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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 839, 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183254

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem in Togo and transmission to the child occurs mainly during childbirth. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV among childbearing women and infants born to HBV positive mothers in Togo. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study was carried out in six cities in Togo in the six health regions in Togo. Mother-child pairs were recruited from immunization centers or pediatric wards in Lomé, Tsévié, Atakpamé, Sokodé, Kara and Dapaong in 2017. Women aged 18 and over with one child of at least 6 months old were included. A standardized questionnaire was used for data collection and HBV screening was performed using Determine® rapid tests. The prevalence of HBV, defined by a positive HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), was estimated in mothers and then in infants of mothers who were positive for HBsAg. Logistic regression model was performed to identify risk factors for HBsAg positivity in mothers. RESULTS: A total of 2105 mothers-pairs child were recruited. The median age of mothers and infants was 29 years, interquartile range (IQR) [25-33] and 2.1 years, IQR [1-3] respectively. About 35% of women were screened for HBV during antenatal care and 85% of infants received three doses of HBV immunization. Among mothers, the prevalence of HBV was 10.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) [9.4-12.0%], and 177 had detectable HBV viral load (> 10 IU/mL). Among mothers with positive HBsAg, three infants also had positive HBsAg, a prevalence of 1.3, 95% CI [0.2-3.8%]. In multivariable analysis, HIV-infection (aOR = 2.19; p = 0.018), having at least three pregnancies (aOR = 1.46; p = 0.025) and living in Tsévié (aOR = 0.31; p < 0.001) compared to those living in Lomé, were associated to HBV infection in mothers. CONCLUSION: In this study, one out of 10 childbearing women were infected with HBV, but less than 2% of infant born to HBV positive mothers under 5 years' old who received immunization under the Expanded Program on Immunization were infected. Improving antenatal screening and providing targeted interventions in babies could help eliminate HBV in Togo.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Vacunación , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Hepatitis B/virología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Atención Prenatal , Prevalencia , Togo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e028934, 2019 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685493

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate alcohol and tobacco use prevalence and their correlates among female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and drug users (DU) in Togo. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional bio-behavioural study was conducted among 2115 MSM, FSW and DU in 2017 using a respondent-driven sampling method, in the eight biggest towns of Togo. Selection criteria for the MSM were being male and having had oral or anal intercourse with a man in the previous 12 months; for FSW, being a female and having exchanged sex for money in the previous 12 months; and for DU, consuming heroin, cocaine or hashish for MSM, FSW and DU, respectively. All participants had to be at least 18 years old and residing in the territory for the past 3 months. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcohol consumption, hazardous/harmful consumption and binge drinking was 64.8%, 38.4% and 45.5%, respectively. Current tobacco use was reported by 30.6% of participants and HIV prevalence was estimated at 12.5%. DU were more likely to engage in binge drinking compared with other key populations (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.8; p=0.001). Participants who were identified as having hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption had almost three times the odds of tobacco consumption than those with no risky consumption (aOR=2.6; 95% CI 2.0 to 3.4; p=0.001). Hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption was three times more likely among participants with severe psychological distress compared with those with no psychological distress (aOR=3.3, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.1; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Findings from this study demonstrate the need for the integration of mental health and substance abuse reduction interventions into HIV prevention programme, particularly those geared towards key populations.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Borrachera/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Distrés Psicológico , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Prevalencia , Trabajadores Sexuales/psicología , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Togo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Arch Public Health ; 77: 39, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508231

RESUMEN

Background: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the screening of syphilis among populations highly exposed to HIV. However, data on the prevalence of syphilis in these populations are scarce in Togo. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of syphilis among males who have sex with males (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and drug users (DU) in Togo. Methods: A cross-sectional bio-behavioral study was conducted in August and September 2017 using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in eight major cities in Togo. A standardized questionnaire was used to record socio-demographic data and sexual behavior patterns. A blood sample was taken and SD Bioline Duo VIH/Syphilis rapid test was used to test for HIV and syphilis. Results: A total of 2158 key populations (678 MSM, 1003 FSW and 477 DU), with an average age of 27.6 years (standard deviation 8.8 years) participated in the study. Prevalence of syphilis was 0.6% (95% CI = [0.3-1.0]) with no statistical significance between the three groups: null among MSM, 0.8% among FSW (95% CI = [0.37-1.63]) and 1.1% among DU (95% CI = [0.39-2.57]). There was no relation between HIV status and syphilis (p = 0.236). Among the 298 HIV-positive people, none was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions: Findings from this study reveal a low prevalence rate of syphilis among key populations in Togo. Specific interventions into HIV prevention programs should be reinforced to eliminate syphilis in Togo.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 16: 249, 2016 06 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prisoners represent a vulnerable population for blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections which can potentially lead to liver fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis. However, little is known about the prevalence of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors among inmates in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Screening of liver fibrosis was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of male inmates incarcerated in Lome, Togo and in Dakar, Senegal using transient elastography. A liver stiffness measurement ≥9.5 KPa was retained to define the presence of a severe liver fibrosis. All included inmates were also screened for HIV, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. Substances abuse including alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use were assessed during face-to-face interviews. Odds Ratio (OR) estimates were computed with their 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) to identify factors associated with severe liver fibrosis. RESULTS: Overall, 680 inmates were included with a median age of 30 years [interquartile range: 24-35]. The prevalence of severe fibrosis was 3.1 % (4.9 % in Lome and 1.2 % in Dakar). Infections with HIV, HBV and HCV were identified in 2.6 %, 12.5 % and 0.5 % of inmates, respectively. Factors associated with a severe liver fibrosis were HIV infection (OR = 7.6; CI 1.8-32.1), HBV infection (OR = 4.8; CI 1.8-12.8), HCV infection (OR = 52.6; CI 4.1-673.8), use of traditional medicines (OR = 3.7; CI 1.4-10.1) and being incarcerated in Lome (OR = 3.3; CI 1.1-9.8) compared to Dakar. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection and viral hepatitis infections were identified as important and independent determinants of severe liver fibrosis. While access to active antiviral therapies against HIV and viral hepatitis expands in Africa, adapted strategies for the monitoring of liver disease need to be explored, especially in vulnerable populations such as inmates.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Cirrosis Hepática/epidemiología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , África Occidental/epidemiología , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Coinfección/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , ADN Viral/sangre , Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad , Hepatitis B/sangre , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Hepatitis C/sangre , Hepatitis C/inmunología , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C/inmunología , Humanos , Hígado/diagnóstico por imagen , Cirrosis Hepática/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Senegal/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Tiempo , Togo/epidemiología , Carga Viral , Adulto Joven
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