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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(7): e2201943119, 2023 02 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36745782

RESUMEN

Ecological restoration is essential for maintaining biodiversity in the face of dynamic, global changes in climate, human land use, and disturbance regimes. Effective restoration requires understanding bottlenecks in plant community recovery that exist today, while recognizing that these bottlenecks may relate to complex histories of environmental change. Such understanding has been a challenge because few long-term, well-replicated experiments exist to decipher the demographic processes influencing recovery for numerous species against the backdrop of multiyear variation in climate and management. We address this challenge through a long-term and geographically expansive experiment in longleaf pine savannas, an imperiled ecosystem and biodiversity hotspot in the southeastern United States. Using 48 sites at three locations spanning 480 km, the 8-y experiment manipulated initial seed arrival for 24 herbaceous plant species and presence of competitors to evaluate the impacts of climate variability and management actions (e.g., prescribed burning) on plant establishment and persistence. Adding seeds increased plant establishment of many species. Cool and wet climatic conditions, low tree density, and reduced litter depth also promoted establishment. Once established, most species persisted for the duration of the 8-y experiment. Plant traits were most predictive when tightly coupled to the process of establishment. Our results illustrate how seed additions can restore plant diversity and how interannual climatic variation affects the dynamics of plant communities across a large region. The significant effects of temperature and precipitation inform how future climate may affect restoration and conservation via large-scale changes in the fundamental processes of establishment and persistence.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Antropogénicos , Ecosistema , Humanos , Biodiversidad , Plantas , Semillas
2.
Nature ; 611(7936): 455-456, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323890
3.
Ecology ; 103(9): e3764, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608560

RESUMEN

In 1949-1951, ecologist Robert H. Whittaker sampled plant community composition at 470 sites in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon and California; also known as Klamath or Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains). His primary goal was to develop methods to quantify plant community variation across environmental gradients, following on his seminal work challenging communities as discrete entities. He selected the Siskiyous because of their diverse and endemic-rich flora, which he attributed to geological complexity and an ancient stable climate. He chose sites to span gradients of topography, elevation, geologic substrate, and distance from the coast. He used the frequencies of indicator species in his data to assign sampling locations to positions on the topographic gradient, nested within the elevational and substrate gradients. He originated in this study the concept of diversity partitioning, in which gamma diversity (species richness of a community) equals alpha diversity (species richness in homogeneous sites) times beta diversity (species turnover among sites along gradients). Diversity partitioning subsequently became highly influential and new developments on it continue. Whittaker published his Siskiyou work covering paleohistory, biogeography, floristics, vegetation, gradient analysis, and diversity partitioning in Ecological Monographs in 1960. Discussed in 2 pages of his 60-page monograph, diversity partitioning accounts for >95% of its current >4300 citations. In 2006, we retrieved Whittaker's Siskiyou data in hard copy from the Cornell University archives and entered them in a database. We used these data for multiple published analyses, including some based on (re)sampling the approximate locations of a subset of his sites. Because of the continued interest in diversity partitioning and in historic data sets, here we present his data, including 359 sampling locations and their descriptors and, for each sample, a list of species with their estimated percent cover (herbs and shrubs) and numbers by diameter at breast height (DBH) category (trees). Site descriptors include the approximate location (road, trail, or stream), elevation, topographic aspect, geologic substrate (serpentine, gabbro, or diorite), and dominant woody vegetation of each location. For 111 sites, including the small number chosen to represent the distance-to-coast gradient, we could not locate his data. There are no copyright restrictions and users of these data should cite this data paper in any publications that result from its use. The authors are available for consultations about and collaborations involving the data.


Asunto(s)
Plantas , Árboles , Biodiversidad , Clima , Ambiente , Humanos , Oregon
4.
Ecology ; 103(2): e03586, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767277

RESUMEN

Habitat loss and fragmentation are leading causes of species declines, driven in part by reduced dispersal. Isolating the effects of fragmentation on dispersal, however, is daunting because the consequences of fragmentation are typically intertwined, such as reduced connectivity and increased prevalence of edge effects. We used a large-scale landscape experiment to separate consequences of fragmentation on seed dispersal, considering both distance and direction of local dispersal. We evaluated seed dispersal for five wind- or gravity-dispersed, herbaceous plant species that were planted at different distances from habitat edges, within fragments that varied in their connectivity and shape (edge-to-area ratio). Dispersal distance was affected by proximity and direction relative to the nearest edge. For four of five species, dispersal distances were greater further from habitat edges and when seeds dispersed in the direction of the nearest edge. Connectivity and patch edge-to-area ratio had minimal effects on local dispersal. Our findings illustrate how some, but not all, landscape changes associated with fragmentation can affect the key population process of seed dispersal.


