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1.
2.
Inorg Chem ; 60(20): 15421-15434, 2021 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590834

RESUMEN

We report the synthesis of vanadium(V) oxo complex 1 with a pincer-type dianionic mesoionic carbene (MIC) ligand L1 and the general formula [VOCl(L1)]. A comparison of the structural (SC-XRD), electronic (UV-vis), and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) properties of 1 with the benzimidazolinylidene congener 2 (general formula [VOCl(L2)]) shows that the MIC is a stronger donor also for early transition metals with low d-electron population. Since electrochemical studies revealed both complexes to be reversibly reduced, the stronger donor character of MICs was not only demonstrated for the vanadium(V) but also for the vanadium(IV) oxidation state by isolating the reduced vanadium(IV) complexes [Co(Cp*)2][1] and [Co(Cp*)2][2] ([Co(Cp*)2] = decamethylcobaltocenium). The electronic structures of the compounds were investigated by computational methods. Complex 1 was found to be a moderate precursor for salt metathesis reactions, showing selective reactivity toward phenolates or secondary amides, but not toward primary amides and phosphides, thiophenols, or aryls/alkyls donors. Deoxygenation with electron-rich phosphines failed to give the desired vanadium(III) complex. However, treatment of the deprotonated ligand precursor with vanadium(III) trichloride resulted in the clean formation of the corresponding MIC vanadium(III) complex 6, which undergoes a clean two-electron oxidation with organic azides yielding the corresponding imido complexes. The reaction with TMS-N3 did not afford a nitrido complex, but instead the imido complex 10. This study reveals that, contrary to popular belief, MICs are capable of supporting early transition-metal complexes in a variety of oxidation states, thus making them promising candidates for the activation of small molecules and redox catalysis.

3.
Chembiochem ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498783

RESUMEN

The epigenetic marker 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is an important factor in DNA modification and epigenetics. It can be modified through a three-step oxidation performed by ten-eleven-translocation (TET) enzymes and we have previously reported that the iron(IV)-oxo complex [Fe(O)(Py5 Me2 H)]2+ (1) can oxidize 5mC. Here, we report the reactivity of this iron(IV)-oxo complex towards a wider scope of methylated cytosine and uracil derivatives relevant for synthetic DNA applications, such as 1-methylcytosine (1mC), 5-methyl-iso-cytosine (5miC) and thymine (T/5mU). The observed kinetic parameters are corroborated by calculation of the C-H bond energies at the reactive sites which was found to be an efficient tool for reaction rate prediction of 1 towards methylated DNA bases. We identified oxidation products of methylated cytosine derivatives using HPLC-MS and GC-MS. Thereby, we shed light on the impact of the methyl group position and resulting C-H bond dissociation energies on reactivity towards TET-like oxidation.

4.
mBio ; 12(5): e0170821, 2021 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544276

RESUMEN

The methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8 thrives in acidic geothermal ecosystems that are characterized by high degassing of methane (CH4), H2, H2S, and by relatively high lanthanide concentrations. Lanthanides (atomic numbers 57 to 71) are essential in a variety of high-tech devices, including mobile phones. Remarkably, the same elements are actively taken up by methanotrophs/methylotrophs in a range of environments, since their XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenases require lanthanides as a metal cofactor. Lanthanide-dependent enzymes seem to prefer the lighter lanthanides (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium), as slower methanotrophic/methylotrophic growth is observed in medium supplemented with only heavier lanthanides. Here, we purified XoxF1 from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8, which was grown in medium supplemented with neodymium as the sole lanthanide. The neodymium occupancy of the enzyme is 94.5% ± 2.0%, and through X-ray crystallography, we reveal that the structure of the active site shows interesting differences from the active sites of other methanol dehydrogenases, such as an additional aspartate residue in close proximity to the lanthanide. Nd-XoxF1 oxidizes methanol at a maximum rate of metabolism (Vmax) of 0.15 ± 0.01 µmol · min-1 · mg protein-1 and an affinity constant (Km) of 1.4 ± 0.6 µM. The structural analysis of this neodymium-containing XoxF1-type methanol dehydrogenase will expand our knowledge in the exciting new field of lanthanide biochemistry. IMPORTANCE Lanthanides comprise a group of 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 to 71 that are essential in a variety of high-tech devices, such as mobile phones, but were considered biologically inert for a long time. The biological relevance of lanthanides became evident when the acidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV, isolated from a volcanic mud pot, could only grow when lanthanides were supplied to the growth medium. We expanded knowledge in the exciting and rapidly developing field of lanthanide biochemistry by the purification and characterization of a neodymium-containing methanol dehydrogenase from a thermoacidophilic methanotroph.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(39): 21457-21463, 2021 09 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181314

