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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 19(12): 2750-2759, 2024 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595292

RESUMEN

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202412000-00030/figure1/v/2024-04-08T165401Z/r/image-tiff Memory loss and dementia are major public health concerns with a substantial economic burden. Oxidative stress has been shown to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of hippocampal damage-induced memory impairment. To investigate whether the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound vanillylacetone (zingerone) can protect against hippocampal damage and memory loss induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) administration in rats, we explored the potential involvement of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, which is known to modulate oxidative stress and inflammation. Sixty healthy male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: vehicle-treated (control), vanillylacetone, CdCl2, vanillylacetone + CdCl2, vanillylacetone + CdCl2 + brusatol (a selective pharmacological Nrf2 inhibitor) groups. Vanillylacetone effectively attenuated CdCl2-induced damage in the dental gyrus of the hippocampus and improved the memory function assessed by the Morris Water Maze test. Additionally, vanillylacetone markedly decreased the hippocampal tissue levels of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, intracellular cell adhesive molecules) and apoptosis biomarkers (Bax and cleaved caspase-3). The control and CdCl2-treated groups treated with vanillylacetone showed reduced generation of reactive oxygen species, decreased malondialdehyde levels, and increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities, along with significant elevation of nuclear Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression in hippocampal tissue. All the protective effects of vanillylacetone were substantially blocked by the co-administration of brusatol (a selective Nrf2 inhibitor). Vanillylacetone mitigated hippocampal damage and memory loss induced by CdCl2, at least in part, by activating the nuclear transcription factor Nrf2. Additionally, vanillylacetone exerted its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.


Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/efectos de los fármacos , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Acacia/química , Superóxido Dismutasa , Hemoglobina Glucada/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Expresión Génica , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , Estrés Oxidativo , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Quimioterapia Combinada , Control Glucémico , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Malondialdehído
3.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 45(8): 6449-6465, 2023 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37623226

RESUMEN

The first-generation antihistamine chlorpheniramine (CPA) is believed to have both anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. The current study sought to assess the mechanisms behind the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of CPA therapy concerning oxidative stress, inflammation, and nuclear factor p45 for erythroid 2-Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Nrf2-BDNF) signaling pathway in forced swimming-induced depressive-like behavior and anxiety. Eighteen male Wistar rats (180-200 gm) rats were separated into three groups (n = 6): a stressed group (acute stress) that underwent the forced swimming test (FST) and a stressed group that received pretreatment with CPA (10 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks (CPA + acute stress). Animals were subsequently put through the following behavioral tests after undergoing a forced swim test (FST) for 5 min: an immobility test, open field test, and elevated plus maze test. Serum cortisol levels were measured when the rats were euthanized at the end of the experiments. Brain neurotransmitters (cortisol, serotonin, and noradrenaline), oxidative stress (SOD and MDA), inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-1) biomarkers, and the Nrf2-BDNF signaling pathway in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex tissues was determined. CPA prevented stress-induced increases in cortisol levels (p < 0.0001), decreased brain neurotransmitters, and increased oxidative stress and inflammation. CPA also upregulated the Nrf2-BDNF signaling pathway. Thus, CPA mitigates depressive-like behavior and anxiety by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation and upregulating the Nrf2-BDNF signaling pathway in the brain tissues.

4.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 356(7): e2300137, 2023 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37147779

RESUMEN

Novel thiazolidine-2,4-diones have been developed and estimated as conjoint inhibitors of EGFRT790M and VEGFR-2 against HCT-116, MCF-7, A549, and HepG2 cells. Compounds 6a, 6b, and 6c were known to be the dominant advantageous congeners against HCT116 (IC50 = 15.22, 8.65, and 8.80 µM), A549 (IC50 = 7.10, 6.55, and 8.11 µM), MCF-7 (IC50 = 14.56, 6.65, and 7.09 µM) and HepG2 (IC50 = 11.90, 5.35, and 5.60 µM) mass cell lines, correspondingly. Although compounds 6a, 6b, and 6c disclosed poorer effects than sorafenib (IC50 = 4.00, 4.04, 5.58, and 5.05 µM) against the tested cell sets, congeners 6b and 6c demonstrated higher actions than erlotinib (IC50 = 7.73, 5.49, 8.20, and 13.91 µM) against HCT116, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, yet lesser performance on A549 cells. The hugely effective derivatives 4e-i and 6a-c were inspected versus VERO normal cell strains. Compounds 6b, 6c, 6a, and 4i were found to be the most effective derivatives, which suppressed VEGFR-2 by IC50 = 0.85, 0.90, 1.50, and 1.80 µM, respectively. Moreover, compounds 6b, 6a, 6c, and 6i could interfere with the EGFRT790M performing strongest effects with IC50 = 0.30, 0.35, 0.50, and 1.00 µM, respectively. What is more, 6a, 6b, and 6c represented satisfactory in silico computed ADMET profile.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Línea Celular Tumoral , Tiazolidinas/farmacología , Receptor 2 de Factores de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacología , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Mutación , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Proliferación Celular , Estructura Molecular
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2)abr. 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448470

