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1.
Lancet ; 397(10281): 1316-1324, 2021 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812490

RESUMEN

The rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from breastfeeding is increasing relative to other causes of MTCT. Early effective preconception and antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces intrauterine and intrapartum MTCT, whereas maternal post-partum HIV acquisition, untreated maternal HIV, and suboptimal postnatal maternal ART adherence increase the risk of MTCT through breastfeeding. Although the absolute number of cases of MTCT acquired through breastfeeding is decreasing, the rate of decrease is less than the decrease in intrauterine and intrapartum MTCT. Unless current strategies are universally applied, they might not be sufficient to eliminate MTCT due to breastfeeding. Urgent action is needed to evaluate and implement additional preventive biomedical strategies in high HIV prevalence and incidence settings to eliminate MTCT from breastfeeding. Preventive strategies include: pre-exposure prophylaxis in breastfeeding women who have an increased risk of acquiring HIV; postnatal reinforcement strategies, such as maternal retesting for HIV, maternal care reinforcement, and prophylaxis in infants exposed to HIV via breastmilk; and active (vaccine) or passive immunoprophylaxis with long-acting broadly neutralising antibodies.

2.
Lancet HIV ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271124

RESUMEN

In light of the increasing global burden of new HIV infections, growing financial requirements, and shifting funding landscape, the global health community must accelerate the development and delivery of an HIV cure to complement existing prevention modalities. An effective curative intervention could prevent new infections, overcome the limitations of antiretroviral treatment, combat stigma and discrimination, and provide a sustainable financial solution for pandemic control. We propose steps to plan for an HIV cure now, including defining a target product profile and establishing the HIV Cure Africa Acceleration Partnership (HCAAP), a multidisciplinary public-private partnership that will catalyse and promote HIV cure research through diverse stakeholder engagement. HCAAP will convene stakeholders, including people living with HIV, at an early stage to accelerate the design, social acceptability, and rapid adoption of HIV-cure products.

3.
AIDS Behav ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206263

RESUMEN

We investigated the effect of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation on HIV status disclosure and social support in a cluster-randomized, treatment-as-prevention (TasP) trial in rural South Africa. Individuals identified HIV-positive after home-based testing were referred to trial clinics where they were invited to initiate ART immediately irrespective of CD4 count (intervention arm) or following national guidelines (control arm). We used Poisson mixed effects models to assess the independent effects of (a) time since baseline clinical visit, (b) trial arm, and (c) ART initiation on HIV disclosure (n = 182) and social support (n = 152) among participants with a CD4 count > 500 cells/mm3 at baseline. Disclosure and social support significantly improved over follow-up in both arms. Disclosure was higher (incidence rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.24 [1.04; 1.48]), and social support increased faster (1.22 [1.02; 1.46]) in the intervention arm than in the control arm. ART initiation improved both disclosure and social support (1.50 [1.28; 1.75] and 1.34 [1.12; 1.61], respectively), a stronger effect being seen in the intervention arm for social support (1.50 [1.12; 2.01]). Besides clinical benefits, early ART initiation may also improve psychosocial outcomes. This should further encourage countries to implement universal test-and-treat strategies.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240906, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091061

RESUMEN

Although physical function decline is common with aging, the burden of this impairment remains underestimated in patients living with HIV (PLHIV), particularly in the older people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). PLHIV aged ≥50 years old and on ART since ≥6 months were included (N = 333) from three clinics (two in Côte d'Ivoire, one in Senegal) participating in the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa collaboration. Physical function was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), the unipodal balance test and self-reported questionnaires. Grip strength was also assessed. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with SPPB performance specifically. Median age was 57 (54-61) years, 57.7% were female and 82.7% had an undetectable viral load. The mean SPPB score was 10.2 ±1.8. Almost 30% had low SPPB performance with the 5-sit-to-stand test being the most altered subtest (64%). PLHIV with low SPPB performance also had significantly low performance on the unipodal balance test (54.2%, p = 0.001) and low mean grip strength (but only in men (p = 0.005)). They also showed some difficulties in daily life activities (climbing stairs, walking one block, both p<0.0001). Age ≥60 years (adjusted OR (aOR) = 3.4; CI95% = 1.9-5.9,), being a female (aOR = 2.1; CI95% = 1.1-4.1), having an abdominal obesity (aOR = 2.1; CI95% = 1.2-4.0), a longer duration of HIV infection (aOR = 2.9; CI95% = 1.5-5.7), old Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (i.e., AZT: zidovudine, ddI: didanosine, DDC: zalcitabine, D4T: stavudine) in current ART (aOR = 2.0 CI95% = 1.1-3.7) were associated with low SPPB performance. As in western countries, physical function limitation is now part of the burden of HIV disease complications of older PLHIV living in West Africa, putting this population at risk for disability. How to screen those impairments and integrate their management in the standards of care should be investigated, and specific research on developing adapted daily physical activity program might be conducted.