RESUMEN

The epigenetic marker 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) is the most prevalent modification to DNA. It is removed inter alia via an active demethylation pathway: oxidation by Ten-Eleven Translocation 5-methyl cytosine dioxygenase (TET) and subsequent removal via base excision repair or direct demodification. Recently, we have shown that the synthetic iron(IV)-oxo complex [FeIV (O)(Py5 Me2 H)]2+ (1) can serve as a biomimetic model for TET by oxidizing the nucleobase 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) to its natural metabolites. In this work, we demonstrate that nucleosides and even short oligonucleotide strands can also serve as substrates, using a range of HPLC and MS techniques. We found that the 5-position of 5mC is oxidized preferably by 1, with side reactions occurring only at the strand ends of the used oligonucleotides. A detailed study of the reactivity of 1 towards nucleosides confirms our results; that oxidation of the anomeric center (1') is the most common side reaction.


Asunto(s)
5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Materiales Biomiméticos/metabolismo , Dioxigenasas/metabolismo , Compuestos de Hierro/metabolismo , 5-Metilcitosina/química , Materiales Biomiméticos/química , Dioxigenasas/química , Compuestos de Hierro/química , Conformación Molecular
6.
Methods Enzymol ; 650: 57-79, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867025

RESUMEN

The field of methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs) has experienced revival in the recent decade due to the observation of lanthanide-dependent MDH, in addition to widely known calcium-MDH. With the advent of lanthanide-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases, the need for reliable assays to evaluate and compare activities between different MDHs is obvious: from extremophilic to neutrophilic organisms, or with different lanthanide ions in the active site. Here we outline four assays that have been reported for Ln-MDH, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the assays and their components. It should be noted, in 1990Day and Anthony produced a comprehensive summary in Methods in Enzymology on the available methods for Ca-MDH assays at the time (Day & Anthony, 1990). This chapter is an updated appraisal of the most important developments in the last 30years.


Asunto(s)
Elementos de la Serie de los Lantanoides , Metanol , Alcohol Deshidrogenasa , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas
7.
Chemistry ; 27(39): 10087-10098, 2021 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872420

RESUMEN

Understanding the role of metal ions in biology can lead to the development of new catalysts for several industrially important transformations. Lanthanides are the most recent group of metal ions that have been shown to be important in biology, that is, in quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases (MDH). Here we evaluate a literature-known pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and 1-aza-15-crown-5 based ligand platform as scaffold for Ca2+ , Ba2+ , La3+ and Lu3+ biomimetics of MDH and we evaluate the importance of ligand design, charge, size, counterions and base for the alcohol oxidation reaction using NMR spectroscopy. In addition, we report a new straightforward synthetic route (3 steps instead of 11 and 33 % instead of 0.6 % yield) for biomimetic ligands based on PQQ. We show that when studying biomimetics for MDH, larger metal ions and those with lower charge in this case promote the dehydrogenation reaction more effectively and that this is likely an effect of the ligand design which must be considered when studying biomimetics. To gain more information on the structures and impact of counterions of the complexes, we performed collision induced dissociation (CID) experiments and observe that the nitrates are more tightly bound than the triflates. To resolve the structure of the complexes in the gas phase we combined DFT-calculations and ion mobility measurements (IMS). Furthermore, we characterized the obtained complexes and reaction mixtures using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and show the presence of a small amount of quinone-based radical.


