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1.
Int J Drug Policy ; 79: 102725, 2020 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259770

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Syringe Distribution Programs (SDPs) are a well-proven public health response to the spread of HIV and other blood borne illnesses among people who inject drugs. Many SDPs in the United States are required to collect data from service users as a condition of either legal authorization to operate or as a condition of funding. We sought to describe the prevalence of such externally mandated data collection and impact on service delivery at syringe distribution programs (SDPs) in the United States via an online survey. METHODS: Online survey of SDPs in the US. RESULTS: 63 SDPs participated. 95•2% collected data about individual service users, with 76•7% being mandated to do so by an external entity as a condition of legal authorization, and/or as a condition of funding. Only 21•7% of mandated respondents received any report back on how data was used. 60•0% reported that data collection acted as a barrier to providing syringes to people who use drugs due to service user fears about loss of anonymity and/or law enforcement. 33•3% reported that the computer literacy and language skills required to collect data meant otherwise appropriate members of the community could not he hired as staff or volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: Data collection at SDPs may act as a barrier to service provision to populations at high risk for HIV and other blood born viruses, and place considerable logistic burdens on often under-resourced public health programs. Further, it is often unclear to SDPs what purpose their data is being put to. We argue that to be ethical, the purpose of data collection should be carefully considered and regularly reviewed to ensure data is being put to meaningful purpose which is commensurate with impacts on service delivery.

2.
BMJ ; 369: m877, 2020 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253188

RESUMEN

The studyHodkinson A, Kontopantelis E, Adeniji C, et al. Accelerometer- and pedometer-based physical activity interventions among adults with cardiometabolic conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis JAMA Network Open 2019;2:e1912895.This study was funded by the NIHR School for Primary Care Research (project number 390 ESWG Workstream 3).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000880/pedometers-can-help-people-get-more-active-as-part-of-an-exercise-programme.


Asunto(s)
Actigrafía/instrumentación , Ejercicio Físico , Terapia por Ejercicio , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud
3.
BMJ ; 368: m512, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144210

RESUMEN

The studyHewlett S, Almeida C, Ambler N, et al. Reducing arthritis fatigue impact: two-year randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural approaches by rheumatology teams (RAFT). Ann Rheum Dis 2019;78:465-72.Hewlett S, Almeida C, Ambler N, et al. Group cognitive behavioural programme to reduce the impact of rheumatoid arthritis fatigue: the RAFT RCT with economic and qualitative evaluations. Health Technol Assess 2019;23:57.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 11/112/01).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000860/group-cognitive-behavioural-courses-may-reduce-fatigue-from-rheumatoid-arthritis.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide/complicaciones , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Fatiga/prevención & control , Fatiga/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
4.
BMJ ; 368: m520, 2020 03 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213484

RESUMEN

The studyPalmer R, Dimairo M, Cooper C, et al. Self-managed, computerised speech and language therapy for patients with chronic aphasia post-stroke compared with usual care or attention control (Big CACTUS): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2019;18:821-33.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 12/21/01) and the Tavistock Trust for Aphasia.To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000864/after-a-stroke-computerised-speech-and-language-therapy-can-help-people-find-words.


Asunto(s)
Afasia , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Atención , Humanos , Terapia del Lenguaje , Habla
5.
BMJ ; 368: m517, 2020 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205307

RESUMEN

The studyPowell J, Atherton H, Williams V, et al. Using online patient feedback to improve NHS services: the INQUIRE multimethod study. Health Serv Deliv Res 2019;7:38.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Services and Delivery Research programme (project number HS&DR 14/04/48).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000861/online-patient-feedback-is-mostly-positive-but-is-not-being-used-effectively.


Asunto(s)
Retroalimentación , Satisfacción del Paciente , Medicina Estatal , Participación de la Comunidad , Humanos , Medicina Estatal/normas , Reino Unido
6.
BMJ ; 368: m453, 2020 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102784

RESUMEN

The studyCleland LC, McComb L, Kee F, et al. Effects of 20 mph interventions on a range of public health outcomes: a meta-narrative evidence synthesis. J Transp Health 2019. doi:10.1016/j.jth.2019.100633This project was funded by the NIHR Policy Research Programme (project number 17/149/19).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000853/twenty-mph-speed-zones-reduce-the-danger-to-pedestrians-and-cyclists.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Conducción de Automóvil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ciclismo/lesiones , Peatones , Heridas y Traumatismos/prevención & control , Ciclismo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Reino Unido
7.
BMJ ; 368: l6775, 2020 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005673