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 442, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912173

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Depression has a negative impact on both mental and physical health and is mainly associated with suboptimal HIV treatment outcomes. To encourage successful aging and the achievement of the 3 × 90 objectives in older PLHIV, the psychological domain must not be neglected. In this context and as data are scarce in West Africa, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the factors associated with severe depressive symptoms in older PLHIV living in this region of the world. METHODS: Data from PLHIV aged ≥50 years and on ART since ≥6 months were collected in three clinics (two in Côte d'Ivoire, one in Senegal) participating in the West Africa International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D), and associated factors were identified using logistic regressions. RESULTS: The median age of the 334 PLHIV included in the study was 56.7 (53.5-61.1), 57.8% were female, and 87.1% had an undetectable viral load. The prevalence of severe depressive symptoms was 17.9% [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 13.8-22.0]. PLHIV with severe depressive symptoms were more likely to be unemployed (adjusted Odd Ratio (aOR) = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4-5.7), and to be current or former tobacco smokers (aOR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3-5.4) but were less likely to be overweight or obese (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.8). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of severe depressive symptoms is high among older PLHIV living in West Africa. Unemployed PLHIV and tobacco smokers should be seen as vulnerable and in need of additional support. Further studies are needed to describe in more details the reality of the aging experience for PLHIV living in SSA. The integration of screening and management of depression in the standard of care of PLHIV is crucial.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236642, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756581

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The long-term prognosis of HIV-2-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still challenging, due to the intrinsic resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and the suboptimal response to some protease inhibitors (PI). The objective was to describe the 5-years outcomes among HIV-2 patients harboring drug-resistant viruses. METHODS: A clinic-based cohort of HIV-2-patients experiencing virologic failure, with at least one drug resistance mutation was followed from January 2012 to August 2017 in Côte d'Ivoire. Follow-up data included death, lost to follow-up (LTFU), immuno-virological responses. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 31 HIV-2 patients with virologic failure and with at least one drug resistance mutation were included. Two-third of them were men, 28(90.3%) were on PI-based ART-regimen at enrolment and the median age was 50 years (IQR = 46-54). The median baseline CD4 count and viral load were 456 cells/mm3 and 3.7 log10 c/mL respectively, and the participants have been followed-up in median 57 months (IQR = 24-60). During this period, 21 (67.7%) patients switched at least one antiretroviral drug, including two (6.5%) and three (9.7%) who switched to a PI-based and an integrase inhibitor-based regimen respectively. A total of 10(32.3%) patients died and 4(12.9%) were LTFU. The 36 and 60-months survival rates were 68.5% and 64.9%, respectively. Among the 17 patients remaining in care, six(35.3%) had an undetectable viral load (<50 c/mL) and for the 11 others, the viral load ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 log10 c/mL. Twelve patients were receiving lopinavir at the time of first genotype, five(42%) had a genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) ≤1 and 4(33%) a GSS >2. CONCLUSIONS: The 36-months survival rate among ART-experienced HIV-2 patients with drug-resistant viruses is below 70%,lower than in HIV-1. There is urgent need to improve access to second-line ART for patients living with HIV-2 in West Africa.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/efectos adversos , Farmacorresistencia Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-2/genética , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Antirretrovirales/administración & dosificación , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Costa de Marfil/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/genética , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/efectos adversos , VIH-2/efectos de los fármacos , VIH-2/patogenicidad , Humanos , Lopinavir/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/efectos adversos , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Carga Viral/genética
7.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 220, 2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy has prolonged the lives of those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the effects of chronic infection on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remain a concern. Numerous instruments have been developed to measure HRQoL, yet evidence of their cross-cultural equivalence and continued applicability is limited. We adapted the WHOQOL-HIV BREF to French and assessed its psychometric properties in a sample of community-dwelling adults living with HIV who were mostly virally suppressed. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study within the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort from July 2018 to May 2019. Five hundred eighty-six participants were consecutively enrolled at their HIV-consultations and completed either a web-based (n = 406) or paper self-administered assessment (n = 180). The means and standard deviations for items and domains were computed and the presence of floor and ceiling effects assessed. We evaluated internal consistency by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficients per domain. We assessed construct validity by performing a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed with Pearson's correlations and known-group validity was assessed according to CD4 cell count, viral load, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical categories for HIV, and hospitalization of more than 48 h within 2 years of the most recent consultation using one-way analysis of variance and independent t-tests. RESULTS: Five hundred eighty-six PLWH were included in this analysis. Their median age was 55; 73% were male; 85% were of French descent; 99% were on ART and 93% were virally suppressed. We found floor effects for one and ceiling effects for 11 items. Four of the six domains showed good internal consistency (α range: 0.63-0.79). CFA showed that the WHOQOL-HIV BREF's six-domain structure produced an acceptable fit (SRMR = 0.059; CFI = 0.834; RMSEA = 0.07; 90% CI: 0.06-0.08). It showed good concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity. There was some evidence of known-group validity. The personal beliefs domain had the highest score (15.04 ± 3.35) and the psychological health domain had the lowest (13.70 ± 2.78). CONCLUSIONS: The French WHOQOL-HIV BREF has acceptable measurement properties. Its broad conceptualisation of HRQoL, going beyond physical and mental health, may be of particular value in our older, treatment-experienced and virally suppressed population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03296202 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6zgOBArps ).