Asunto(s)
Éteres Corona , Elementos de la Serie de los Lantanoides , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol , Biomimética , Calcio , Cofactor PQQ
8.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 76(Pt 12): 1051-1056, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273141

RESUMEN

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is an important cofactor of calcium- and lanthanide-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases, and has been known for over 30 years. Crystal structures of Ca-MDH enzymes (MDH is methanol dehydrogenase) have been known for some time; however, crystal structures of PQQ with biorelevant metal ions have been lacking in the literature for decades. We report here the first crystal structure analysis of a Ca-PQQ complex outside the protein environment, namely, poly[[undecaaquabis(µ-4,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-f]quinoline-2,7,9-tricarboxylato)tricalcium(II)] dihydrate], {[Ca3(C14H3N2O8)2(H2O)11]·2H2O}n. The complex crystallized as Ca3PQQ2·13H2O with Ca2+ in three different positions and PQQ3-, including an extensive hydrogen-bond network. Similarities and differences to the recently reported structure with biorelevant europium (Eu2PQQ2) are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Cofactor PQQ/análogos & derivados , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/química , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/metabolismo , Calcio/química , Dominio Catalítico , Cristalización , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Europio/química , Enlace de Hidrógeno , Modelos Moleculares , Estructura Molecular , Cofactor PQQ/química
9.
Chemistry ; 26(44): 10133-10139, 2020 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497263

RESUMEN

Lanthanides (Ln) are critical raw materials, however, their mining and purification have a considerable negative environmental impact and sustainable recycling and separation strategies for these elements are needed. In this study, the precipitation and solubility behavior of Ln complexes with pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), the cofactor of recently discovered lanthanide (Ln) dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) enzymes, is presented. In this context, the molecular structure of a biorelevant europium PQQ complex was for the first time elucidated outside a protein environment. The complex crystallizes as an inversion symmetric dimer, Eu2 PQQ2 , with binding of Eu in the biologically relevant pocket of PQQ. LnPQQ and Ln1Ln2PQQ complexes were characterized by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, 151 Eu-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray total scattering, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). It is shown that a natural enzymatic cofactor is capable to achieve separation by precipitation of the notoriously similar, and thus difficult to separate, lanthanides to some extent.

10.
ISME J ; 14(5): 1223-1232, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042101

RESUMEN

The trace amounts (0.53 ppmv) of atmospheric hydrogen gas (H2) can be utilized by microorganisms to persist during dormancy. This process is catalyzed by certain Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi, and is estimated to convert 75 × 1012 g H2 annually, which is half of the total atmospheric H2. This rapid atmospheric H2 turnover is hypothesized to be catalyzed by high-affinity [NiFe] hydrogenases. However, apparent high-affinity H2 oxidation has only been shown in whole cells, rather than for the purified enzyme. Here, we show that the membrane-associated hydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV possesses a high apparent affinity (Km(app) = 140 nM) for H2 and that methanotrophs can oxidize subatmospheric H2. Our findings add to the evidence that the group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenase is accountable for atmospheric H2 oxidation and that it therefore could be a strong controlling factor in the global H2 cycle. We show that the isolated enzyme possesses a lower affinity (Km = 300 nM) for H2 than the membrane-associated enzyme. Hence, the membrane association seems essential for a high affinity for H2. The enzyme is extremely thermostable and remains folded up to 95 °C. Strain SolV is the only known organism in which the group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenase is responsible for rapid growth on H2 as sole energy source as well as oxidation of subatmospheric H2. The ability to conserve energy from H2 could increase fitness of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs in geothermal ecosystems with varying CH4 fluxes. We propose that H2 oxidation can enhance growth of methanotrophs in aerated methane-driven ecosystems. Group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenases could therefore contribute to mitigation of global warming, since CH4 is an important and extremely potent greenhouse gas.