Asunto(s)
Dispersión de Semillas , Ecosistema , Plantas , Semillas , Viento
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 04 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875596

RESUMEN

Ecological restoration is a global priority, with potential to reverse biodiversity declines and promote ecosystem functioning. Yet, successful restoration is challenged by lingering legacies of past land-use activities, which are pervasive on lands available for restoration. Although legacies can persist for centuries following cessation of human land uses such as agriculture, we currently lack understanding of how land-use legacies affect entire ecosystems, how they influence restoration outcomes, or whether restoration can mitigate legacy effects. Using a large-scale experiment, we evaluated how restoration by tree thinning and land-use legacies from prior cultivation and subsequent conversion to pine plantations affect fire-suppressed longleaf pine savannas. We evaluated 45 ecological properties across four categories: 1) abiotic attributes, 2) organism abundances, 3) species diversity, and 4) species interactions. The effects of restoration and land-use legacies were pervasive, shaping all categories of properties, with restoration effects roughly twice the magnitude of legacy effects. Restoration effects were of comparable magnitude in savannas with and without a history of intensive human land use; however, restoration did not mitigate numerous legacy effects present prior to restoration. As a result, savannas with a history of intensive human land use supported altered properties, especially related to soils, even after restoration. The signature of past human land-use activities can be remarkably persistent in the face of intensive restoration, influencing the outcome of restoration across diverse ecological properties. Understanding and mitigating land-use legacies will maximize the potential to restore degraded ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/tendencias , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental/métodos , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Pradera , Humanos , Pinus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dinámica Poblacional , Suelo/química , Estrés Fisiológico , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo
6.
Science ; 365(6460): 1478-1480, 2019 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604279

RESUMEN

Deleterious effects of habitat fragmentation and benefits of connecting fragments could be significantly underestimated because changes in colonization and extinction rates that drive changes in biodiversity can take decades to accrue. In a large and well-replicated habitat fragmentation experiment, we find that annual colonization rates for 239 plant species in connected fragments are 5% higher and annual extinction rates 2% lower than in unconnected fragments. This has resulted in a steady, nonasymptotic increase in diversity, with nearly 14% more species in connected fragments after almost two decades. Our results show that the full biodiversity value of connectivity is much greater than previously estimated, cannot be effectively evaluated at short time scales, and can be maximized by connecting habitat sooner rather than later.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Plantas/clasificación , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Pinus , Dispersión de las Plantas , South Carolina , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Oecologia ; 191(2): 397-409, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494711

RESUMEN

Determining the characteristics of non-native plants that can successfully establish and spread is central to pressing questions in invasion ecology. Evidence suggests that some non-native species establish and spread in new environments because they possess characteristics (functional traits) that allow them to either successfully compete with native residents or fill previously unfilled niches. However, the relative importance of out-competing native species vs. filling empty niche space as potential mechanisms of invasion may depend on environmental characteristics. Here, we measured plant functional traits, proxies indicative of competitive and establishment strategies, to determine if these traits vary among native and invasive species and if their prevalence is dependent on environmental conditions. Using a natural environmental gradient in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, we evaluated how functional traits differ between native and non-native plant communities and if these differences change along an environmental gradient from hot, dry to cool, wet conditions. Functional trait differences suggested that both competition and open niche space may be important for invasion. Non-native communities tended to have traits associated with faster growth strategies such as higher specific leaf area and lower leaf thickness. However, native and non-native community traits became more dissimilar along the gradient, suggesting that non-native species may be occupying previously unfilled niche space at the hot, dry end of the gradient. We also found that most of the variation in functional trait values amongst plots was due to species turnover rather than intraspecific variation. These results highlight the role of environmental context when considering invasion mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Especies Introducidas , Plantas , Fenotipo , Hojas de la Planta
8.
Ecol Appl ; 29(2): e01850, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821885