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(6): ofaa203, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607387

RESUMEN

We estimated tuberculosis incidence during the first year on antriretroviral therapy without isoniazid-preventive treatment in 6938 West African HIV-infected adults at 3.33 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 2.85-3.80). In multivariate Poisson models, sites in Cote d'Ivoire, male gender, low body mass index, low hemoglobin, low CD4 count, and young age were significantly associated with higher incidence.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686834

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was reported in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), without identifying factors associated with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) events. METHODS: HIV-HCV coinfected patients were enrolled in the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH nationwide cohort. Primary outcome was total ASCVD events. Secondary outcomes were coronary and/or cerebral ASCVD events, and peripheral artery disease (PAD) ASCVD events. Incidences were estimated using the Aalen-Johansen method. Factors associated with ASCVD were identified using cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: At baseline, median age of the study population (n=1213) was 45.4 (interquartile range [IQR] 42.1-49.0) years and 70.3% were men. After a median follow-up of 5.1 (IQR 3.9-7.0) years, the incidence was 6.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.19-9.38) per 1000 person-years for total ASCVD events, 4.01 (2.78-6.00) for coronary and/or cerebral events, and 3.17 (2.05-4.92) for PAD ASCVD events. Aging (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12), prior CVD (HR 8.48, 95% CI 3.14-22.91), high total cholesterol (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11-1.83), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.63), statin use (HR 3.31, 95% CI 1.31-8.38), and high alcohol intake (HR 3.18, 95% CI 1.35-7.52) were independently associated with total ASCVD events, while undetectable baseline viral load (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.18-0.96) with coronary and/or cerebral events. CONCLUSION: HIV-HCV coinfected patients experienced a high incidence of ASCVD events. Some traditional cardiovascular risk factors were the main determinants of ASCVD. Controlling cholesterol abnormalities and maintaining undetectable HIV viral load are essential to control cardiovascular risk.

10.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661070

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer prevention strategies recommend human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination for female adolescents prior to their sexual debut. While HIV is a major risk factor for HPV infection in women of childbearing age, its prevalence among HIV-infected adolescent female is mostly unknown. This study aimed to describe the HPV prevalence and correlates among perinatally HIV-infected adolescent females prior to HPV immunisation. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to June 2016, in the four major paediatric HIV clinics of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. All HIV-infected females aged 11-16 years were approached to participate in the study. A questionnaire assessing sexual behaviours and genital hygiene practices was administered to participants completed with a systematic vaginal swab collection. HPV genotyping was performed using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection (Seegene). A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the presence of HPV infection. HPV immunisation was proposed free of charge to all participants. RESULTS: A total of 250 participants were included, with a median age of 13 years (IQR 11-14). Among them, 237 (94.8%) were on antiretroviral treatment with a median CD4 count of 660 (IQR 439-914) cells/mm3. The overall prevalence of at least one HPV was 3.6% (95% CI 1.6 to 6.7) and the prevalence of at least one carcinogenic HPV was 2.8% (95% CI 0.7 to 4.8). Vaginal cleansing was reported by 75 (30%) of participants, with a median age at initiation of 12 years (IQR 10-13). Sexual activity was self-reported by 12 (4.8%) participants with a median age at sexual debut of 11 years (IQR 10-14). HPV infection was associated with vaginal cleansing (adjusted OR=7.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 31.6)). CONCLUSION: The reported low prevalence of carcinogenic HPV infections supports the appropriateness of HPV immunisation in this population. The reported association between cleansing practices and HPV infection deserves further prospective longitudinal studies.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e035246, 2020 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414825