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that affects the synovial knee joint causes swelling of the synovial membrane and tissue damage. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The link between IL-17A, GSK3β, the oxidative stress, and the profibrogenic marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) with and without TDZD-8, GSK3β inhibitor has not been studied before. Consequently, active immunization of rats was performed to induce RA after three weeks using collagen type II (COII) injections. The treated group received daily injection of 1 mg/kg TDZD-8 for 21 days following the immunization protocol (COII+TDZD-8). Blood and synovium tissue samples were harvested at the end of the experiment. RA development was confirmed as corroborated by a substantial increase in blood levels of the highly specific autoantibody for RA, anti-citrullinated protein antibody as well as augmentation of reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels measured as lipid peroxidation. RA induction also increased synovium tissue levels of IL-17A and the profibrogenic marker, α-SMA. All these parameters seemed to be significantly (p<0.0001) ameliorated by TDZD-8. Additionally, a significant correlation between IL-17A, ROS, and α-SMA and biomarkers of RA was observed. Thus, knee joint synovium RA induction augmented IL-17A/GSK3β/ROS/α-SMA axis mediated arthritis in a rat model of RA, which was inhibited by TDZD-8.


La artritis reumatoide (AR) que afecta la articulación sinovial de la rodilla provoca inflamación de la membrana sinovial y daño tisular. La interleucina-17A (IL-17A) y la enzima glucógeno sintasa quinasa-3β (GSK3β) están involucradas en la patogenia de la AR. No se ha estudiadol vínculo entre IL-17A, GSK3β, el estrés oxidativo y el marcador profibrogénico actina de músculo liso alfa (α-SMA) con y sin inhibidor de TDZD-8, GSK3β. En consecuencia, se realizó una inmunización activa de ratas para inducir la AR después de tres semanas usando inyecciones de colágeno tipo II (COII). El grupo tratado recibió una inyección diaria de 1 µg/ kg de TDZD-8 durante 21 días siguiendo el protocolo de inmunización (COII+TDZD-8). Se recogieron muestras de sangre y tejido sinovial al final del experimento. El desarrollo de AR se confirmó como lo corroboró el aumento sustancial en los niveles sanguíneos del autoanticuerpo altamente específico para AR, el anticuerpo antiproteína citrulinada, así como el aumento de los niveles de especies oxidativas reactivas (ROS) medidos como peroxidación lipídica. La inducción de AR también aumentó los niveles de tejido sinovial de IL-17A y el marcador profibrogénico, α-SMA. Todos estos parámetros parecían mejorar significativamente (p<0,0001) con TDZD-8. Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre IL- 17A, ROS y α-SMA y biomarcadores de AR. Por lo tanto, la inducción de AR en la sinovial de la articulación de la rodilla aumentó la artritis mediada por el eje IL-17A/GSK3β/ROS/α-SMA en un modelo de rata de AR, que fue inhibida por TDZD-8.

6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 583-590, abr. 2023. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440339

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that affects the synovial knee joint causes swelling of the synovial membrane and tissue damage. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The link between IL-17A, GSK3β, the oxidative stress, and the profibrogenic marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) with and without TDZD-8, GSK3β inhibitor has not been studied before. Consequently, active immunization of rats was performed to induce RA after three weeks using collagen type II (COII) injections. The treated group received daily injection of 1 mg/kg TDZD-8 for 21 days following the immunization protocol (COII+TDZD-8). Blood and synovium tissue samples were harvested at the end of the experiment. RA development was confirmed as corroborated by a substantial increase in blood levels of the highly specific autoantibody for RA, anti-citrullinated protein antibody as well as augmentation of reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels measured as lipid peroxidation. RA induction also increased synovium tissue levels of IL-17A and the profibrogenic marker, α-SMA. All these parameters seemed to be significantly (p<0.0001) ameliorated by TDZD-8. Additionally, a significant correlation between IL-17A, ROS, and α-SMA and biomarkers of RA was observed. Thus, knee joint synovium RA induction augmented IL-17A/GSK3β/ROS/α-SMA axis mediated arthritis in a rat model of RA, which was inhibited by TDZD-8.


