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2.
Microsurgery ; 2022 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262961

RESUMEN

Persistent, disabling lower extremity pain, outside the distribution of a single nerve, is termed chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS), but, in reality, this chronic pain is often due to multiple peripheral nerve injuries. It is the purpose of this report to describe the first application of the "traditional," nerve implantation into muscle, usually used in the treatment of a painful neuroma, as a pre-emptive surgical technique in doing a below knee amputation (BKA). In 2011, a 51-year-old woman developed severe, disabling CRPS, after a series of operations to treat an enchondroma of the left fifth metatarsal. When appropriate peripheral nerve surgeries failed to relieve distal pain, a BKA was elected. The approach to the BKA included implantation of each transected peripheral nerve directly into an adjacent muscle. At 5.0 years after the patient's BKA, the woman reported full use of this extremity, using the prosthesis, and was free of phantom limb and residual limb pain. This anecdotal experience gives insight that long-term relief of lower extremity CRPS can be achieved by a traditional BKA utilizing the approach of implanting each transected nerve into an adjacent muscle.

3.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 149(5): 1187-1196, 2022 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Refractory chronic migraine is a common and debilitating neurologic condition, affecting over 8 million people in the United States. It is associated with billions of dollars in lost productivity annually. Novel medical (anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide antibodies) and surgical treatment modalities have emerged for chronic migraine in recent years. The current study investigated the cost-utility of surgical versus medical management of refractory chronic migraine. METHODS: A Markov cohort analysis using hybrid Monte Carlo patient simulation was performed to compare surgical decompression versus erenumab for the treatment of refractory chronic migraine in adults. Both societal and payer perspectives were considered. Primary model outcomes included incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, or cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained. RESULTS: Over a 5-year period, migraine surgery was associated with an increase of 0.2 quality-adjusted life-year per patient when compared to erenumab. In terms of costs, the results demonstrated a $19,337 decrease in direct medical costs and a $491 decrease in indirect costs (productivity lost) for the surgery cohort compared to erenumab. Because surgery improved quality of life and decreased costs compared to erenumab, even when considering revision surgery needs, surgery was the overall dominant treatment in terms of cost-effectiveness. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that surgery was cost-effective compared to erenumab when patients required therapy for at least 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical deactivation of migraine trigger sites may pose a cost-effective approach to treating refractory chronic migraine in adults. This is especially the case when patients are anticipated to require therapy for more than 1 year.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Migrañosos , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Eficiencia , Humanos , Trastornos Migrañosos/cirugía , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Estados Unidos
4.
J Hand Surg Am ; 47(2): 172-179, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887137

RESUMEN

Dorsoradial forearm and hand pain was historically considered difficult to treat surgically due to a particular susceptibility of the radial sensory nerve (RSN) to injury and/or compression. A nerve block, if it were done at all, was directed at the region of the anatomic snuff box to block the RSN in an effort to provide diagnostic information as to the pain etiology. Even for patients with pain relief following a diagnostic block, resecting the RSN often proved unsuccessful in fully relieving pain. The solution to successful treatment of this refractory pain problem was the realization that the RSN is not the sole source of sensory innervation to the dorsoradial wrist. In fact, in 75% of people the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LABCN) dermatome overlaps the RSN with other nerves, such as the dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve and even the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerves, occasionally providing sensory innervation to the same area. With this more refined understanding of the cutaneous neuroanatomy of the wrist, the diagnostic nerve block algorithm was expanded to include selective blockage of more than just the RSN. In contemporary practice, identification of the exact nerves responsible for pain signal generation informs surgical decision-making for palliative neurolysis or neurectomy. This approach offers a systematic and repeatable method to inform the diagnosis and treatment of dorsoradial forearm and wrist pain.