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The objectives of the International epidemiology databases to evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) are to (i) evaluate the delivery of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children, adolescents and adults in sub-Saharan Africa, (ii) to describe ART regimen effectiveness, durability and tolerability, (iii) to examine HIV-related comorbidities and coinfections and (iv) to examine the pregnancy-related and HIV-related outcomes of women on ART and their infants exposed to HIV or ART in utero or via breast milk. PARTICIPANTS: IeDEA is organised in four regions (Central, East, Southern and West Africa), with 240 treatment and care sites, six data centres at African, European and US universities, and almost 1.4 million children, adolescents and adult people living with HIV (PLWHIV) enrolled. FINDINGS TO DATE: The data include socio-demographic characteristics, clinical outcomes, opportunistic events, treatment regimens, clinic visits and laboratory measurements. They have been used to analyse outcomes in PLWHIV-1 or PLWHIV-2 who initiate ART, including determinants of mortality, of switching to second-line and third-line ART, drug resistance, loss to follow-up and the immunological and virological response to different ART regimens. Programme-level estimates of mortality have been corrected for loss to follow-up. We examined the impact of coinfection with hepatitis B and C, and the epidemiology of different cancers and of (multidrug resistant) tuberculosis, renal disease and of mental illness. The adoption of 'Treat All', making ART available to all PLWHIV regardless of CD4+ cell count or clinical stage was another important research topic. FUTURE PLANS: IeDEA has formulated several research priorities for the 'Treat All' era in sub-Saharan Africa. It recently obtained funding to set up sentinel sites where additional data are prospectively collected on cardiometabolic risks factors as well as mental health and liver diseases, and is planning to create a drug resistance database.

12.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164421

RESUMEN

Depression is highly prevalent in people living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. As mental health specialists are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages task-shifting. We aimed to evaluate the barriers that could compromise task-shifting in front-line health care workers (HCWs) who provide HIV integrated care in West Africa. We collected knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) information on symptoms, causes and management of depression in PLHIV in care in four clinics in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire (N = 168). The main barriers that could compromise task-shifting came from poor knowledge, particularly on symptoms and causes. Knowledge was more limited in HCWs other than medical doctors (good answers < 70%). The access to a depression training was limited (32.7%) and was the main factor associated to poor knowledge on depression. Even when social distance and barriers to practice were low (70.8% and 69.6%, respectively), some barriers persisted. More than half of respondents considered that diagnosis and management needed to be performed by a specialist. To guarantee the success of task-shifting, in the perspective of integrated care, efforts are needed to improve the access to specific training on depression considering screening, management, but also perceptions and attitudes, as some barriers subsist.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 322, 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164601