RESUMEN

Conservation and restoration projects often involve starting new populations by introducing individuals into portions of their native or projected range. Such efforts can help meet many related goals, including habitat creation, ecosystem service provisioning, assisted migration, and the reintroduction of imperiled species following local extirpation. The outcomes of reintroduction efforts, however, are highly variable, with results ranging from local extinction to dramatic population growth; reasons for this variation remain unclear. Here, we ask whether population growth following plant reintroductions is governed by variation at two scales: the scale of individual habitat patches to which individuals are reintroduced, and larger among-landscape scales in which similar patches may be situated in landscapes that differ in matrix type, soil conditions, and other factors. Quantifying demographic variation at these two scales will help prioritize locations for introduction and, once introductions take place, forecast population growth. This work took place within a large-scale habitat fragmentation experiment, where individuals of two perennial forb species were reintroduced into eight replicate ~50-ha landscapes, each containing a set of five ~1-ha patches that varied in their degree of isolation (connected by habitat corridors or unconnected) and edge-to-area ratio. Using data on individual growth, survival, reproductive output, and recruitment collected one to two years after reintroduction, we developed models to forecast population growth, then compared forecasts to observed population sizes, three and six years later. Both the type of patch (connected and unconnected) and identity of the landscape to which individuals were reintroduced had effects on forecasted population growth rates, but only variation associated with landscape identity was an accurate predictor of subsequently observed population growth rates. Models that did not include landscape identity had minimal forecasting ability, revealing the key importance of variation at this scale for accurate prediction. Of the five demographic rates used to model population dynamics, seed production was the most important source of forecast error in population growth rates. Our results point to the importance of accounting for landscape-scale variation in demographic models and demonstrate how such models might assist with prioritizing particular landscapes for species reintroduction projects.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Plantas , Demografía , Dinámica Poblacional , Suelo
9.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(12): 1844-1845, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455443

Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Plantas
10.
Ecol Evol ; 8(16): 8458-8466, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250715

RESUMEN

Biodiversity loss is a global concern, and maintaining habitat complexity in naturally patchy landscapes can help retain regional diversity. A mosaic of prairie, savanna, and forest historically occurred across central North America but currently is highly fragmented due to human land conversion. It is unclear how each habitat type now contributes to regional diversity. Using legacy data, we resurveyed savanna plant communities originally surveyed in the 1950s to compare change in savannas to that in remnant forests and prairies. Savanna community structure and composition changed substantially over the past 60 years. Tree canopy density nearly doubled and many prairie and savanna specialist species were replaced by forest and non-native species. All three habitats gained and lost many species since the 1950s, resulting in large changes in community composition from local colonizations and extinctions. Across all three habitats, regional species extinctions matched that of regional colonization resulting in no net change in regional species richness. Synthesis-Despite considerable species turnover within savannas, many species remain within the broader prairie-savanna-forest mosaic. Both regional extinctions and colonizations were high over the past 60 years, and maintaining the presence of all three community types-prairie, savanna and forest-on the landscape is critical to maintaining regional biodiversity.

11.
Ecology ; 97(9): 2248-2258, 2016 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859066

RESUMEN

Habitat fragmentation affects species and their interactions through intertwined mechanisms that include changes to fragment area, shape, connectivity and distance to edge. Disentangling these pathways is a fundamental challenge of landscape ecology and will help identify ecological processes important for management of rare species or restoration of fragmented habitats. In a landscape experiment that manipulated connectivity, fragment shape, and distance to edge while holding fragment area constant, we examined how fragmentation impacts herbivory and growth of nine plant species in longleaf pine savanna. Probability of herbivory in open habitat was strongly dependent on proximity to forest edge for every species, increasing with distance to edge in six species (primarily grasses and annual forbs) and decreasing in three species (perennial forbs and a shrub). In the two species of perennial forbs, these edge effects were dependent on fragment shape; herbivory strongly decreased with distance to edge in fragments of two shapes, but not in a third shape. For most species, however, probability of herbivory was unrelated to connectivity or fragment shape. Growth was generally determined more strongly by leaf herbivory than by distance to edge, fragment shape, or connectivity. Taken together, these results demonstrate consistently strong edge effects on herbivory, one of the most important biotic factors determining plant growth and demography. Our results contrast with the generally inconsistent results of observational studies, likely because our experimental approach enabled us to tease apart landscape processes that are typically confounded.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Herbivoria , Animales , Ecología , Ecosistema , Bosques
12.
Ecology ; 97(5): 1274-82, 2016 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27349103

