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1.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269355

RESUMEN

Objective: Patients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid COVID-19, but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterised 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalisation with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. Design: Multinational network cohort study. Setting: Electronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) (NYC, United States [US]), Optum [US], Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (US), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalisation Linked Data (SIDIAP-H) (Spain), and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (US) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (HIRA) (South Korea). Participants: All patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalised between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalised with influenza in 2017-2018 were included. Main outcome measures: 30-day complications during hospitalisation and death. Results: We studied 133,589 patients diagnosed and 48,418 hospitalised with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. The majority of participants were female (60.5% to 65.9%) and aged ≥50 years. The most prevalent autoimmune conditions were psoriasis (3.5 to 32.5%), rheumatoid arthritis (3.9 to 18.9%), and vasculitis (3.3 to 17.6%). Amongst hospitalised patients, Type 1 diabetes was the most common autoimmune condition (4.8% to 7.5%) in US databases, rheumatoid arthritis in HIRA (18.9%), and psoriasis in SIDIAP-H (26.4%).Compared to 70,660 hospitalised with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2% to 4.3% versus 6.3% to 24.6%). Conclusions: Patients with autoimmune diseases had high rates of respiratory complications and 30-day mortality following a hospitalization with COVID-19. Compared to influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality. Future studies should investigate predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with autoimmune diseases. What is already known about this topic: Patients with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19 infection andcomplications.There is a paucity of evidence characterising the outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients with prevalent autoimmune conditions. What this study adds: Most people with autoimmune diseases who required hospitalisation for COVID-19 were women, aged 50 years or older, and had substantial previous comorbidities.Patients who were hospitalised with COVID-19 and had prevalent autoimmune diseases had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes as compared to those with prevalent autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with COVID-19.A variable proportion of 6% to 25% across data sources died within one month of hospitalisation with COVID-19 and prevalent autoimmune diseases.For people with autoimmune diseases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was associated with worse outcomes and 30-day mortality compared to admission with influenza in the 2017-2018 season.

2.
Value Health ; 23(11): 1409-1422, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127010

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review published economic evaluations of antiviral treatment for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to identify economic evaluations of antiviral treatment for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We searched Medline (EBSCOhost), EMBASE (Ovid), EconLit (Ovid), National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (Ovid), and Health Technology Assessment (Ovid). The search was last rerun on July 5, 2020. Citation tracking and reference checking were used. Only full economic evaluations published as peer-reviewed articles in the last 10 years were included. Studies were quality assessed using the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence economic evaluation checklist. RESULTS: Overall, 782 records were identified, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies were mostly conducted in high-income countries. All were model-based. Seven (50%) were cost-utility analyses, 4 (28.6%) were cost-effectiveness analyses, 2 (14.3%) were cost-consequences analyses, and 1 (7.1%) was a cost-benefit analysis. Strategies including antiviral treatment were found to be either cost-saving or cost-effective, at the study-specific willingness-to-pay thresholds. Empirical treatment was more cost-effective than test-guided treatment for young adults but less so for older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral treatment for managing pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses that have very high case fatality rate, similar to COVID-19 pandemic, are likely to be cost-effective either as a standalone intervention or part of a multifaceted strategy. Investing in the development of such curative treatments and promptly evaluating their cost-effectiveness, relative to other strategies in use at the time of their introduction should be the focus going forward to inform resource allocation decisions particularly in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Brotes de Enfermedades , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica
3.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792322

RESUMEN

Countries around the globe have responded to pandemic preparedness and developed strategies to cope with the COVID-19 crisis. In this context, the role of healthcare professionals is of paramount importance. Pharmacists are playing a vital role in dealing, preparedness, prevention, protection, promoting access to medicines and to improve health outcomes during this crisis. In this context, "Drive-thru" pharmacy services improve access to medicines while ensuring the preventive measures suggested by the World Health Organization. This commentary provides an overview of opportunities and challenges related to the implementation of "drive-thru pharmacy services" and their role in improving public health during this crisis.