Asunto(s)
Antebrazo , Mano , Antebrazo/cirugía , Mano/inervación , Humanos , Dolor , Nervio Radial/anatomía & histología , Arteria Cubital
5.
Ann Plast Surg ; 88(1): 79-83, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670963

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The plastic surgeon is often asked to reconstruct the sacral area related to pilonidal cysts or a tumor, or after other surgery, such as coccygectomy. When sitting pain is not due to the pudendal or posterior femoral cutaneous nerve injury, the anococcygeal nerve (ACN) must be considered. Clinically, its anatomy is not well known. Rather than consider coccygectomy when the traditional nonoperative treatment of coccydynia fails, resection of the ACN might be considered. METHODS: A review of traditional anatomy textbooks was used to establish classical thoughts about the ACN. A retrospective cohort of patients with sitting pain related to the coccyx was examined, and those operated on, by resecting the ACN, were examined for clinicopathologic correlations. RESULTS: When the ACN is described in anatomy textbooks, it is with varying distributions of innervated skin territory and nerve root composition. Most include an origin from sacral 5 and coccygeal 1 ventral roots. Most agree that the ACN forms on the ventral side of the sacrum/coccyx, alongside the coccygeus muscle, to emerge laterally and travel dorsally to innervate skin over the coccyx and lower sacrum. A review of 13 patients with sitting pain due to the ACN, from 2015 to 2019, demonstrated a mean age of 54.6 years. Eleven were female. The etiologies of ACN injury were falls (9), exercise (3), and complication from surgery (1). Six of the 9 patients who had surgery were able to be followed up with a mean length of 36.3 months (range, 11-63 months). Overall, 3 had an excellent result, 2 had a good result, and 1 was not improved. The one with a failed result showed improvement with coccygectomy. CONCLUSIONS: The ACN must be included in the differential diagnosis of sitting pain. It is most often injured by a fall. The ACN can be evaluated with a diagnostic nerve block, can be identified at surgery, and can be resected, and its proximal end can be implanted into the coccygeus muscle. This surgery may prove an alternative to coccygectomy.


Asunto(s)
Cóccix , Dolor , Cóccix/cirugía , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(4): 548e-557e, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550938

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A model that predicts a patient's risk of developing chronic, burn-related nerve pain may guide medical and/or surgical management. This study determined anatomy-specific variables and constructed a mathematical model to predict a patient's risk of developing burn-related nerve pain. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted from 1862 adults admitted to a burn center from 2014 to 2019. One hundred thirteen patients developed burn-related nerve pain. Comparisons were made using 11 anatomy-specific locations between patients with and without burn-related nerve pain. The modified Delphi technique was used to select 14 potential risk variables. Multivariate regression techniques, Brier scores, area under the curve, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit, and stratified K-fold cross-validation was used for model development. Chronic pain was defined as pain lasting 6 or more months after release from the Burn Center. RESULTS: Prevalence rates of burn-related nerve pain were similar in the development (6.1 percent) and validation (5.4 percent) cohorts [Brier score = 0.15; stratified K-fold cross-validation (K = 10): area under the curve, 0.75; 95 percent CI, 0.68 to 0.81; Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit, p = 0.73; n = 10 groups]. Eight variables were included in the final equation. Burn-related nerve pain risk score = -6.3 + 0.02 (age) + 1.77 (tobacco use) + 1.04 (substance abuse) + 0.67 (alcohol abuse) + 0.84 (upper arm burn) + 1.28 (thigh burn) + 0.21 (number of burn operations) + 0.01 (hospital length-of-stay). Burn-related nerve pain predicted probability = 1 - 1/[1 + exp(burn-related nerve pain risk score)] for 6-month burn-related nerve pain risk score. As the number of risk factors increased, the probability of pain increased. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors were identified for developing burn-related nerve pain at 11 anatomical locations. This model accurately predicts a patient's risk of developing burn-related nerve pain at 6 months. Age, tobacco use, substance abuse, alcohol abuse, upper arm burns, thigh burns, the number of burn operations, and hospital length of stay represented the strongest predictors. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Asunto(s)
Quemaduras/complicaciones , Dolor Crónico/epidemiología , Neuralgia/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Unidades de Quemados/estadística & datos numéricos , Dolor Crónico/diagnóstico , Dolor Crónico/etiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Neuralgia/etiología , Dimensión del Dolor , Prevalencia , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 147(6): 995e-1003e, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019514