La artritis reumatoide (AR) que afecta la articulación sinovial de la rodilla provoca inflamación de la membrana sinovial y daño tisular. La interleucina-17A (IL-17A) y la enzima glucógeno sintasa quinasa-3β (GSK3β) están involucradas en la patogenia de la AR. No se ha estudiadol vínculo entre IL-17A, GSK3β, el estrés oxidativo y el marcador profibrogénico actina de músculo liso alfa (α-SMA) con y sin inhibidor de TDZD-8, GSK3β. En consecuencia, se realizó una inmunización activa de ratas para inducir la AR después de tres semanas usando inyecciones de colágeno tipo II (COII). El grupo tratado recibió una inyección diaria de 1 µg/ kg de TDZD-8 durante 21 días siguiendo el protocolo de inmunización (COII+TDZD-8). Se recogieron muestras de sangre y tejido sinovial al final del experimento. El desarrollo de AR se confirmó como lo corroboró el aumento sustancial en los niveles sanguíneos del autoanticuerpo altamente específico para AR, el anticuerpo antiproteína citrulinada, así como el aumento de los niveles de especies oxidativas reactivas (ROS) medidos como peroxidación lipídica. La inducción de AR también aumentó los niveles de tejido sinovial de IL-17A y el marcador profibrogénico, α-SMA. Todos estos parámetros parecían mejorar significativamente (p<0,0001) con TDZD-8. Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre IL- 17A, ROS y α-SMA y biomarcadores de AR. Por lo tanto, la inducción de AR en la sinovial de la articulación de la rodilla aumentó la artritis mediada por el eje IL-17A/GSK3β/ROS/α-SMA en un modelo de rata de AR, que fue inhibida por TDZD-8.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Artritis Reumatoide , Tiadiazoles/administración & dosificación , Fibrosis , Inmunohistoquímica , Western Blotting , Actinas , Inmunización , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Ratas Wistar , Interleucina-17 , Colágeno Tipo II/administración & dosificación , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Glucógeno Sintasa Quinasa 3 beta
7.
Biomedicines ; 11(2)2023 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36830898

RESUMEN

Lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) is a major risk factor for amputation in diabetic patients. The advanced glycation end products (AGEs)/endothelin-1 (ET-1)/nitric oxide synthase (NOS) axis-mediated femoral artery injury with and without metformin has not been previously investigated. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was established in rats, with another group of rats treated for two weeks with 200 mg/kg metformin, before being induced with T2DM. The latter cohort were continued on metformin until they were sacrificed at week 12. Femoral artery injury was established in the diabetic group as demonstrated by substantial alterations to the femoral artery ultrastructure, which importantly were ameliorated by metformin. In addition, diabetes caused a significant (p < 0.0001) upregulation of vascular tissue levels of AGEs, ET-1, and iNOS, as well as high blood levels of glycated haemoglobin, TNF-α, and dyslipidemia. All of these parameters were also significantly inhibited by metformin. Moreover, metformin treatment augmented arterial eNOS expression which had been inhibited by diabetes progression. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between femoral artery endothelial tissue damage and glycemia, AGEs, ET-1, TNF-α, and dyslipidemia. Thus, in a rat model of T2DM-induced LEAD, an association between femoral artery tissue damage and the AGEs/ET-1/inflammation/NOS/dyslipidemia axis was demonstrated, with metformin treatment demonstrating beneficial vascular protective effects.

8.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 79-84, feb. 2023. ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430536

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Paracetamol (known as acetaminophen, or APAP) poisoning causes acute liver damage that can lead to organ failure and death. We sought to determine that APAP overdose can augment tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/ nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)/induced nitic oxide synthase (iNOS) axis-mediated hepatotoxicity in rats, and the anti-inflammatory polyphenolic compounds, quercetin (QUR) plus resveratrol (RES) can ameliorate these parameters. Therefore, we induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats using APAP overdose (2 g/kg, orally) and the protective group of rats were treated with 50 mg/kg QUR plus 30 mg/kg RES for one week before APAP ingestion. Animals were killed at day 8. APAP poisoning caused the induction of hepatic tissue levels of TNF-α, NF-kB, and iNOS, which were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by QUR+RES. QUR+RES, also inhibited liver injury biomarkers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Additionally, a link between liver injury and TNF-α /NF-kB / iNOS axis mediated hepatotoxicity was observed. Thus, the presented data backing the conclusion that intoxication by paracetamol increases TNF-α / NF-kB / iNOS axis -mediated hepatotoxicity, and is protected by a combination of quercetin and resveratrol.