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Failure to retain HIV-positive pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) leads to increased mortality for the mother and her child. This study evaluated different retention measures for women's engagement along the continuum of care for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) option B+ services in Mozambique. METHODS: We compared 'point' retention (patient's presence in care 12-month post-ART initiation or any time thereafter) with the following definitions: alive and in care 12 month post-ART initiation (Ministry of Health; MOH); attendance at a health facility up to 15-month post-ART initiation (World Health Organization; WHO); alive and in treatment at 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month post-ART initiation (Inter-Agency Task Team; IATT); and alive and in care 12-month post-ART initiation with ≥75% appointment adherence during follow-up (i.e. 'appointment adherence' retention) or with ≥75% of appointments met on time during follow-up (i.e. 'on-time adherence' retention). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were produced to assess variability in retention rates. We used 'on-time adherence' retention as our reference to estimate sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of misclassified patients. RESULTS: Considering the 'point' retention definition, 16,840 HIV-positive pregnant women enrolled in option B+ PMTCT services were identified as 'retained in care' 12-month post-ART initiation. Of these, 60.3% (95% CI 59.6-61.1), 84.8% (95% CI 84.2-85.3), and 16.4% (95% CI 15.8-17.0) were classified as 'retained in care' using MOH, WHO, and IATT definitions, respectively, and 1.2% (95% CI 1.0-1.4) were classified as 'retained in care' using the '≥75% on-time adherence' definition. All definitions provided specificity rates of ≥98%. The sensitivity rates were 3.0% with 78% of patients misclassified according to the WHO definition and 4.3% with 54% of patients misclassified according to the MOH definition. The 'point' retention definition misclassified 97.6% of patients. Using IATT and 'appointment adherence' retention definitions, sensitivity rates (9.0 and 11.7%, respectively) were also low; however, the proportion of misclassified patients was smaller (15.9 and 18.3%, respectively). CONCLUSION: More stringent definitions indicated lower retention rates for PMTCT programs. Policy makers and program managers should include attendance at follow-up visits when measuring retention in care to better guide planning, scale-up, and monitoring of interventions.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Retención en el Cuidado/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Lactante , Mozambique , Embarazo , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
14.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(2): e25455, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091179

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Achieving HIV epidemic control globally will require new strategies to accelerate reductions in HIV incidence and mortality. Universal test and treat (UTT) was evaluated in four randomized population-based trials (BCPP/Ya Tsie, HPTN 071/PopART, SEARCH, ANRS 12249/TasP) conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during expanded antiretroviral treatment (ART) eligibility by World Health Organization guidelines and the UNAIDS 90-90-90 campaign. DISCUSSION: These three-year studies were conducted in Botswana, Zambia, Uganda, Kenya and South Africa in settings with baseline HIV prevalence from 4% to 30%. Key observations across studies were: (1) Universal testing (implemented via a variety of home and community-based testing approaches) achieved >90% coverage in all studies. (2) When coupled with robust linkage to HIV care, rapid ART start and patient-centred care, UTT achieved among the highest reported population levels of viral suppression in SSA. Significant gains in population-level viral suppression were made in regions with both low and high baseline population viral load; however, viral suppression gains were not uniform across all sub-populations and were lower among youth. (3) UTT resulted in marked reductions in community HIV incidence when universal testing and robust linkage were present. However, HIV elimination targets were not reached. In BCPP and HPTN 071, annualized HIV incidence was approximately 20% to 30% lower in the intervention (which included universal testing) compared to control arms (no universal testing). In SEARCH (where both arms had universal testing), incidence declined 32% over three years. (4) UTT reduced HIV associated mortality by 23% in the intervention versus control communities in SEARCH, a study in which mortality was comprehensively measured. CONCLUSIONS: These trials provide strong evidence that UTT inclusive of universal testing increases population-level viral suppression and decreases HIV incidence and mortality faster than the status quo in SSA and should be adapted at a sub-country level as a public health strategy. However, more is needed, including integration of new prevention interventions into UTT, in order to reach UNAIDS HIV elimination targets.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Epidemias/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Tamizaje Masivo , Serodiagnóstico del SIDA , Adolescente , Adulto , Botswana/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Uganda/epidemiología , Carga Viral , Zambia/epidemiología
17.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(2): 222-235, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667997

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) Option B+ programme in two provinces with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden in Mozambique over the first four years of programme implementation. METHODS: We assessed the PMTCT cascade in antenatal care (ANC) from July 2013 to December 2017 using facility-level data and performed a retrospective cohort analysis with patient-level data. We compared the 12-month antiretroviral therapy (ART) retention rates between women with HIV infection who initiated ART under Option B+ ('B+ pregnant') and those who initiated ART for their own health ('own health'). RESULTS: A total of 916 280 pregnant women enrolled in ANC. The proportion of women with a documented HIV status increased from 93% in 2013 to 96% in 2017. The proportion of those tested HIV-positive decreased from 8% to 6% while that of those HIV-positive on ART increased from 42% to 95%. Of the 44 377 HIV-positive women included in the analysis, 35% were lost to care. 'B+ pregnant' women initiating ART in 2015 were less likely to have no follow-up (NFU) compared with 'own health' women starting ART during the same period (adjusted odds ratio: 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.94, P = 0.01). There was no statistical difference between the two groups during the other years in which ART was initiated. Of those returning for care after their first visit (N = 39 801), the 'B+ pregnant' women showed a higher risk of non-retention than the other group (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03-1.25) when ART was initiated in 2013. The risk decreased during the subsequent years, with no difference observed between the groups. CONCLUSION: PMTCT Option B+ programme scale-up has yielded positive results, including the maintenance of high HIV testing and ART initiation rates in ANC. Challenges still remain, however, in improving immediate engagement in care and long-term retention. Seeking alternative service delivery models to support existing health systems and prevent defaulters is required to achieve the UNAIDS 95-95-95 targets for PMTCT in Mozambique.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Mozambique , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos
18.
JMIR Form Res ; 3(4): e15013, 2019 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850847