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sensory recovery following phalloplasty and vaginoplasty for gender dysphoria is essential to the overall success of gender-confirming surgery. Anecdotal evidence suggests that superior reinnervation results are seen in genitoplasty compared to other peripheral nerve repair scenarios. Despite these observed differences, the quality of available literature is poor. METHODS: The authors reviewed the body of English language literature regarding sensory outcomes following genitoplasty for gender confirmation. RESULTS: The available body of literature discussing the basic science and clinical science aspects of sensory recovery following gender-confirming genitoplasty is small. Available data show that sensory recovery following vaginoplasty produces high rates of reported orgasmic ability, largely through the neoclitoris, and a neovagina with vibratory and pressure sensation similar to that of the native vagina. Phalloplasty sensory outcomes are variable, with the largest series reporting return of sensation in the neophallus that is slightly less than what is measured in control men. Erogenous sensation, including the ability to orgasm, is present in nearly all patients after several months. CONCLUSIONS: Existing series indicate that genitoplasty patients experience faster and more complete recovery than any other peripheral nerve regeneration scenarios. However, there are many potential confounding factors in assessment and reporting, and more consistent and reproducible measure endpoints measures are needed. Further research is needed to better understand both the basic science and clinical science of peripheral nerve regeneration in genitoplasty, which may change fundamental aspects of current paradigms of peripheral nerve regeneration.


Asunto(s)
Regeneración Nerviosa/fisiología , Pene/inervación , Cirugía de Reasignación de Sexo , Vagina/inervación , Femenino , Disforia de Género/cirugía , Humanos , Masculino , Pene/cirugía , Salud Sexual , Tacto/fisiología , Personas Transgénero , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vagina/cirugía
9.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc ; 111(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872364

RESUMEN

Medial forefoot pain, or midarch pain, is usually attributed to plantar fasciitis. The authors present their findings of a previously unreported nerve entrapment of the medial proper plantar digital nerve (MPPDN). Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were analyzed for anatomical variance in the nerve distribution of the MPPDN. In addition, clinical results from a retrospective review of nine patients who underwent surgical nerve decompression of the MPPDN are presented. Significant anatomical variance was found for the MPPDN in the cadaveric dissection of 10 fresh-frozen specimens. Nine patients with a clinical diagnosis of entrapment of the MPPDN all obtained excellent pain relief with surgical external neurolysis. Only one complication occurred: a hypertrophic scar formation that was successfully treated with intralesional steroid injections. The authors believe that this MPPDN entrapment is often overlooked or misdiagnosed as plantar fasciitis. Surgical peripheral nerve decompression of this nerve can provide positive outcomes for patients suffering from midarch foot pain caused by this pain generator.


Asunto(s)
Pie , Síndromes de Compresión Nerviosa , Humanos , Síndromes de Compresión Nerviosa/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Compresión Nerviosa/cirugía , Dolor , Estudios Retrospectivos , Nervio Tibial/cirugía
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 147(3): 635-644, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587558

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanism of nerve injury may facilitate managing burn-related nerve pain. This proposed classification, based on cause of nerve injury, was developed to enhance the understanding and management of burn-related nerve pain. METHODS: This retrospective investigation included patients aged 15 years or older admitted to the burn center from 2014 to 2019. Burn-related nerve pain was patient-reported and clinically assessed as pain 6 months or more after burn injury, unrelated to preexisting illnesses/medications. The pain classification consisted of direct nerve injury, nerve compression, electrical injury, and nerve dysfunction secondary to systemic injury. The four categories were statistically analyzed between groups, using 52 variables. RESULTS: Of the 1880 consecutive burn patients, 113 developed burn-related nerve pain and were eligible for validation of the classification: direct nerve injury, n = 47; nerve compression, n = 12; electrical injury, n = 7; and nerve dysfunction secondary to systemic injury, n = 47. Factors, significantly increased, that distinguished one category from another were as follows: for direct nerve injury, continuous symptoms (p < 0.001), refractory nerve release response (p < 0.001), nerve repair (p < 0.001), and pruritus (p < 0.001); for nerve compression, Tinel signs (p < 0.001), shooting pain (p < 0.001), numbness (p = 0.003), intermittent symptoms (p < 0.001), increased percentage total body surface area burned (p = 0.019), surgical procedures (p < 0.001), and nerve release (p < 0.001); and for electrical injury, Tinel sign (p < 0.001), intermittent symptoms (p = 0.002), amputations (p = 0.002), fasciotomies (p < 0.001), and nerve release (p < 0.001). Nerve dysfunction secondary to systemic injury was distinguished by significantly less Tinel signs (p < 0.001), shooting pain (p < 0.001), numbness and tingling (p < 0.001), pruritus (p < 0.001), fascial excision (p = 0.004), skin grafts (p < 0.001), amputation (p = 0.004), nerve releases (p < 0.001), and third-degree burns (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: A classification consisting of direct nerve injury, nerve compression, electrical injury, and nerve dysfunction secondary to systemic injury is presented that may guide patient management and research methods, with the goal of improving pain outcomes in burn-related nerve pain.