El envenenamiento por paracetamol (conocido como acetaminofeno o APAP) causa daño hepático agudo que puede provocar una insuficiencia orgánica y la muerte. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si la sobredosis de APAP puede aumentar la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α)/factor nuclear kappa B (NF-kB)/óxido nítico sintasa inducida (iNOS) en ratas, y si el polifenólico antiinflamatorio compuesto por quercetina (QUR) más resveratrol (RES) pueden mejorar estos parámetros. Por lo tanto, inducimos hepatotoxicidad aguda en ratas usando una sobredosis de APAP (2 g/kg, por vía oral). El grupo protector de ratas se trató con 50 mg/ kg de QUR más 30 mg/kg de RES durante una semana antes de la ingestión de APAP. Los animales se sacrificaron el día 8. El envenenamiento con APAP en el tejido hepático provocó la inducción de niveles de TNF-α, NF-kB e iNOS, que se redujeron significativamente (p<0,05) con QUR+RES. QUR+RES, también inhibió los biomarcadores de daño hepático, la alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y el aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Además, se observó una relación entre la lesión hepática y la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje TNF-α /NF-kB/iNOS. Por lo tanto, los datos presentados respaldan la conclusión de que la intoxicación por paracetamol aumenta la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje TNF-α /NF-kB / iNOS, y está protegida por una combinación de quercetina y resveratrol.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Quercetina/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad Hepática Crónica Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/tratamiento farmacológico , Resveratrol/administración & dosificación , Acetaminofén/toxicidad , Enfermedad Aguda , FN-kappa B/antagonistas & inhibidores , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Sustancias Protectoras , Quimioterapia Combinada , Sobredosis de Droga
9.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 129(3): 734-740, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439743

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The link between oxidative stress (ROS), apoptosis (p53) and fibrosis (collagen) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced cardiac injury in the presence and absence of the antidiabetic drug, metformin has not been investigated before. MATERIAL AND METHODS: T2DM was induced in rats by a combination of high carbohydrate and fat diets (HCFD) and streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) injection. The protection group started metformin (200 mg/kg) treatment 14 days prior to the induction of diabetes and continued on metformin and HCFD until being sacrificed at week 12. RESULTS: Diabetes significantly induced blood levels of ROS and left ventricular p53 and collagen expression that was inhibited by metformin. Metformin also significantly reduced glycated haemoglobin and dyslipidemia induced by diabetes. In addition, a significant correlation between ROS-p53-collagen axis and glycaemia and hyperlipidaemia was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that metformin provides substantial protection against diabetic cardiomyopathy-induced ROS-p53 mediated fibrosis and dyslipidemia.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Metformina , Ratas , Animales , Metformina/efectos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Proteína p53 Supresora de Tumor/metabolismo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis , Estrés Oxidativo , Dislipidemias/tratamiento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/etiología , Colágeno/metabolismo
10.
Br J Biomed Sci ; 79: 10150, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996511

RESUMEN

Context: Intermittent short-duration re-oxygenation attenuates cardiac changes in response to hypoxia. Objective: To see if intermittent short-duration re-oxygenation may protect the heart muscle from hypoxia damage. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino rats were used to carry out the study. Rats divided into: (normoxia); rats exposed to room air as a control, second (hypoxic) group; rats subjected to a pressure of 405 mmHg in a hypobaric chamber to simulate hypoxia at 5,000 m, and third (intermittent short-duration re-oxygenation); rats exposed to room air three times per day. Experiments were all 14 days long. Results: Hypoxia enhanced the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde while lowering the antioxidant superoxide dismutase . The levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the myocardium were elevated in hypoxic hearts. The hypoxic rats' cardiac myofibrils showed disarray of muscle fibres, vacuolation of the sarcoplasm, pyknosis of the nucleus, and expansion of intercellular gaps on histological examination. In addition, cardiomyocytes showed degenerative defects in ventricular myocardial cells on ultrastructural analysis. Myofibril thinning and degenerative mitochondrial changes affected intercalated discs with fascia adherent, desmosomes, and gap junction. Intermittent short-duration re-oxygenation improve cardiac histological, ultrastructural and oxidant/antioxidant parameters changes during hypoxia. Conclusion: Hypoxia showed a substantial impact on myocardial architecture, as well as increased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Intermittent short-duration re-oxygenation significantly decreases hypoxia-induced cardiac changes.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Oxidantes , Ratas , Corazón/fisiología , Hipoxia/patología , Miocardio/patología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa , Animales
11.
Biomedicines ; 10(7)2022 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35884947