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) can be of great value for both research and chronic disease management. We developed a new module of the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort study's Web-based data capture and visualization solution (APPEGE 2.0) for the collection of electronic PROs among people living with HIV cared for in Nouvelle Aquitaine, France. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the usability of 2 successively developed prototypes of ARPEGE 2.0's electronic PROs module before launching a pilot study, owing to the novelty of the proposed data collection method for our setting and specific characteristics of the target population. METHODS: A total of 2 sequential rounds of empirical, task-based usability evaluations were conducted, involving 8 research staff and then 7 people living with HIV. Evaluators provided written feedback during round 1 and oral feedback during round 2. Evaluators who completed the full set of tasks responded to the System Usability Scale (SUS). We assessed changes in SUS scores between rounds and concluded usability testing when SUS scores reached a ceiling effect, defining good usability a priori as a usability score of 70. RESULTS: Insights were generated regarding the visibility of system status and the match between the system and the real world that improved the module's usability. Research staff evaluators reported mean SUS scores of 65 (SD 18.87) and patient evaluators reported mean SUS scores of 85 (SD 5.4; P=.032). CONCLUSIONS: Software modifications, informed by successive rounds of usability testing, resulted in sufficient gains in usability to undertake piloting. Insights generated during evaluations prompted us to find the appropriate balance between optimal security and ease of use. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03296202; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03296202. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/10.2196/resprot.9439.

20.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(10): e25402, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637821

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The universal test-and-treat (UTT) strategy aims to maximize population viral suppression (PVS), that is, the proportion of all people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and virally suppressed, with the goal of reducing HIV transmission at the population level. This article explores the extent to which temporal changes in PVS explain the observed lack of association between universal treatment and cumulative HIV incidence seen in the ANRS 12249 TasP trial conducted in rural South Africa. METHODS: The TasP cluster-randomized trial (2012 to 2016) implemented six-monthly repeat home-based HIV counselling and testing (RHBCT) and referral of PLHIV to local HIV clinics in 2 × 11 clusters opened sequentially. ART was initiated according to national guidelines in control clusters and regardless of CD4 count in intervention clusters. We measured residency status, HIV status, and HIV care status for each participant on a daily basis. PVS was computed per cluster among all resident PLHIV (≥16, including those not in care) at cluster opening and daily thereafter. We used a mixed linear model to explore time patterns in PVS, adjusting for sociodemographic changes at the cluster level. RESULTS: 8563 PLHIV were followed. During the course of the trial, PVS increased significantly in both arms (23.5% to 46.2% in intervention, +22.8, p < 0.001; 26.0% to 44.6% in control, +18.6, p < 0.001). That increase was similar in both arms (p = 0.514). In the final adjusted model, PVS increase was most associated with increased RHBCT and the implementation of local trial clinics (measured by time since cluster opening). Contextual changes (measured by calendar time) also contributed slightly. The effect of universal ART (trial arm) was positive but limited. CONCLUSIONS: PVS was improved significantly but similarly in both trial arms, explaining partly the null effect observed in terms of cumulative HIV incidence between arms. The PVS gains due to changes in ART-initiation guidelines alone are relatively small compared to gains obtained by strategies to maximize testing and linkage to care. The achievement of the 90-90-90 targets will not be met if the operational and implementational challenges limiting access to care and treatment, often context-specific, are not properly addressed. Clinical trial number: NCT01509508 (clinicalTrials.gov)/DOH-27-0512-3974 (South African National Clinical Trials Register).


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Consejo , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Derivación y Consulta , Población Rural , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
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