Asunto(s)
Quemaduras/complicaciones , Dolor Crónico/clasificación , Neuralgia/clasificación , Adulto , Anciano , Dolor Crónico/diagnóstico , Dolor Crónico/epidemiología , Dolor Crónico/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Neuralgia/epidemiología , Neuralgia/etiología , Dimensión del Dolor , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
11.
J Hand Surg Am ; 46(9): 813.e1-813.e8, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563483

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Outcomes after end-to-end epineural suture repair remain poor. Nerve wraps have been advocated to improve regeneration across repair sites by potentially reducing axonal escape and scar ingrowth; however, limited evidence currently exists to support their use. METHODS: Forty Lewis rats underwent median nerve division and immediate repair. Half were repaired with epineural suturing alone, and the others underwent epineural suture repair with the addition of a nerve wrap. Motor recovery was measured using weekly grip strength and nerve conduction testing for 15 weeks. Histomorphometric analyses were performed to assess intraneural collagen deposition, cellular infiltration, and axonal organization at the repair site, as well as axonal regeneration and neuromuscular junction reinnervation distal to the repair site. RESULTS: The wrapped group demonstrated significantly less intraneural collagen deposition at 5 weeks. Axonal histomorphometry, cellular infiltration, neuromuscular junction reinnervation, and functional recovery did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Nerve wraps reduced collagen deposition within the coaptation; however, no differences were observed in axonal regeneration, neuromuscular junction reinnervation, or functional recovery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that extracellular matrix nerve wraps can attenuate scar deposition at the repair site. Any benefits that may exist with regards to axonal regeneration and functional recovery were not detected in our model.


Asunto(s)
Regeneración Nerviosa , Nervios Periféricos , Animales , Axones , Matriz Extracelular , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas Lew , Nervio Ciático , Porcinos
12.
J Hand Surg Am ; 46(1): 67.e1-67.e9, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855013

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) after burn injury to the hand/upper extremity is relatively common, but not well described in the literature. This study characterizes patients with CNP after hand/upper extremity burns to help guide risk stratification and treatment strategies. We hypothesize that multiple risk factors contribute to the development of CNP and refractory responses to treatment. METHODS: Patients older than 15 years admitted to the burn center after hand/upper extremity burns, from January 1, 2014, through January 1, 2019, were included. Chronic neuropathic pain was defined as self-described pain for longer than 6 months after burn injury, not including pain due to preexisting illness/medications. Two analyses were undertaken: (1) determining risk factors for developing CNP among patients with hand/upper extremity burns, and (2) determining risk factors for developing refractory pain (ie, nonresponsive to treatment) among hand/upper extremity burn patients with CNP. RESULTS: Of the 914 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 55 (6%) developed CNP after hand/upper extremity burns. Twenty-nine of these patients (53%) had refractory CNP. Significant risk factors for developing CNP after hand/upper extremity burns included history of substance abuse and tobacco use. Among CNP patients, significant risk factors for developing refractory pain included symptoms of burning sensations. In all CNP patients, gabapentin and ascorbic acid were associated with significant decreases in pain scores on follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Substance abuse and tobacco use may contribute to the development of CNP after hand/upper extremity burns. Those who developed refractory CNP were more likely to use the pain descriptor, burning sensations. Pharmacological pain management with gabapentin or pregabalin and ascorbic acid may provide the most relief of CNP symptoms. TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic IV.