RESUMEN

Diabetes is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease, also called kidney failure. The link between the renal artery receptor angiotensin II type I (AT1R) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), involved in vasoconstriction, oxidative stress, inflammation and kidney fibrosis (collagen) in diabetes-induced nephropathy with and without metformin incorporation has not been previously studied. Diabetes (type 2) was induced in rats and another group started metformin (200 mg/kg) treatment 2 weeks prior to the induction of diabetes and continued on metformin until being culled at week 12. Diabetes significantly (p < 0.0001) modulated renal artery tissue levels of AT1R, ET-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and the advanced glycation end products that were protected by metformin. In addition, diabetes-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension, ketonuria, mesangial matrix expansion, and kidney collagen were significantly reduced by metformin. A significant correlation between the AT1R/ET-1/iNOS axis, inflammation, fibrosis and glycemia was observed. Thus, diabetes is associated with the augmentation of the renal artery AT1R/ET-1/iNOS axis as well as renal injury and hypertension while being protected by metformin.

12.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35885665

RESUMEN

Liver fibrosis is a hallmark of thioacetamide (TAA) intoxications. MicroRNAs (miRs), such as miR-155, have been implied in the pathogenesis of liver disease, and regulated by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol (RES). The link between reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumour suppressor p53 (p53), and liver fibrosis-during the pathogenesis of TAA-induced liver injury-associated with miR-155 dysregulation with and without RES incorporation has not been previously studied. Therefore, one group of rats received TAA injections of 200 mg/kg; twice a week at the beginning of week 3 for 8 weeks (TAA group; or model group), whereas the protective group was pretreated daily with RES suspension (20 mg/kg; orally) for the first two weeks and subsequently sustained on receiving both RES and TAA until being sacrificed at the 10th week. Liver injuries developed in the model group were confirmed by a significant (p < 0.0001) elevation of hepatic tissue levels of miR-155, ROS, p53, and the profibrogenic biomarkers: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and α-smooth muscle actin, as well as collagen deposition (fibrosis). All these parameters were significantly (p ≤ 0.0234) protected by resveratrol (RES + TAA). In addition, we observed a significant (p < 0.0001) correlation between ROS/p53 axis mediated liver fibrosis and miR-155. Thus, TAA intoxication induced miR-155 imbalance and ROS/p53-mediated liver fibrosis, with resveratrol, conversely displaying beneficial hepatic pleiotropic effects for a period of 10 weeks.

13.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 44(5): 2387-2400, 2022 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678692

RESUMEN

In severe cases of sepsis, endotoxin-induced cardiomyopathy can cause major damage to the heart. This study was designed to see if Vitamin C (Vit C) could prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced heart damage. Eighteen Sprague Dawley male rats (n = 6) were divided into three groups. Rats received 0.5 mL saline by oral gavage in addition to a standard diet (Control group), rats received one dose of endotoxin on day 15 (lipopolysaccharide) (LPS) (6 mg/kg), which produced endotoxemia (Endotoxin group), and rats that received 500 mg/Kg BW of Vit C by oral gavage for 15 days before LPS administration (Endotoxin plus Vit C group). In all groups, blood and tissue samples were collected on day 15, six hours after LPS administration, for histopathological and biochemical analysis. The LPS injection lowered superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and increased malondialdehyde in tissues compared with a control group. Furthermore, the endotoxin group showed elevated inflammatory biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Both light and electron microscopy showed that the endotoxic-treated group's cardiomyocytes, intercalated disks, mitochondria, and endothelial cells were damaged. In endotoxemic rats, Vit C pretreatment significantly reduced MDA levels and restored SOD activity, minimized biomarkers of inflammation, and mitigated cardiomyocyte damage. In conclusion: Vit C protects against endotoxin-induced cardiomyopathy by inhibiting oxidative stress cytokines.