RESUMEN

Habitat fragmentation can create significant impediments to dispersal. A technique to increase dispersal between otherwise isolated fragments is the use of corridors. Although previous studies have compared dispersal between connected fragments to dispersal between unconnected fragments, it remains unknown how dispersal between fragments connected by a corridor compares to dispersal in unfragmented landscapes. To assess the extent to which corridors can restore dispersal in fragmented landscapes to levels observed in unfragmented landscapes, we employed a stable-isotope marking technique to track seeds within four unfragmented landscapes and eight experimental landscapes with fragments connected by corridors. We studied two wind- and two bird-dispersed plant species, because previous community-based research showed that dispersal mode explains how connectivity effects vary among species. We constructed dispersal kernels for these species in unfragmented landscapes and connected fragments by marking seeds in the center of each landscape with 'IN and then recovering marked seeds in seed traps at distances up to 200 m. For the two wind-dispersed plants, seed dispersal kernels were similar in unfragmented landscapes and connected fragments. In contrast, dispersal kernels of bird-dispersed seeds were both affected by fragmentation and differed in the direction of the impact: Morella cerifera experienced more and Rhus copallina experienced less long-distance dispersal in unfragmented than in connected landscapes. These results show that corridors can facilitate dispersal probabilities comparable to those observed in unfragmented landscapes. Although dispersal mode may provide useful broad predictions, we acknowledge that similar species may respond uniquely due to factors such as seasonality and disperser behavior. Our results further indicate that prior work has likely underestimated dispersal distances of wind-dispersed plants and that factors altering long-distance dispersal may have a greater impact on the spread of species than previously thought.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Magnoliopsida/fisiología , Semillas/fisiología , Animales , Aves , Demografía , Semillas/clasificación , South Carolina
13.
Sci Adv ; 2(2): e1500975, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26989775

RESUMEN

Patterns of biodiversity are changing rapidly. "Legacy studies" use historical data to document changes between past and present communities, revealing long-term trends that can often be linked to particular drivers of ecological change. However, a single pair of historical samples cannot ascertain whether rates of change are consistent or whether the impact and identity of drivers have shifted. Using data from a second resurvey of 47 Wisconsin prairie remnants, we show that the pace of community change has increased with shifts in the strength of particular drivers. Annual rates of local colonization and extinction accelerated by 129 and 214%, respectively, between 1950 and 1987 and between 1987 and 2012. Two anthropogenic drivers-patch area and fire history-increased in importance between these periods. As the strength and number of anthropogenic forces increase, rates of biodiversity change are likely to accelerate in other ecosystems as well.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Pradera , Ecosistema , Extinción Biológica , Incendios , Plantas , Factores de Tiempo , Wisconsin
14.
Nature ; 529(7586): 390-3, 2016 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26760203

RESUMEN

How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Pradera , Modelos Biológicos , Plantas/clasificación , Plantas/metabolismo , Conducta Competitiva , Geografía
15.
Ecology ; 96(10): 2669-78, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26649388

RESUMEN

Despite broad recognition that habitat loss represents the greatest threat to the world's biodiyersity, a mechanistic understanding of how habitat loss and associated fragmentation affect ecological systems has proven remarkably challenging. The challenge stems from the multiple interdependent ways that landscapes change following fragmentation and the ensuing complex impacts on populations and communities of interacting species. We confronted these challenges by evaluating how fragmentation affects individual plants through interactions with animals, across five herbaceous species native to longleaf pine savannas. We created a replicated landscape experiment that provides controlled tests of three major fragmentation effects (patch isolation, patch shape [i.e., edge-to-area ratio], and distance to edge), established experimental founder populations of the five species to control for spatial distributions and densities of individual plants, and employed structural equation modeling to evaluate the effects of fragmentation on plant reproductive output and the degree to which these impacts are mediated through altered herbivory, pollination, or pre-dispersal seed predation. Across species, the most consistent response to fragmentation was a reduction in herbivory. Herbivory, however, had little impact.on plant reproductive output, and thus we found little evidence for any resulting benefit to plants in fragments. In contrast, fragmentation rarely impacted pollination or pre-dispersal seed predation, but both of these interactions had strong and consistent impacts on plant reproductive output. As a result, our models robustly predicted plant reproductive output (r2 = 0.52-0.70), yet due to the weak effects of fragmentation on pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation, coupled with the weak effect of herbivory on plant reproduction, the effects of fragmentation on reproductive output were generally small in magnitude and inconsistent. This work provides mechanistic insight into landscape-scale variation in plant reproductive success, the relative importance of plant-animal interactions for structuring these dynamics, and the nuanced nature of how habitat fragmentation can affect populations and communities of interacting species.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Plantas/clasificación , Algoritmos , Animales , Demografía , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Flores , Herbivoria , Modelos Biológicos , Hojas de la Planta/anatomía & histología , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Polinización , Reproducción/fisiología
16.
Sci Adv ; 1(2): e1500052, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26601154