Asunto(s)
Quemaduras , Traumatismos de la Mano , Neuralgia , Quemaduras/complicaciones , Quemaduras/epidemiología , Quemaduras/terapia , Gabapentina , Traumatismos de la Mano/complicaciones , Traumatismos de la Mano/epidemiología , Traumatismos de la Mano/terapia , Humanos , Neuralgia/epidemiología , Neuralgia/etiología , Neuralgia/terapia , Manejo del Dolor
13.
Hand (N Y) ; 16(1): 128-133, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014111

RESUMEN

Appreciating the history of Hand Surgery is part of what most of us enjoy about our profession. Most of us know that Silas Weir Mitchell, MD, coined the terms "Causalgia" and "Phantom Limb," yet few of us know that our present-day evaluation of the sensory and motor function of the hand and some of our rehabilitation methods for motor palsy were introduced by Mitchell as he worked, scholarly, in Turner's Lane Hospital, the first hospital devoted to nerve injuries, to understand Civil War gunshot wounds related to musket ball. Mitchell's contributions to neurosensory and motor evaluation were reviewed by reading his historical publications. Mitchell's described cervical sympathetic injury Horner's Syndrome), sensory recovery preceding motor recovery after proximal nerve injury, that more sensory information can be perceived by applying greater pressure, importance of passive joint movement to prevent contracture, value of electrical stimulation after motor palsy, value of rest to facilitate healing, ability of 1- and 2-point sensory testing to evaluate sensibility, value of testing temperature to understand neuropathology, importance of experimental peripheral nerve surgery to clinical care, recorded muscle strength by manual evaluation, staged degree of nerve injury, described Saturday night and crutch palsy, and first described Hoffmann-Tinel sign. Mitchell made signifiant and seminal observations, that have largely gone unrecognized and that we use today in care of the injured upper extremity.


Asunto(s)
Neurología , Heridas por Arma de Fuego , Humanos , Masculino , Extremidad Superior
14.
Urology ; 149: 24-29, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279610

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specific contribution of ilioinguinal (II) and iliohypogastric (IH) nerve injury and referred pain to interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and patient-reported chronic pelvic pain, and to enumerate the effects of II and IH nerve resection on the pain and voiding symptoms in patients with IC/BPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 8 patients with ICS/BPS who had prior abdominal surgery. All patients received diagnostic image guided T12/L1 nerve blocks, followed by II and IH nerve resections. Validated O'Leary-Sant ICS symptom indices (OSPI) and pelvic pain and urgency/frequency patient symptoms scale (PUF) scores were collected at specified intervals pre- and post-operatively. RESULTS: Median scores at pre-operative (OSPI 13.9, PUF 20.4) and 1 week time points (OSPI 5.9, PUF 11), as well as differences between pre-operative and 10 month time points (OSPI 3.7, PUF 6) were all statistically significant (P = .008 and .009 at 1 week, and .007 and .008 at 10 months, for OSPI and PUF respectively). The mean difference in score from pre-operative to longest follow-up as measured by the OSPI was -14.4 (P < .001) and by PUF -10.3 (P < .001). All time points registered demonstrated improvement in pain scores. There were no surgical complications or adverse events. CONCLUSION: II and IH nerve resection may be an effective and durable treatment option for those with prior abdominal surgery who have referred interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome pain from these injured nerves.


