usuais das unidades de saúde sobre autocuidado com os pés. O sono foi avaliado pelo Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI-BR), e o estresse emocional, pelo Diabetes Distress Scale (B-DDS). Utilizaram-se modelos lineares de efeitos mistos e modelo de regressão linear para as análises estatísticas. Resultados: no final do seguimento, verificou-se melhora da qualidade do sono (p = 0,02) no G1. Baixo escore de estresse emocional (p = 0,03), ser do sexo masculino (p = 0,02), pertencer ao G1 (p = 0,002) e idade (p = 0,04) contribuíram para melhor qualidade do sono. Conclusão: orientações educativas sobre a higiene do sono em pacientes com DM2 foram efetivas na melhora da pontuação da qualidade do sono, mensurada pelo instrumento PSQI-BR, e do diabetes-related emotional distress, avaliado pelo instrumento do B-DDS.

17.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 13: 306, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354431

RESUMEN

The incoming signals from injured sensory neurons upon peripheral inflammation are processed in the dorsal horn of spinal cord, where glial cells accumulate and play a critical role in initiating allodynia (increased pain in response to light-touch). However, how painful stimuli in the periphery engage glial reactivity in the spinal cord remains unclear. Here, we found that a hind paw inflammation induced by CFA produces robust morphological changes in spinal astrocytes and microglia compatible with the reactive phenotype. Strikingly, we discovered that a single intrathecal injection with venom peptides that inhibit calcium channels reversed all the glial pathological features of the peripheral inflammation. These effects were more apparent in rats treated with the Phα1ß spider toxin (non-specific calcium channel antagonist) than ω-MVIIA cone snail toxin (selective N-type calcium channel antagonist). These data reveal for the first time a venom peptide acting on glial structural remodeling in vivo. We, therefore, suggest that calcium-dependent plasticity is an essential trigger for glial cells to initiate reactivity, which may represent a new target for the antinociceptive effects of Phα1ß and ω-MVIIA toxins in inflammatory pain conditions.

18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(21): 469-473, 2019 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145717

RESUMEN

In August 2017, Hurricane Harvey caused unprecedented flooding and devastation to the Houston metropolitan area (1). Mold exposure was a serious concern because investigations after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (2005) had documented extensive mold growth in flood-damaged homes (2,3). Because mold exposure can cause serious illnesses known as invasive mold infections (4,5), and immunosuppressed persons are at high risk for these infections (6,7), several federal agencies recommend that immunosuppressed persons avoid mold-contaminated sites (8,9). To assess the extent of exposure to mold and flood-damaged areas among persons at high risk for invasive mold infections after Hurricane Harvey, CDC and Texas health officials conducted a survey among 103 immunosuppressed residents in Houston. Approximately half of the participants (50) engaged in cleanup of mold and water-damaged areas; these activities included heavy cleanup (23), such as removing furniture or removing drywall, or light cleanup (27), such as wiping down walls or retrieving personal items. Among immunosuppressed persons who performed heavy cleanup, 43% reported wearing a respirator, as did 8% who performed light cleanup. One participant reported wearing all personal protective equipment (PPE) recommended for otherwise healthy persons (i.e., respirator, boots, goggles, and gloves). Immunosuppressed residents who are at high risk for invasive mold infections were exposed to mold and flood-damaged areas after Hurricane Harvey; recommendations from health care providers to avoid exposure to mold and flood-damaged areas could mitigate the risk to immunosuppressed persons.


Asunto(s)
Tormentas Ciclónicas , Desastres , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Hongos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Texas/epidemiología
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 179: 135-142, 2019 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035247

RESUMEN

Soybean farmers are exposed to various types of pesticides that contain in their formulations a combination of chemicals with genotoxic and mutagenic potential. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the genetic damages caused by this pesticide exposure to soybean producers in the state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), regarding biochemical, genetic polymorphic and in silico analyses. A total of 148 individuals were evaluated, 76 of which were occupationally exposed and 72 were not exposed at all. The buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) detected in the exposed group an increase on DNA damage and cell death. No inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BchE) was observed within the exposed group. The detection of inorganic elements was made through the particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE), which revealed higher concentrations of Bromine (Br), Rubidium (Rb) and Lead (Pb) in rural workers. A molecular model using in silico analysis suggests how metal ions can cause both DNA damage and apoptosis in the exposed cells. Analysis of the compared effect of X-ray Repair Cross-complement Protein 1 (XRCC1) and Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotypes in the groups demonstrated an increase of binucleated cells (exposed group) and nuclear bud (non-exposed group) in individuals with the XRCC1 Trip/- and PON1 Arg/- genes. There was no significant difference in the telomere (TL) mean value in the exposed group in contrast to the non-exposed group. Our results showed that soybean producers showed genotoxic effect and cell death, which may have been induced by exposure to complex mixtures of agrochemicals and fertilizers. In addition, XRCC1 Arg/Arg could, in some respects, provide protection to individuals.


Asunto(s)
Mezclas Complejas/toxicidad , Daño del ADN , Fertilizantes/toxicidad , Micronúcleos con Defecto Cromosómico/inducido químicamente , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Arildialquilfosfatasa/efectos de los fármacos , Brasil , Simulación por Computador , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Agricultores , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mucosa Bucal/citología , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Proteína 1 de Reparación por Escisión del Grupo de Complementación Cruzada de las Lesiones por Rayos X/genética
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6325, 2019 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004106

RESUMEN

The Candiota coal mine in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is one of the largest in Brazil. Coal is a fossil fuel that causes environmental impacts from its extraction to combustion due to the release of different agents, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. Ctenomys torquatus are herbivorous and subterranean rodents that dig tunnels with their paws and teeth and can be exposed to coal through contaminated food. Exposure to pollutants can cause DNA damage and affect different tissues, inducing alterations in the population structure and genetic diversity. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of exposure to coal and its derivatives on the C. torquatus population and to examine the relationship of coal exposure with variations in absolute telomere length (aTL), global DNA methylation and genotoxicity. Our study showed an inverse correlation between telomere length and coal exposure in addition to an increase in DNA damage. The results indicate that coal and its byproducts can contribute to the alteration of the C. torquatus population structure, as evidenced by a reduction in the number of adults.

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