14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 4094132, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757481

RESUMEN

The core objectives of the research were to prepare 5-fluorouracil nanoemulsion (FU-NE) and to evaluate the physiochemical properties and to study the in vitro antiproliferation in HepG2 cell lines. The physiochemical parameters determined were compatibility, particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), density, surface tension (ST), pH, viscosity, in vitro release of FU, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis study. The prepared FU-NE3 was stable, sterile, and homogeneous. On the HepG2 (120 µg.mL-1) cells, in vitro cytotoxicity was obtained at IC50 concentration. Apoptosis examination by AO/EBand Hoechst staining shows that the majority of cell demise was caused by apoptosis, with a tiny fraction of necrosis. Hence, this investigation concluded that the developed FU-NE has now desirable characteristics for drug delivery to the cancer cell and may be screened for the in vivo colorectal anticancer activity.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Nanopartículas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Línea Celular Tumoral , Fluorouracilo/farmacología , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Tamaño de la Partícula
15.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 395(9): 1087-1095, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729229

RESUMEN

Chronic liver injury can lead to hepatic failure and the only available method of treatment would be liver transplantation. The link between inflammation (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), nitrosative stress (iNOS) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver fibrosis, and hypertension with and without the incorporation of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant resveratrol (RES) has not been investigated before. Consequently, we injected rats with either 200 mg/kg TAA for 8 weeks starting at week 2 (model group) or pretreated them before TAA injections with RES (20 mg/kg) for 2 weeks and continued them on RES and TAA until being culled at week 10 (protective group). In the model group, we documented the induction of hepatic fibrosis and upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NF-kB, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), HIF-1α and the profibrotic biomarkers alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) that was significantly (p ≤ 0.0014) ameliorated by RES. RES also significantly (p ≤ 0.0232) reduced triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), very low-density lipoprotein (vLDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure, and heart rate (HR) induction by TAA. Also, a significant (p < 0.0001) positive correlation between TNF-α/NF-kB/iNOS/HIF-1α axis-mediated fibrosis and hypertension and liver injury biomarkers was observed. These findings suggest that in the hepatotoxic compound, TAA is associated with TNF-α/NF-kB/iNOS/HIF-1α-mediated fibrosis and hypertension, whilst being inhibited by RES.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática Crónica Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas , Hipertensión , Animales , Biomarcadores , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia , Hígado , Cirrosis Hepática , FN-kappa B , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II , Ratas , Resveratrol , Tioacetamida , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 697-705, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385688

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: An association between certain food additives and chronic diseases is reported. Current study determined whether administering toxic doses of the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) into rats can induce aortopathy in association with the oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers upregulation and whether the effects of MSG overdose can be inhibited by vitamin E. MSG at a dose of (4 mg/kg; orally) that exceeds the average human daily consumption by 1000x was administered daily for 7 days to the rats in the model group. Whereas, rats treated with vitamin E were divided into two groups and given daily doses of MSG plus 100 mg/ kg vitamin E or MSG plus 300 mg/kg vitamin E. On the eighth day, all rats were culled. Using light and electron microscopy examinations, a profound aortic injury in the model group was observed demonstrated by damaged endothelial layer, degenerated smooth muscle cells (SMC) with vacuoles and condensed nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm, disrupted plasma membrane, interrupted internal elastic lamina, clumped chromatin, and damaged actin and myosin filaments. Vitamin E significantly protected aorta tissue and cells as well as inhibited MSG-induced tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The highest used vitamin E dosage was more effective. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between the aortic injury degree and tissue MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels (p=0.001). Vitamin E effectively protects against aortopathy induced by toxic doses of MSG in rats and inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation.