Asunto(s)
Cistitis Intersticial/etiología , Plexo Hipogástrico/cirugía , Dolor Referido/cirugía , Traumatismos de los Nervios Periféricos/cirugía , Enfermedades de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía , Adulto , Anciano , Dolor Crónico/etiología , Dolor Crónico/cirugía , Femenino , Maniobra de Heimlich , Humanos , Plexo Hipogástrico/lesiones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Bloqueo Nervioso/métodos , Dolor Referido/etiología , Dolor Pélvico/etiología , Dolor Pélvico/cirugía , Traumatismos de los Nervios Periféricos/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Vejiga Urinaria/inervación , Enfermedades de la Vejiga Urinaria/etiología , Trastornos Urinarios/etiología , Trastornos Urinarios/cirugía , Adulto Joven
15.
Transl Androl Urol ; 9(3): 1442-1447, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676429

RESUMEN

Injury to the pudendal nerve in men presents with pain, paresthesia, or numbness of the perineum, and/or scrotum, and/or penis. There is evidence implicating the brachytherapy seeds used to treat prostate cancer as source of pudendal nerve injury. Compared to surgical prostatectomy, brachytherapy has the advantage of being less invasive, but seeds may not only lead to well-established complications such as urinary, bowel, and erectile dysfunction, but also injury to the sensory branches of the pudendal nerve. We report and document a case of pudendal nerve injury secondary to brachytherapy seeds diagnosed with magnetic resonance (MR) neurography, nerve blocks, and histopathological examination; and successful treatment via sensory branch neurectomy.

16.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 36(9): 680-685, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726818

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) is a staple of microsurgical reconstruction. Significant attention has been paid to donor-site morbidity, particularly vascular and aesthetic consequences. Relatively few authors have discussed peripheral nerve morbidity such as persistent hypoesthesia, hyperesthesia, or allodynia in the hand and wrist or neuroma formation in the wrist and forearm. Here, we present a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for painful neurologic complications of the RFFF donor site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The peripheral nerves that can be involved with the RFFF are reviewed with respect to the manner in which they may be involved in postoperative pain manifestations. A method for prevention and for treatment of each of these possibilities is also presented. RESULTS: Nerves from the forearm that can be harvested with the RFFF will have the most likelihood for injury and these include the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, the radial sensory nerve, and the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. A nerve that may be injured at the distal juncture of the skin graft to the forearm is the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve. The "prevention" portion of the algorithm suggests that each nerve divided to become a recipient nerve should have its proximal end implanted into a muscle to prevent painful neuroma. The "treatment" portion of the algorithm suggests that if a neuroma does form, it should be resected, not neurolysed, and the proximal portion should be implanted into an adjacent muscle. The diagnostic role of nerve block is emphasized. CONCLUSION: Neurological complications following RFFF can be prevented by an appropriate algorithm as described by devoting attention to the proximal end of recipient nerves. Neurological complications, once present, can be difficult to diagnose accurately. Nerve blocks are critical in this regard and are employed in the treatment algorithm presented.


Asunto(s)
Colgajos Tisulares Libres , Dolor Postoperatorio , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos , Algoritmos , Antebrazo/cirugía , Humanos
17.
Burns Trauma ; 8: tkaa011, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain, unrelated to the burn itself, can manifest as a long-term complication in patients sustaining burn injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) and compare burn characteristics between patients who developed CNP and patients without CNP who were treated at a burn center. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective analysis of 1880 patients admitted to the adult burn center was performed from 1 January 2014 to 1 January 2019. Patients included were over the age of 15 years, sustained a burn injury and were admitted to the burn center. CNP was diagnosed clinically following burn injury. Patients were excluded from the definition of CNP if their pain was due to an underlying illness or medication. Comparisons between patients admitted to the burn center with no pain and patients admitted to the burn center who developed CNP were performed. RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen of the 1880 burn patients developed CNP as a direct result of burn injury over 5 years with a prevalence of 6.01%. Patients who developed CNP were a significantly older median age (54 years vs. 46 years, p = 0.002), abused alcohol (29% vs. 8%, p < 0.001),abused substances (31% vs. 9%, p < 0.001), were current daily smokers (73% vs. 33%, p < 0.001), suffered more full-thickness burns (58% vs. 43%, p < 0.001), greater median percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burns (6 vs. 3.5, p < 0.001), were more often intubated on mechanical ventilation (33% vs. 14%, p < 0.001), greater median number of surgeries (2 vs. 0, p < 0.001) and longer median hospital length of stay (LOS) (10 days vs. 3 days, p < 0.001), compared to those who did not develop CNP, respectively. Median patient follow-up was 27 months. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CNP over 5 years was 6.01% in the burn center. Older ages, alcohol abuse, substance abuse, current daily smoking, greater percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burns, third degree burns, being intubated on mechanical ventilation, having more surgeries and longer hospital LOS were associated with developing CNP following burn injury, compared to patients who did not develop CNP following burn injury.

