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1.
Nat Immunol ; 22(3): 322-335, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531712

RESUMEN

Immune system dysfunction is paramount in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and fatality rate. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells involved in mucosal immunity and protection against viral infections. Here, we studied the immune cell landscape, with emphasis on MAIT cells, in cohorts totaling 208 patients with various stages of disease. MAIT cell frequency is strongly reduced in blood. They display a strong activated and cytotoxic phenotype that is more pronounced in lungs. Blood MAIT cell alterations positively correlate with the activation of other innate cells, proinflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin (IL)-18, and with the severity and mortality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We also identified a monocyte/macrophage interferon (IFN)-α-IL-18 cytokine shift and the ability of infected macrophages to induce the cytotoxicity of MAIT cells in an MR1-dependent manner. Together, our results suggest that altered MAIT cell functions due to IFN-α-IL-18 imbalance contribute to disease severity, and their therapeutic manipulation may prevent deleterious inflammation in COVID-19 aggravation.

2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(2): 295-303, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549252

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical course of and risk factors for arterial thrombotic events in adult inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: All consecutive adult patients admitted for COVID-19 infection in a referral center in France and discharged from the hospital between April 1 and April 30, 2020, were included. All arterial thrombotic events that occurred through discharge were considered for analysis. Epidemiologic, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records with use of a standardized data collection form. RESULTS: Overall, 531 COVID-19+ patients were analyzed. Among them, 30 (5.6%) experienced arterial thrombotic events. Arterial thrombotic events in the setting of COVID-19 infection happened at a median of 11 (5-20) days after the first symptoms of infection; occurred in high-risk patients according to traditional cardiovascular risk factors; had an atypical pattern, such as thrombosis of the aorta, upper limb, or renal arteries or cerebral microvasculopathy in 7 (23.3%) cases; and were associated with an in-hospital mortality rate of 40%. Arterial thrombotic events increased the risk of death by 3-fold in COVID-19+ patients (hazard ratio, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.7; P=.002). A subdistribution survival hazard model showed that a concentration of D-dimer above 1250 ng/mL increased the risk of arterial thrombotic events in COVID-19+ patients by more than 7 (subdistribution hazard ratio, 7.68; 95% CI, 2.9 to 20.6; P<.001). CONCLUSION: A dramatically high rate of in-hospital death was observed in patients who suffered arterial thrombotic events in the setting of COVID-19 infection. A D-dimer level above 1250 ng/mL at entry may identify COVID-19+ patients at risk for arterial thrombotic events.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Trombosis/etiología , Anciano , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Trombosis/epidemiología
3.
J Virol Methods ; 291: 114086, 2021 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577957

RESUMEN

The worldwide demand for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing resulted in a shortage of diagnostic kits. RNA extraction step constitutes a major bottleneck to perform diagnostic. The aim of this study was to assess performances of different extraction-free SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assays compared to a reference RT-PCR assay. The panel of evaluation consisted of 94 samples: 69 positive and 25 negative for SARS-CoV-2 by reference RT-PCR. Three extraction-free RT-PCR assays were assessed: (i) PrimeDirect® Probe RT-qPCR Mix (Takara), (ii) PrimeScript®RT-PCR (Takara), and (iii) SARS-CoV-2 SANSURE®BIOTECH Novel Coronavirus (Sansure). The overall sensitivity of PrimeDirect, PrimeScript and Sansure assays was 55.1 %, 69.6 % and 69.6 %, respectively. The sensitivity increased among samples with Ct<30: 91.9 % (n = 34/37), 89.2 % (n = 33/37) and 94.6 % (n = 35/37) for PrimeDirect, PrimeScript and Sansure assays, respectively. The specificity was 88 %, 100 % and 100 % for PrimeDirect, PrimeScript and Sansure assays, respectively. In the present study, we showed a good sensitivity of extraction-free PCR assays, especially for high viral loads (Ct<30), except PrimeDirect that displayed imperfect sensitivity and specificity. Despite a lower sensitivity for low viral loads, extraction-free reagents can provide a valuable option, cheaper, easier and less reagent consuming for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic, especially in laboratory with lower experience and equipment for molecular assays.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556961

RESUMEN

Guidelines for stopping COVID-19 patient isolation are mainly symptom-based, with isolation for 10 to 20 days depending on their condition. Here, we describe three deeply immunocompromised patients, each with different clinical evolutions. Asymptomatic carriage, symptom resolution, or superinfection with a second SARS-CoV-2 strain were observed, all leading to prolonged infectious viral shedding several months. We followed the patients epidemiological, clinical, serological data, infectiousness using viral culture and viral mutations accumulated over time. Understanding underlying mechanisms and frequency of prolonged infectiousness is crucial to adapt current guidelines and strengthen the use of systematic PCR testing before stopping isolation in immunocompromised populations.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243261, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rapid identification of patients with high suspicion of COVID-19 will become a challenge with the co-circulation of multiple respiratory viruses (RVs). We have identified clinical or biological characteristics to help distinguish SARS-CoV-2 from other RVs. METHODS: We used a prospective cohort including all consecutive patients admitted through the emergency department's (ED) and presenting respiratory symptoms from November 2019 to April 2020. Patients were tested for RV using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. RESULTS: 203/508 patients were positive for an RV during the non-SARS-CoV-2 epidemic period (November to February), and 268/596 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (March to April). Younger age, male gender, fever, absence of expectoration and absence of chronic lung disease were statistically associated with SARS-CoV-2 detection. Combining these variables allowed for the distinguishing of SARS-CoV-2 infections with 83, 65, 75 and 76% sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients' characteristics associated with a positive PCR are common between SARS-CoV-2 and other RVs, but a simple discrimination of strong SARS-CoV-2 suspicion with a limited set of clinical features seems possible. Such scoring could be useful but has to be prospectively evaluated and will not eliminate the need for rapid PCR assays.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243961, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326457