RESUMEN

The studyDambha-Miller H, Day AJ, Strelitz J, et al. Behaviour change, weight loss and remission of Type 2 diabetes: a community-based prospective cohort study. Diabet Med 2019. doi:10.1111/dme.14122This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 08/116/300) as well as the Wellcome Trust (grant number: G061895), the Epidemiology Unit programme (MC_UU_12015/4), and the National Health Service R&D support funding.To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000841/weight-loss-after-type-2-diabetes-diagnosis-boosts-chance-of-remission.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pérdida de Peso , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Medicina Estatal
8.
BMJ ; 368: l6768, 2020 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924664

RESUMEN

The studyCabral C, Horwood J, Symonds J, et al. Understanding the influence of parent-clinician communication on antibiotic prescribing for children with respiratory tract infections in primary care: a qualitative observational study using a conversation analysis approach. BMC Fam Pract 2019;20:102.This project was funded by the NIHR School for Primary Care Research Programme (project number SPCR204).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000829/gps-assessment-not-parental-expectation-drives-antibiotic-prescribing.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Niño , Humanos , Motivación , Padres , Atención Primaria de Salud
9.
BMJ ; 368: l6779, 2020 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941696

RESUMEN

The studyChappell LC, Brocklehurst P, Green ME, et al. Planned early delivery or expectant management for late preterm pre-eclampsia (PHOENIX): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2019;394:1181-90.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 12/25/03).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000838/mothers-benefit-from-a-planned-earlier-delivery-for-late-pre-eclampsia.


Asunto(s)
Preeclampsia , Nacimiento Prematuro , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Madres , Embarazo , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica , Espera Vigilante
10.
BMJ ; 368: l6764, 2020 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900245

RESUMEN

The studyCooper K, Breeman S, Scott NW, et al. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy versus endometrial ablation for women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HEALTH): a parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2019;394:1425-36.The study was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 12/35/23).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000837/keyhole-hysterectomy-is-effective-for-women-with-heavy-menstrual-bleeding.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Ablación Endometrial , Laparoscopía , Menorragia/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Histerectomía , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica
11.
Med Anthropol ; 39(2): 139-152, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099592

RESUMEN

Involuntary drug treatment (IDT) is ineffective in decreasing drug use, yet it is a common practice. In Mexico, there are not enough professional residential drug treatment programs, and both voluntary and involuntary drug treatment is often provided by non-evidence based, non-professional programs. We studied the experiences of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana who were taken involuntarily to drug centers under the auspices of a federally funded police operation. We provide insight into how the health, wellbeing, human rights, dignity, and security of PWID ought to be at the center of international drug policies included in universal health care systems.

12.
J Correct Health Care ; 25(4): 394-404, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672075

RESUMEN

People leaving incarceration are at high risk of opioid-related overdose. Overdose fatalities are preventable with administration of naloxone. In response to this risk, overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs have been implemented in a handful of jails and prisons in the United States. We document the history, structure, and data from the San Francisco County Jail OEND program. During 4 years of operation, 637 people participated; 67% received naloxone upon release, of whom only 3.5% had been previously trained in community-based OEND programs. Of those who received naloxone, 32% reported reversing an overdose and 44% received refills from community-based programs after reentry. This confirms that implementation of OEND in criminal justice settings is feasible and reaches people who have not previously been trained as well as those willing to act as overdose responders.

13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 40: 21-27.e3, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711839

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Novel approaches must address the underlying factors sustaining the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in the United States, specifically what maintains new Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission. METHODS: Culture-confirmed TB cases reported to the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (2004-2012) were analyzed for time-restricted genotypic and/or geospatial clustering. Cases with both types of clustering were used as a proxy for recent, local transmission. Modified, multivariate Poisson regression models were fit to estimate this prevalence in relation to various individual- and neighborhood-level demographic and socio-economic variables. RESULTS: Those individuals that were spatially clustered were 1.7 times as likely to also be time-restricted genotypically clustered. The prevalence of recent, local transmission was higher among U.S.-born cases, males, and non-Hispanic blacks. Moreover, people living in neighborhoods in the highest poverty quartile had 13.8 times the prevalence of recent, local transmission compared with those in the lowest poverty neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest geographic areas with high concentration of TB cases are likely driven by ongoing transmission, rather than enclaves of individuals who have reactivated a case of latent TB. Furthermore, efforts to continue reducing Mtb transmission in the United States, and other low-incidence settings, must better identify community-level sources of risk, manifested through the complex social interactions among people and their environments.