18.
Ann Plast Surg ; 84(3): 307-311, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904648

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Loss of penile sensation or development of a painful penis and erectile dysfunction can occur after injury to the dorsal branch of the pudendal nerve. Although recovery of genital sensibility has been discussed frequently in transmen, this subject has been reported rarely in cismen. The purpose of this report is to review our experience with recovery of sensation in men after decompression of the dorsal branch of the pudendal nerve after trauma. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of men who have had decompression of the dorsal branch of the pudendal nerve was carried out from 2014 to 2018. Patients were included in the cohort if they had a loss of penile sensation or the development of a painful penis after trauma. Primary outcomes measured were the change in penile symptoms, including erection, ejaculation, ejaculatory pain, erogenous sensation, numbness, and penile pain. RESULTS: For the 7 men included in this study, the mean follow-up time was 57 weeks (range, 28-85 weeks). Bilateral surgery was done in 71% (5/7). Of the 6 patients with loss of penile sensation, complete recovery of erogenous sensibility occurred in 5 (83%) patients, with partial relief in 1 (17%) patient. Of the 3 men who had erectile dysfunction, normal erections were restored in 2 (67%) patients. Of the 2 patients unable to ejaculate, 1 (50%) patient regained ejaculatory function. Of the 4 patients with ejaculatory pain, complete relief of pain occurred in 2 (50%) patients, with partial relief in 2 (50%) patients. Of the 6 patients with penile pain in the absence of ejaculation, complete relief of pain occurred in 3 (50%) patients, with partial relief in 3 (50%) patients. CONCLUSION: Neurolysis of the dorsal nerve to the penis at the inferior pubic ramus canal can be successful in relieving pain, and restoring sensation and erectile function in men who sustained an injury along the inferior pubic ramus.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Pene/cirugía , Erección Peniana/fisiología , Pene/cirugía , Disfunciones Sexuales Fisiológicas/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pene/inervación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Urol Case Rep ; 28: 101056, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886132

RESUMEN

Chronic neuropathic pain due to iliohypogastric (IH) or ilioinguinal (IL) nerve entrapment or injury may demonstrate as referred pain to the genito-urinary organs. Our patient is a 67-year-old woman who presented with a 9-month history of bladder pain, dyspareunia and nocturia that all began following a laparoscopic pyeloplasty. This report describes improvement of bladder pain syndrome following surgical resection of the II and IH nerves.

20.
Microsurgery ; 40(2): 160-166, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025770

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a woman's perception that she is in a state of sexual arousal, without the ability of arousal to be satisfied by orgasm. It is the hypothesis of this study that PGAD results from a minimal degree of nerve compression of the dorsal branch of the pudendal nerve. If this is true, PGAD could be treated by neurolysis of the dorsal branch of the pudendal nerve. METHODS: A retrospective chart review from 2010 through 2018, of those women having neurolysis of the dorsal branch of the pudendal nerve for PGAD. The main outcome measures were the pre-operative and post-operative changes in clitoral symptoms (arousal, numbness, pain). RESULTS: Eight women included in this study were followed more than 26 weeks since surgery (mean = 65, range = 26-144 weeks). Seven of these women had the surgery bilaterally, and each of these had an excellent result, meaning elimination of the arousal symptoms, and the ability to resume normal sexual intercourse. The patient with unilateral decompression of the dorsal branch of the pudendal nerve was the only patient who had some, versus complete improvement in arousal symptoms. Of the seven women that had pain, six had complete relief and one had partial relief. No major surgical complications were observed. CONCLUSION: The relief of arousal symptoms by neurolysis of the dorsal nerve to the clitoris supports the hypothesis that PGAD is due to a minimal degree of compression of the dorsal branch of the pudendal nerve.


Asunto(s)
Nervio Pudendo , Nivel de Alerta , Femenino , Genitales , Humanos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos , Nervio Pudendo/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos
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