4.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(6): 1829-1838, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034553

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Oral isotretinoin is commonly prescribed for acne vulgaris. Several case reports and observational studies have reported serious musculoskeletal side effects; however, the incidence, imaging findings, and longitudinal follow-up data are limited for patients who develop inflammatory back pain (IBP). OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of isotretinoin-triggered axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA) in acne vulgaris patients based on clinical features and MRI findings and to examine clinical and radiological outcomes following drug withdrawal. METHODS: Five hundred thirteen acne patients receiving isotretinoin were screened for IBP; IBP patients were assessed for CRP, plain radiographs, and MRI of the sacroiliac joint. MRI-proven sacroiliitis was scored semi-quantitatively. Patients were followed longitudinally to assess SpA clinical course and longitudinal MRI sacroiliac joints, and CRP levels were reassessed 3 weeks after patients were symptom-free, following isotretinoin discontinuation. RESULTS: Of the 513 patients, 23.98% developed IBP. MRI-proven sacroiliitis was detected in 42.3% of the symptomatic patients or 10.1% of the cohort. Among MRI-proven sacroiliitis cases, 51.9% fulfilled the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society criteria for axial SpA. Mean CRP level was 32.05 ± 17.23 mg/L at pain onset and 3.4 ± 2.7 mg/L after symptom resolution. MRI findings completely resolved within 9 months (mean 6.27 ± 1.7) after isotretinoin discontinuation. MRI scores positively correlated with baseline CRP levels and global acne grading system score, pain, and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score. CONCLUSION: Isotretinoin-induced axial SpA is a prevalent side effect in acne vulgaris patients. Early detection and follow-up of isotretinoin-induced sacroiliitis can be facilitated by MRI. Cessation of isotretinoin resulted in complete resolution in all affected patients.Key Points• Detection of underdiagnosed isotretinoin side effects which are common but not always correctly diagnosed and managed.• Incidence, diagnosis, and management of these side effects in a real-world setting.• This is the first large prospective longitudinal cohort study to report on axial manifestations in patients treated with isotretinoin as well as the effect of drug cessation upon the clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings.

5.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 16(12): 1754-1759, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057690

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The SF-6D is a generic, six-dimensional health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measure derived from a selection of items from the SF-36. OBJECTIVES: To translate, culturally adapt and validate the SF-6D for use in Arabic-speaking countries. METHODS: The International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) methodology was followed. Two forward translations, one consensus and one backward translation were undertaken. Difficulties encountered were categorized as grammatical, idiomatic, semantic/conceptual, and cultural. The content validity of the final version was tested and Cronbach's alpha test of internal consistency was used for assessing reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), was also used to assess construct validity and to test a pre-specified relationship of observed measures. RESULTS: Minor changes were made to the forward translation to improve cultural appropriateness. The Backward translation did not reveal major problems and equivalence to the original was confirmed following committee review. A total of 470 participants from Jordan, Egypt, UAE, Qatar and Palestine completed the translated SF-6D. All the incremental indices values are ≥0.90 and close to 1. Item loading values ranged from 0.52 to 0.87. The measurement model weight for those with chronic health conditions ranged from 0.68 to 0.91, and from 0.42 to 0.73 for those without. The percentage of variation in self-reported health state was about 55%. The measurement weight of SF-6D on self-reported health state among chronic responders was 0.87 while among responders reporting no chronic disease was 0.61. The t-value for the difference in measurement weight was -8.93 (p ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSION: Arabic translation and cultural adaptation of SF-6D has resulted in an acceptable and culturally-adapted version that can be used in Arabic-speaking countries. Reliability and validity have been confirmed as well as ability to assess the difference in quality of life between patients with chronic health conditions and healthy individuals.

6.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(10): 1241-1260, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179514

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pharmacists working in community and primary care are increasingly developing advanced skills to provide enhanced services, particularly in dealing with minor acute illness. These services can potentially free-up primary care physicians' time; however, it is not clear whether they are sufficiently cost effective to be recommended for wider provision in the UK. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review published economic evaluations of enhanced pharmacy services in the community and primary care settings. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of economic evaluations of enhanced pharmacy services to inform NICE guidelines for emergency and acute care. The review protocol was developed and agreed with the guideline committee. The National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched in December 2016 and the search was updated in March 2018. Studies were assessed for applicability and methodological quality using the NICE Economic Evaluation Checklist. RESULTS: Of 3124 records, 13 studies published in 14 papers were included. The studies were conducted in the UK, Spain, The Netherlands, Australia, Italy and Canada. Settings included community pharmacies, primary care/general practice surgeries and patients' homes. Most of the studies were assessed as partially applicable with potentially serious limitations. Services provided in community and primary care settings were found to be either dominant or cost effective, at a £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year threshold, compared with usual care. Those delivered in the patient's home were not found to be cost effective. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced pharmacy services appear to be cost effective when delivered in community and primary care settings, but not in domiciliary settings. Expansion in the provision of these services in community and primary care can be recommended for wider implementation.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/economía , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Farmacéuticos/economía , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Atención Primaria de Salud/economía , Rol Profesional , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica
7.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(10): 1212-1222, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389320