Asunto(s)
Verrucomicrobia/fisiología , Ecosistema , Hidrógeno , Hidrogenasas/metabolismo , Metano , Oxidación-Reducción , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo
11.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 25(2): 199-212, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060650

RESUMEN

Methanol dehydrogenases (MDH) have recently taken the spotlight with the discovery that a large portion of these enzymes in nature utilize lanthanides in their active sites. The kinetic parameters of these enzymes are determined with a spectrophotometric assay first described by Anthony and Zatman 55 years ago. This artificial assay uses alkylated phenazines, such as phenazine ethosulfate (PES) or phenazine methosulfate (PMS), as primary electron acceptors (EAs) and the electron transfer is further coupled to a dye. However, many groups have reported problems concerning the bleaching of the assay mixture in the absence of MDH and the reproducibility of those assays. Hence, the comparison of kinetic data among MDH enzymes of different species is often cumbersome. Using mass spectrometry, UV-Vis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we show that the side reactions of the assay mixture are mainly due to the degradation of assay components. Light-induced demethylation (yielding formaldehyde and phenazine in the case of PMS) or oxidation of PES or PMS as well as a reaction with assay components (ammonia, cyanide) can occur. We suggest here a protocol to avoid these side reactions. Further, we describe a modified synthesis protocol for obtaining the alternative electron acceptor, Wurster's blue (WB), which serves both as EA and dye. The investigation of two lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenases from Methylorubrum extorquens AM1 and Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV with WB, along with handling recommendations, is presented. Lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. Understanding the chemistry of artificial electron acceptors and redox dyes can yield more reproducible results.


Asunto(s)
2,6-Dicloroindofenol/química , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/química , Electrones , Metosulfato de Metilfenazonio/química , Fenazinas/química , Tetrametilfenilendiamina/química , 2,6-Dicloroindofenol/metabolismo , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/metabolismo , Methylobacterium extorquens/enzimología , Metosulfato de Metilfenazonio/metabolismo , Estructura Molecular , Fenazinas/metabolismo , Tetrametilfenilendiamina/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/enzimología
13.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(11): 3141-3152, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515601

RESUMEN

The chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) alkylates a multitude of biomacromolecules including DNA and proteins. Cysteine residues and nucleophilic nitrogen atoms in purine DNA bases are typical targets of SM but potentially every nucleophilic structure may be alkylated by SM. In the present study, we analyzed potential SM-induced alkylation of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones and functional consequences thereof. Hydrocortisone (HC), the synthetic betamethasone (BM) and dexamethasone (DEX) were chosen as representative GCs. Structural modifications were assessed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The hypothesized alkylation was verified and structurally allocated to the OH-group of the C21 atom. The biological function of SM-alkylated GCs was investigated using GC-regulated dual-luciferase reporter gene assays and an ex vivo GC responsiveness assay coupled with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). For the reporter gene assays, HEK293-cells were transiently transfected with a dual-luciferase reporter gene that is transcriptional regulated by a GC-response element. These cells were then incubated either with untreated or SM-derivatized HC, BM or DEX. Firefly-luciferase (Fluc) activity was determined 24 h after stimulation. Fluc-activity significantly decreased after stimulation with SM-pre-exposed GC dependent on the SM concentration. The ex vivo RT-qPCR-based assay for human peripheral leukocyte responsiveness to DEX revealed a transcriptional dysregulation of GC-regulated genes (FKBP5, IL1R2, and GILZ) after stimulation with SM-alkylated DEX. Our results present GCs as new biological targets of SM associated with a disturbance of hormone function.