RESUMEN: Se reporta una asociación entre ciertos aditivos alimentarios y enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración de dosis tóxicas del aditivo alimentario glutamato monosódico (MSG) en ratas puede inducir aortopatía en asociación con el estrés oxidativo y la regulación positiva de los biomarcadores inflamatorios y si el efecto de una sobredosis de MSG se puede inhibir con vitamina E. Se administró MSG diariamente durante 7 días una dosis de (4 g/kg; por vía oral) que excede el consumo diario humano promedio, en 1000x a las ratas del grupo modelo. Mientras que las ratas tratadas con vitamina E se dividieron en dos grupos y se administraron dosis diarias de MSG más 100 mg/kg de vitamina E o MSG más 300 mg/kg de vitamina E. Todas las ratas fueron sacrificadas en el octavo día. Usando exámenes de microscopía óptica y electrónica, se observó una lesión aórtica profunda en el grupo modelo demostrada por una capa endotelial dañada, células musculares lisas degeneradas (SMC) con vacuolas y núcleos condensados, citoplasma vacuolado, membrana plasmática rota, lámina elástica interna interrumpida, cromatina agrupada y filamentos de actina y miosina dañados. La vitamina E protegió significativamente el tejido y las células de la aorta, además de inhibir el malondialdehído tisular (MDA) inducido por MSG, la interleucina-6 (IL-6) y el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α). La dosis más alta de vitamina E utilizada fue más efectiva. Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre el grado de lesión aórtica y los niveles tisulares de MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 y superóxido dismutasa (SOD) (p=0,001). La vitamina E efectivamente protege contra la aortopatía inducida por dosis tóxicas de MSG en ratas e inhibe el estrés oxidativo y la inflamación.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Aorta/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de la Aorta/inducido químicamente , Glutamato de Sodio/toxicidad , Vitamina E/farmacología , Aorta/patología , Glutamato de Sodio/administración & dosificación , Vitamina E/administración & dosificación , Microscopía Electrónica , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inhibidores , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Malondialdehído/antagonistas & inhibidores
17.
Biomedicines ; 10(5)2022 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35625721

RESUMEN

The intermediate filament protein desmin is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of sarcomeres, the fundamental unit of cardiac muscle. Diabetes mellitus (DM) can cause desmin to become dysregulated, following episodes of nitrosative stress, through the activation of the iNOS/mTOR/TIMP-1 pathway, thereby stimulating collagen deposition in the myocardium. In this study, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was induced in rats. One group of animals was pre-treated with metformin (200 mg/kg) prior to diabetes induction and subsequently kept on metformin until sacrifice at week 12. Cardiac injuries developed in the diabetic rats as demonstrated by a significant (p < 0.0001) inhibition of desmin immunostaining, profound sarcomere ultrastructural alterations, substantial damage to the left ventricular tissue, collagen deposition, and abnormal ECG recordings. DM also significantly induced the cardiac expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the profibrogenic biomarker tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). The expression of all these markers was significantly inhibited by metformin. In addition, a significant (p < 0.0001) correlation between desmin tissue levels/sarcomere damage and glycated hemoglobin, heart rate, iNOS, mTOR, and fibrosis was observed. These findings demonstrate an association between damage of the cardiac contractile unit­desmin and sarcomere­and the iNOS/mTOR/TIMP-1/collagen axis of fibrosis in T2DM-induced cardiomyopathy, with metformin exhibiting beneficial cardiovascular pleiotropic effects.

18.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): .84-90, feb. 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385595

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes cartilage degradation and tissue destruction, can affect synovial joints such as the knee joint. The link between the nitrosative stress enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1β) in RA-induced knee joint synovial membrane damage with and without the incorporation of the GSK3β inhibitor TDZD-8 has never been studied. As a result, we used active immunization method with collagen type II (COII) for twenty one days to induce RA in rats. TDZD-8 (1 mg/kg; i.p.) was given daily into matched immunized rats for three weeks after day 21 (COII+TDZD-8). Blood and tissue samples were taken 42 days after immunization. A dramatic increase in rheumatoid factor (RF) blood levels, as well as considerable synovial tissue damage and inflammatory cell infiltration of the synovial membrane, were used to validate the onset of RA following COII immunization. COII immunization increased tissue levels of iNOS protein and IL- 1β mRNA and protein expression, which TDZD-8 suppressed considerably (p<0.0001). Furthermore, there was a significantly (p<0.001) positive correlation between iNOS, inflammatory biomarkers, and RF. We concluded that TDZD-8 reduced RA-induced IL-1β -iNOS axis-mediated arthritis in the rat knee joint synovium.