14.
BMJ ; 367: l5464, 2019 11 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712247

RESUMEN

The studyLyttle MD, Rainford NEA, Gamble C, et al. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet 2019;393:2125-34.This trial was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 12/127/134).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000790/levetiracetam-vs-phenytoin-in-stopping-childrens-prolonged-epileptic-seizures.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Estado Epiléptico , Niño , Humanos , Levetiracetam , Fenitoína , Convulsiones
15.
BMJ ; 367: l4962, 2019 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685480

RESUMEN

The studyEveritt H, Landau G, Little P. Therapist telephone-delivered CBT and web-based CBT compared with treatment as usual in refractory irritable bowel syndrome: the ACTIB three-arm RCT. Health Technol Assess 2019;23:1-154.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 11/69/02).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000784/irritable-bowel-syndrome-helped-by-telephone-or-internet-cbt.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome del Colon Irritable , Humanos , Internet , Logoterapia , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica , Teléfono
16.
BMJ ; 367: l5456, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575520

RESUMEN

The studyTaylor RS, Walker S, Ciani O, et al. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for chronic heart failure: the EXTRAMATCH II individual participant data meta-analysis. Health Technol Assess 2019;23:1-98.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 15/80/30).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000803/cardiac-rehabilitation-for-heart-failure-can-improve-quality-of-life-and-fitness.


Asunto(s)
Rehabilitación Cardiaca , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Ejercicio Físico , Terapia por Ejercicio , Humanos , Calidad de Vida
17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223823, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose deaths have increased exponentially in the United States. Bystander response to opioid overdose ideally involves administering naloxone, providing rescue breathing, and calling 911 to summon emergency medical assistance. Recently in the US, public health and public safety agencies have begun seeking to use 911 calls as a method to identify and deliver post-overdose interventions to opioid overdose patients. Little is known about the opinions of PWUDs about the barriers, benefits, or potential harms of post-overdose interventions linked to the 911 system. We sought to understand the perspectives of PWUDs about a method for using 911 data to identify opioid overdose cases and trigger a post-overdose intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted three focus groups with 11 PWUDs in 2018. Results are organized into 4 categories: willingness to call 911 (benefits and risks of calling), thoughts about a technique to identify opioid overdoses in 911 data (benefits and concerns), thoughts about the proposed post-overdose intervention (benefits and concerns), and recommendations for developing an ideal post-overdose intervention. For most participants, calling 911 was synonymous with "calling the police" and law enforcement-related fears were pervasive, limiting willingness to engage with the 911 system. The technique to identify opioid overdoses and the proposed post-overdose intervention were identified as potentially lifesaving, but the benefits were balanced by concerns related to law enforcement involvement, intervention timing, and risks to privacy/reputation. Nearly universally, participants wished for a way to summon emergency medical assistance without triggering a law enforcement response. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that the 911 system in the US inextricably links emergency medical assistance with law enforcement response inherently problematizes calling 911 for PWUDs, and has implications for surveillance and intervention. It is imperative to center the perspectives of PWUDs when designing and implementing interventions that rely on the 911 system for activation.

19.
BMJ ; 366: l5453, 2019 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562125

RESUMEN

The studyTaylor S, Mallett S, Beare S et al. Diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI versus standard imaging pathways for metastatic disease in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer: the prospective Streamline C trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;4:529-37.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 10/68/01).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000797/identifying-metastatic-disease-in-colorectal-cancer-with-whole-body-mri.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Estudios Prospectivos , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica
20.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(14): 2338-2350, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389282

RESUMEN

Background: Persons who inject drugs (PWID) play a key role in assisting others' initiation into injection drug use (IDU). We aimed to explore the pathways and socio-structural contexts for this phenomenon in Tijuana, Mexico, a border setting marked by a large PWID population with limited access to health and social services. Methods: Preventing Injecting by Modifying Existing Responses (PRIMER) is a multi-cohort study assessing socio-structural factors associated with PWID assisting others into initiating IDU. Semi-structured qualitative interviews in Tijuana included participants ≥18 years old, who reported IDU within the month prior to cohort enrollment and ever initiating others into IDU. Purposive sampling ensured a range of drug use experiences and behaviors related to injection initiation assistance. Thematic analysis was used to develop recurring and significant data categories. Results: Twenty-one participants were interviewed (8 women, 13 men). Broadly, participants considered public injection to increase curiosity about IDU. Many considered transitioning into IDU as inevitable. Emergent themes included providing assistance to mitigate overdose risk and to protect initiates from being taken advantage of by others. Participants described reluctance in engaging in this process. For some, access to resources (e.g., shared drugs or a monetary fee) was a motivator to initiate others. Conclusion: In Tijuana, public injection and a lack of harm reduction services are perceived to fuel the incidence of IDU initiation and to incentivize PWID to assist in injection initiation. IDU prevention efforts should address structural factors driving PWID participation in IDU initiation while including PWID in their development and implementation.

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