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pharmacists play important role in ensuring timely care delivery at the ward level. The optimal level of pharmacist input, however, is not clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence that assessed the outcomes of ward pharmacist input for people admitted with acute or emergent illness. METHODS: The protocol and search strategies were developed with input from clinicians. Medline, EMBASE, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, The Cochrane Library, NHS Economic Evaluations, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economic Evaluations databases were searched. Inclusion criteria specified the population as adults and young people (age >16 years) who are admitted to hospital with suspected or confirmed acute or emergent illness. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English were eligible for inclusion in the effectiveness review. Economic studies were limited to full economic evaluations and comparative cost analysis. Included studies were quality-assessed. Data were extracted, summarised. and meta-analysed, where appropriate. RESULTS: Eighteen RCTs and 7 economic studies were included. The RCTs were from USA (n = 3), Sweden (n = 2), Belgium (n = 2), China (n = 2), Australia (n = 2), Denmark (n = 2), Northern Ireland, Norway, Canada, UK and Netherlands. The economic studies were from UK (n = 2), Sweden (n = 2), Belgium and Netherlands. The results showed that regular pharmacist input was most cost effective. It reduced length-of-stay (mean = -1.74 days [95% CI: 2.76, -0.72], and increased patient and/or carer satisfaction (Relative Risk (RR) = 1.49 [1.09, 2.03] at discharge). At £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)-gained cost-effectiveness threshold, it was either cost-saving or cost-effective (Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) = £632/QALY-gained). No evidence was found for 7-day pharmacist presence. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist inclusion in the ward multidisciplinary team improves patient safety and satisfaction and is cost-effective when regularly provided throughout the ward stay. Research is needed to determine whether the provision of 7-day service is cost-effective.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración , Adolescente , Adulto , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Hospitalización/economía , Humanos , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/economía , Farmacéuticos/economía , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/economía , Rol Profesional , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Adulto Joven
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1370, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564117

RESUMEN

Background: Major orthopedic surgery, such as elective total hip replacement (eTHR) and elective total knee replacement (eTKR), are associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than other surgical procedures. Little is known, however, about the cost-effectiveness of VTE prophylaxis strategies in people undergoing these procedures. Aim: The aim of this work was to assess the cost-effectiveness of these strategies from the English National Health Service perspective to inform NICE guideline (NG89) recommendations. Materials and Methods: Cost-utility analysis, using decision modeling, was undertaken to compare 15 VTE prophylaxis strategies for eTHR and 12 for eTKR, in addition to "no prophylaxis" strategy. The analysis complied with the NICE Reference Case. Structure and assumptions were agreed with the guideline committee. Incremental net monetary benefit (INMB) was calculated, vs. the model comparator (LMWH+ antiembolism stockings), at a threshold of £20,000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. The model was run probabilistically. Deterministic sensitivity analyses (SAs) were undertaken to assess the robustness of the results. Results: The most cost-effective strategies were LMWH for 10 days followed by aspirin for 28 days (INMB = £530 [95% CI: -£784 to £1,103], probability of being most cost-effective = 72%) for eTHR, and foot pump (INMB = £353 [95% CI: -£101 to £665]; probability of being most cost-effective = 18%) for eTKR. There was considerable uncertainty regarding the cost-effectiveness ranking in the eTKR analysis. The results were robust to change in all SAs. Conclusions: For eTHR, LMWH (standard dose) for 10 days followed by aspirin for 28 days is the most cost-effective VTE prophylaxis strategy. For eTKR, the results are highly uncertain but foot pump appeared to be the most cost-effective strategy, followed closely by aspirin (low dose). Future research should focus on assessing cost-effectiveness of VTE prophylaxis in the eTKR population.

9.
Patient ; 9(4): 281-92, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26792584

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous injections allow for self-administration, but consideration of patients' perspectives on treatment choice is important to ensure adherence. Previous systematic reviews have been limited in their scope for assessing preferences in relation to other routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine patients' perspectives on subcutaneously administered self-injectable medications when compared with other routes or methods of administration for the same medicines. METHODS: Nine electronic databases were searched for publications since 2000 using terms pertaining to methods of administration, choice behavior, and adverse effects. Eligibility for inclusion was determined through reference to specific criteria by two independent reviewers. Results were described narratively. RESULTS: Of the 1726 papers screened, 85 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were focused mainly on methods of insulin administration for diabetes but also included treatments for pediatric growth disorders, multiple sclerosis, HIV, and migraine. Pen devices and autoinjectors were favored over administration with needle and syringe, particularly with respect to ergonomics, convenience, and portability. Inhalation appeared to be more acceptable than subcutaneous injection (in the case of insulin), but how subcutaneous infusion, intramuscular injection, and needle-free injection devices compare with subcutaneous injections in terms of patient preference is less certain. CONCLUSIONS: The review identified a number of studies showing the importance of the methods and routes of drug delivery on patient choice. However, studies were prone to bias, and further robust evidence based on methodologically sound approaches is required to demonstrate how patient choice might translate to improved adherence.