RESUMEN

We conducted an analysis of global forest cover to reveal that 70% of remaining forest is within 1 km of the forest's edge, subject to the degrading effects of fragmentation. A synthesis of fragmentation experiments spanning multiple biomes and scales, five continents, and 35 years demonstrates that habitat fragmentation reduces biodiversity by 13 to 75% and impairs key ecosystem functions by decreasing biomass and altering nutrient cycles. Effects are greatest in the smallest and most isolated fragments, and they magnify with the passage of time. These findings indicate an urgent need for conservation and restoration measures to improve landscape connectivity, which will reduce extinction rates and help maintain ecosystem services.

17.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7710, 2015 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173623

RESUMEN

Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Alimentos , Pradera , Herbivoria , Especies Introducidas , Plantas , Suelo/química , Animales , Eutrofización , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Vertebrados
18.
Ecology ; 96(12): 3323-31, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26909437

RESUMEN

Understanding how biotic communities respond to landscape spatial structure is critically important for conservation management as natural habitats become increasingly fragmented. However, empirical studies of the effects of spatial structure on plant species richness have found inconsistent results, suggesting that more comprehensive approaches are needed. We asked how landscape structure affects total plant species richness and the richness of a guild of specialized plants in a multivariate context. We sampled herbaceous plant communities at 56 dolomite glades (insular, fire-adapted grasslands) across the Missouri Ozarks, USA, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relative importance of landscape structure, soil resource availability, and fire history for plant communities. We found that landscape spatial structure, defined as the area-weighted proximity of glade habitat surrounding study sites (proximity index), had a significant effect on total plant species richness, but only after we controlled for environmental covariates. Richness of specialist species, but not generalists, was positively related to landscape spatial structure. Our results highlight that local environmental filters must be considered to understand the influence of landscape structure on communities and that unique species guilds may respond differently to landscape structure than the community as a whole. These findings suggest that both local environment and landscape context should be considered when developing management strategies for species of conservation concern in fragmented habitats.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Plantas/clasificación , Animales , Incendios , Fenómenos Geológicos , Missouri , Desarrollo de la Planta , Suelo/química
19.
Oecologia ; 177(2): 507-18, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25411111

RESUMEN

Land-use legacies are known to shape the diversity and distribution of plant communities, but we lack an understanding of whether historical land use influences community responses to contemporary disturbances. Because human-modified landscapes often bear a history of multiple land-use activities, this contingency can challenge our understanding of land-use impacts on plant diversity. We address this contingency by evaluating how beta diversity (the spatial variability of species composition), an important component of regional biodiversity, is shaped by interactions between historical agriculture and prescribed fire, two prominent disturbances that are often coincident in terrestrial ecosystems. At three study locations spanning 450 km in the southeastern United States, we surveyed longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities across 232 remnant and post-agricultural sites with differing prescribed fire regimes. Our results demonstrate that agricultural legacies are a strong predictor of beta diversity, but the direction of this land-use effect differed among the three study locations. Further, although beta diversity increased with prescribed fire frequency at each study location, this effect was influenced by agricultural land-use history, such that positive fire effects were only documented among sites that lacked a history of agriculture at two of our three study locations. Our study not only highlights the role of historical agriculture in shaping beta diversity in a fire-maintained ecosystem but also illustrates how this effect can be contingent upon fire regime and geographic location. We suggest that interactions among historical and contemporary land-use activities may help to explain dissimilarities in plant communities among sites in human-dominated landscapes.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Incendios , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Pinus , Plantas , Sudeste de Estados Unidos
20.
Ecology ; 95(8): 2033-9, 2014 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25230454

RESUMEN

Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species' traits when assessing corridor utility.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Especies Introducidas , Animales , Hormigas , Conducta Animal , Demografía , South Carolina , Especificidad de la Especie
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