Asunto(s)
Alquilantes/toxicidad , Sustancias para la Guerra Química/toxicidad , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Gas Mostaza/toxicidad , Animales , Betametasona/farmacología , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Cotinina/farmacología , Dexametasona/farmacología , Genes Reporteros , Glucocorticoides/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Luciferasas/genética , Renilla , Transfección
14.
Chemistry ; 25(52): 12091-12097, 2019 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211459

RESUMEN

Ten-eleven-translocation (TET) methyl cytosine dioxygenases play a key role in epigenetics by oxidizing the epigenetic marker 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine (5hmC), 5-formyl cytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxy cytosine (5cC). Although much of the metabolism of 5mC has been studied closely, certain aspects-such as discrepancies among the observed catalytic activity of TET enzymes and calculated bond dissociation energies of the different cytosine substrates-remain elusive. Here, it is reported that the DNA base 5mC is oxidized to 5hmC, 5fC, and 5cC by a biomimetic iron(IV)-oxo complex, reminiscent of the activity of TET enzymes. Studies show that 5hmC is preferentially turned over compared with 5mC and 5fC and that this is in line with the calculated bond dissociation energies. The optimized syntheses of d3 -5mC and d2 -5hmC are also reported and in the reaction with the biomimetic iron(IV)-oxo complex these deuterated substrates showed large kinetic isotope effects, confirming the hydrogen abstraction as the rate-limiting step. Taken together, these results shed light on the intrinsic reactivity of the C-H bonds of epigenetic markers and the contribution of the second coordination sphere in TET enzymes.


Asunto(s)
Complejos de Coordinación/química , Dioxigenasas/química , Hierro/química , 5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , 5-Metilcitosina/química , Materiales Biomiméticos , Cerio/química , Citosina/análogos & derivados , Citosina/química , Epigénesis Genética , Cinética , Oxidación-Reducción , Termodinámica
15.
Inorg Chem ; 58(13): 8432-8441, 2019 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184864

RESUMEN

Recently it was discovered that lanthanides are biologically relevant and found at the centers of many bacterial proteins. Poorly understood, however, is the evolutionary advantage that certain lanthanides might have over calcium at the center of methanol dehydrogenase enzymes bearing redox cofactor PQQ. Here, we present a straightforward method to obtaining clean PQQ from vitamin capsules. Furthermore, we provide full NMR, IR, and UV-vis spectroscopic characterizations of PQQ. We conducted NMR experiments with the stepwise addition of diamagnetic and paramagnetic lanthanides to evaluate the binding to PQQ in solution. This study provides a deeper understanding of PQQ chemistry and its interaction with lanthanides.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(37): 12795-12802, 2019 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021478

RESUMEN

Lanthanide biochemistry-A surprise around every corner: lanthanides as biologically essential metals. This statement was until recently, unthinkable. This minireview presents the recent developments in the emerging field of rare-earth element biochemistry from a coordination chemist's point of view and discusses why nature might have chosen these elements to have a catalytic role in alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes as they are found in methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria.

17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1867(6): 595-603, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954577

RESUMEN

Methanotrophs play a prominent role in the global carbon cycle, by oxidizing the potent greenhouse gas methane to CO2. Methane is first converted into methanol by methane monooxygenase. This methanol is subsequently oxidized by either a calcium-dependent MxaF-type or a lanthanide-dependent XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase (MDH). Electrons from methanol oxidation are shuttled to a cytochrome redox partner, termed cytochrome cL. Here, the cytochrome cL homolog from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV was characterized. SolV cytochrome cGJ is a fusion of a XoxG cytochrome and a periplasmic binding protein XoxJ. Here we show that XoxGJ functions as the direct electron acceptor of its corresponding XoxF-type MDH and can sustain methanol turnover, when a secondary cytochrome is present as final electron acceptor. SolV cytochrome cGJ (XoxGJ) further displays a unique, red-shifted absorbance spectrum, with a Soret and Q bands at 440, 553 and 595 nm in the reduced state, respectively. VTVH-MCD spectroscopy revealed the presence of a low spin iron heme and the data further shows that the heme group exhibits minimal ruffling. The midpoint potential Em,pH7 of +240 mV is similar to other cytochrome cL type proteins but remarkably, the midpoint potential of cytochrome cGJ was not influenced by lowering the pH. Cytochrome cGJ represents the first example of a cytochrome from a strictly lanthanide-dependent methylotrophic microorganism.