Asunto(s)
Inyecciones Subcutáneas/psicología , Prioridad del Paciente , Autoadministración/psicología , Conducta de Elección , Vías de Administración de Medicamentos , Humanos , Inyecciones Subcutáneas/efectos adversos , Inyecciones Subcutáneas/instrumentación , Percepción , Autoadministración/efectos adversos , Autoadministración/instrumentación
10.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 23(5): 333-9, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25628111

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a pharmacist-led antimicrobial stewardship intervention, consisting of consultant performance audit and feedback, on antimicrobial prescribing quality. METHODS: From October 2010 to September 2012, the prescribing performance of medical consultant teams rotating on the acute medical admissions unit was measured against four quality indicators. Measurements were taken at baseline then at quarterly intervals during which time consultants received feedback. Proportion of prescriptions adhering to each indicator was compared with baseline using paired sample z-test (significance level P < 0.01, Bonferroni corrected). Consultants' views were explored using anonymous questionnaires. KEY FINDINGS: Overall, 2609 antimicrobial prescriptions were reviewed. Improvement from baseline was statistically significant in all follow-up periods for two indicators: 'antimicrobials should have a documented indication in the medical notes' and 'antimicrobials should adhere to guideline choice or have a justification for deviation', reaching 6.0% (95% CI 2.5, 9.6) and 8.7% (95% CI 3.7, 13.7), respectively. Adherence to the indicator 'antimicrobials should have a documented stop/review prompt' improved significantly in all but the first follow-up period. For the indicator: 'antimicrobial assessed by antimicrobial specialists as unnecessary', improvement was statistically significant in the first (-4.7%, 95% CI -8.0, -1.4) and fourth (-4.2%, 95% CI -7.7%, -0.8%) periods. Service evaluation showed support for the pharmacist-led stewardship activities. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant and sustained improvements in prescribing quality as a result of the intervention. Consultants' engagement and acceptance of stewardship activities were demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Auditoría Clínica/métodos , Consultores , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/normas , Retroalimentación , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Farmacéuticos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/normas , Rol Profesional
11.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 10(1): 168-84, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23665078

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are commonly dispensed medications from community pharmacies, and they are frequently prescribed for inappropriate indications. In many countries, they are easily accessible without prescriptions. The inappropriate use of antibiotics results in the emergence of resistant bacterial strains, which represents a considerable public health problem, particularly in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the pattern of antibiotics dispensing from Egyptian community pharmacies and to collect baseline descriptive data on the antibiotics dispensed and their appropriateness. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study of antibiotic dispensing encounters was conducted at 36 randomly selected pharmacies in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Data were collected during one shift at each pharmacy. Structured questionnaires recording patient demographics, antibiotics dispensed and reasons for dispensing were completed for each antibiotic dispensing encounter. The data were descriptively analysed. RESULTS: Overall, 1158 antibiotics were dispensed during the study period with a total cost of L.E. 24,487 (approximately 3,673 $USD). While self-medication and purchasing without medical prescriptions were common, representing around 23.3% of the antibiotics (n = 270), most antibiotics were prescribed by a doctor or dentist (n = 736, 63.6%). Pharmacist recommendations accounted for the remainder (n = 152, 13.1%). The main reasons for antibiotic use were respiratory tract ailments and gastroenteritis symptoms. The antibiotics most commonly dispensed were: penicillins, erythromycin, metronidazole, neomycin, clotrimoxazole and tetracyclines. Approximately 70% of the antibiotics dispensed on prescriptions were judged to be appropriate for the indications while this percentage was around 61% for antibiotics dispensed on pharmacist recommendation and patient's request. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that antibiotics are frequently dispensed from community pharmacies in Egypt without appropriate prescriptions and for inappropriate indications. These findings support the need for strict enforcement of pharmacy laws through improved inspection processes. They highlight the need for evidence-based guidelines and educational interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing and dispensing practices.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Prescripción Inadecuada/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Egipto , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Automedicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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