RESUMEN: La artritis reumatoide (AR), es una enfermedad autoinmune inflamatoria que causa la degradación del cartílago y la destrucción del tejido, pudiendo afectar las articulaciones sinoviales, como la articulación de la rodilla. No se ha estudiado el vínculo entre la óxido nítrico sintasa inducible por la enzima del estrés nitrosativo (iNOS) y la citocina interleucina-1 (IL-1β) en el daño de la membrana sinovial de la articulación de la rodilla provocado por AR con y sin la incorporación del inhibidor de GSK3β TDZD-8. Utilizamos el método de inmunización activa con colágeno tipo II (COII) durante veintiún días para inducir AR en ratas. Se administró TDZD-8 (1 mg/kg; i.p.) diariamente a ratas inmunizadas emparejadas durante tres semanas después del día 21 (COII+TDZD- 8). Se tomaron muestras de sangre y tejido 42 días después de la inmunización. Se observó un gran aumento de los niveles sanguíneos del factor reumatoideo (FR), así como un daño considerable del tejido sinovial e infiltración de células inflamatorias en la membrana sinovial, para validar la aparición de la AR después de la inmunización con COII. La inmunización con COII aumentó los niveles tisulares de la proteína iNOS y la expresión de proteína y ARNm de IL-1β, que TDZD-8 suprimió considerablemente (p<0,0001). Además, hubo una correlación positiva significativa (p<0,001) entre iNOS, biomarcadores inflamatorios y FR. Concluimos que TDZD- 8 redujo la artritis mediada por el eje IL-1β-iNOS inducida por la AR en la sinovial de la articulación de la rodilla de rata.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Artritis Reumatoide/inmunología , Tiadiazoles/administración & dosificación , Glucógeno Sintasa Quinasa 3 beta/antagonistas & inhibidores , Artritis Reumatoide/inducido químicamente , Inmunohistoquímica , Ratas Wistar , Colágeno Tipo II/administración & dosificación , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Interleucina-1beta , Glucógeno Sintasa Quinasa 3 beta/administración & dosificación , Estrés Nitrosativo/efectos de los fármacos , Inflamación
19.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 128(5): 1375-1382, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497450

RESUMEN

Background: We investigated whether the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, resveratrol can inhibit type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in rats and whether it is associated with the suppression of glycaemia, dyslipidemia and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers.Materials and methods: T2DM was induced by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight) and high carbohydrate and fat diet (HCFD). The protective group was put on resveratrol (30 mg/kg) 14 days prior to the induction of diabetes and continued on resveratrol and HCFD until being sacrificed at week 12.Results: Diabetic rats showed a substantial damage to the knee joints and loss of proteoglycans from the articular cartilage, which were effectively but not completly protected by resveratrol. Resveratrol also significantly (p ≤ .0029) reduced diabetic up-regulation of HbA1c, hyperlipidaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress.Conclusions: Resveratrol protects against T2DM-induced OA associated with the inhibition of glycated haemoglobin, dyslipidemia, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperlipidemias , Osteoartritis , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/efectos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/inducido químicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Hemoglobina Glucada , Hiperlipidemias/complicaciones , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Articulación de la Rodilla/metabolismo , Osteoartritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Osteoartritis/etiología , Estrés Oxidativo , Proteoglicanos/efectos adversos , Ratas , Resveratrol/farmacología , Resveratrol/uso terapéutico , Estreptozocina
20.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 128(3): 679-687, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994915

RESUMEN

MicroRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their syntheses are modulated by glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß). Therefore, we hypothesised that the GSK-3ß inhibitor, TDZD-8 can protect against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) via downregulating miR155 and miR-24 expression. Rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 6) as follows: Control, Control + TDZD-8 (1 mg/kg), CIA, and CIA + TDZD-8. Rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks. We observed in the model group (CIA) significant (p<.05) increase in arthritis score and serum levels of RA biomarkers, which were significantly (p < .05) inhibited by TDZD-8. TDZD-8 also significantly (p<.05) inhibited CIA-induced synovial tissue levels of miR155, miR-24, and inflammation. In addition, a significant (p<.05) modulation of biomarkers of survival (Bcl-2) and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) by TDZD-8 was observed. Thus, TDZD-8 protects against CIA in rats for a period of 6 weeks, which is associated with the inhibition of miR155/24 and inflammation, and apoptosis augmentation.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Experimental , Artritis Reumatoide , MicroARNs , Tiadiazoles/farmacología , Animales , Apoptosis , Artritis Experimental/genética , Artritis Experimental/prevención & control , Biomarcadores , Colágeno Tipo II , Glucógeno Sintasa Quinasa 3 beta/antagonistas & inhibidores , Glucógeno Sintasa Quinasa 3 beta/genética , Inflamación , MicroARNs/genética , Ratas , Regulación hacia Arriba
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