Asunto(s)
Citocromos c/química , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/química , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Citocromos c/genética , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno/efectos de los fármacos , Elementos de la Serie de los Lantanoides/metabolismo , Operón , Verrucomicrobia/genética
18.
Chemistry ; 25(37): 8760-8768, 2019 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908783

RESUMEN

We report the first electrochemical study of a lanthanoid-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (Eu-MDH) from the acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV with its own physiological cytochrome cGJ electron acceptor. Eu-MDH harbours a redox active 2,7,9-tricarboxypyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) cofactor which is non-covalently bound but coordinates trivalent lanthanoid elements including Eu3+ . Eu-MDH and the cytochrome were co-adsorbed with the biopolymer chitosan and cast onto a mercaptoundecanol (MU) monolayer modified Au working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry of cytochrome cGJ reveals a well-defined quasi-reversible FeIII/II redox couple at +255 mV vs. NHE at pH 7.5 and this response is pH independent. The reversible one-electron response of the cytochrome cGJ transforms into a sigmoidal catalytic wave in the presence of Eu-MDH and its substrates (methanol or formaldehyde). The catalytic current was pH-dependent and pH 7.3 was found to be optimal. Kinetic parameters (pH dependence, activation energy) obtained by electrochemistry show the same trends as those obtained from an artificial phenazine ethosulfate/dichlorophenol indophenol assay.


Asunto(s)
Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/metabolismo , Citocromos c/química , Europio/química , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/química , Biocatálisis , Dominio Catalítico , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Electrodos , Cinética , Metanol/química , Metanol/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Cofactor PQQ/química , Cofactor PQQ/metabolismo , Espectrofotometría , Especificidad por Sustrato , Temperatura , Verrucomicrobia/enzimología
19.
Dalton Trans ; 47(31): 10463-10472, 2018 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020281

RESUMEN

Interest in the bioinorganic chemistry of lanthanides is growing rapidly as more and more lanthanide-dependent bacteria are being discovered. Especially the earlier lanthanides have been shown to be preferentially utilized by bacteria that need these Lewis acids as cofactors in their alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes. Here, we investigate the impact of the lanthanide ions lanthanum(iii) to lutetium(iii) (excluding Pm) on the catalytic parameters (vmax, KM, kcat/KM) of a methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) isolated from Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV. Kinetic experiments and DFT calculations were used to discuss why only the earlier lanthanides (La-Gd) promote high MDH activity. Impact of Lewis acidity, coordination number preferences, stability constants and other properties that are a direct result of the lanthanide contraction are discussed in light of the two proposed mechanisms for MDH.


Asunto(s)
Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/química , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/aislamiento & purificación , Complejos de Coordinación/química , Elementos de la Serie de los Lantanoides/química , Metanol/metabolismo , Catálisis , Dominio Catalítico , Cinética , Estructura Molecular , Polietilenglicoles/química , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Agua/química
20.
Chembiochem ; 2018 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524328

RESUMEN

Since the discovery of the biological relevance of rare earth elements (REEs) for numerous different bacteria, questions concerning the advantages of REEs in the active sites of methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs) over calcium(II) and of why bacteria prefer light REEs have been a subject of debate. Here we report the cultivation and purification of the strictly REE-dependent methanotrophic bacterium Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV with europium(III), as well as structural and kinetic analyses of the first methanol dehydrogenase incorporating Eu in the active site. Crystal structure determination of the Eu-MDH demonstrated that overall no major structural changes were induced by conversion to this REE. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements were used to determine optimal conditions for kinetic assays, whereas inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed 70 % incorporation of Eu in the enzyme. Our studies explain why bacterial growth of SolV in the presence of Eu3+ is significantly slower than in the presence of La3+ /Ce3+ /Pr3+ : Eu-MDH possesses a decreased catalytic efficiency. Although REEs have similar properties, the differences in ionic radii and coordination numbers across the series significantly impact MDH efficiency.

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