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for patients with severe coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) and hyper-inflammation remains debated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort study was designed to evaluate whether a therapeutic algorithm using steroids with or without interleukin-1 antagonist (anakinra) could prevent death/invasive ventilation. Patients with a ≥5-day evolution since symptoms onset, with hyper-inflammation (CRP≥50mg/L), requiring 3-5 L/min oxygen, received methylprednisolone alone. Patients needing ≥6 L/min received methylprednisolone + subcutaneous anakinra daily either frontline or in case clinical deterioration upon corticosteroids alone. Death rate and death or intensive care unit (ICU) invasive ventilation rate at Day 15, with Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% CIs, were determined according to logistic regression and propensity scores. A Bayesian analysis estimated the treatment effects. RESULTS: Of 108 consecutive patients, 70 patients received glucocorticoids alone. The control group comprised 63 patients receiving standard of care. In the corticosteroid±stanakinra group (n = 108), death rate was 20.4%, versus 30.2% in the controls, indicating a 30% relative decrease in death risk and a number of 10 patients to treat to avoid a death (p = 0.15). Using propensity scores a per-protocol analysis showed an OR for COVID-19-related death of 0.9 (95%CI [0.80-1.01], p = 0.067). On Bayesian analysis, the posterior probability of any mortality benefit with corticosteroids+/-anakinra was 87.5%, with a 7.8% probability of treatment-related harm. Pre-existing diabetes exacerbation occurred in 29 of 108 patients (26.9%). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 non-ICU inpatients at the cytokine release phase, corticosteroids with or without anakinra were associated with a 30% decrease of death risk on Day 15.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Proteína Antagonista del Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapéutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Teorema de Bayes , /patología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 839, 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183254

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem in Togo and transmission to the child occurs mainly during childbirth. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV among childbearing women and infants born to HBV positive mothers in Togo. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study was carried out in six cities in Togo in the six health regions in Togo. Mother-child pairs were recruited from immunization centers or pediatric wards in Lomé, Tsévié, Atakpamé, Sokodé, Kara and Dapaong in 2017. Women aged 18 and over with one child of at least 6 months old were included. A standardized questionnaire was used for data collection and HBV screening was performed using Determine® rapid tests. The prevalence of HBV, defined by a positive HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), was estimated in mothers and then in infants of mothers who were positive for HBsAg. Logistic regression model was performed to identify risk factors for HBsAg positivity in mothers. RESULTS: A total of 2105 mothers-pairs child were recruited. The median age of mothers and infants was 29 years, interquartile range (IQR) [25-33] and 2.1 years, IQR [1-3] respectively. About 35% of women were screened for HBV during antenatal care and 85% of infants received three doses of HBV immunization. Among mothers, the prevalence of HBV was 10.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) [9.4-12.0%], and 177 had detectable HBV viral load (> 10 IU/mL). Among mothers with positive HBsAg, three infants also had positive HBsAg, a prevalence of 1.3, 95% CI [0.2-3.8%]. In multivariable analysis, HIV-infection (aOR = 2.19; p = 0.018), having at least three pregnancies (aOR = 1.46; p = 0.025) and living in Tsévié (aOR = 0.31; p < 0.001) compared to those living in Lomé, were associated to HBV infection in mothers. CONCLUSION: In this study, one out of 10 childbearing women were infected with HBV, but less than 2% of infant born to HBV positive mothers under 5 years' old who received immunization under the Expanded Program on Immunization were infected. Improving antenatal screening and providing targeted interventions in babies could help eliminate HBV in Togo.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Vacunación , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Hepatitis B/virología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Atención Prenatal , Prevalencia , Togo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(11)2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868327

RESUMEN

Remdesivir has reported efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro and in vivo Drug-drug interactions limit therapeutic options in transplant patients. Remdesivir and its metabolite GS-441524 are excreted principally in urine. In intensive care unit (ICU) settings, in which multiple-organ dysfunctions can occur rapidly, hemodialysis may be a viable option for maintaining remdesivir treatment, while improving tolerance, by removing both remdesivir's metabolite (GS-441524) and sulfobutylether ß-cyclodextrin sodium (SEBCD). Additional studies may prove informative, particularly in the evaluations of therapeutic options for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Asunto(s)
Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Furanos/orina , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Pirroles/orina , Triazinas/orina , beta-Ciclodextrinas/orina , Adenosina Monofosfato/administración & dosificación , Adenosina Monofosfato/efectos adversos , Adenosina Monofosfato/química , Adenosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Alanina/administración & dosificación , Alanina/efectos adversos , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/cirugía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Furanos/efectos adversos , Furanos/química , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Trasplante de Pulmón , Insuficiencia Multiorgánica , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/cirugía , Neumonía Viral/virología , Pirroles/efectos adversos , Pirroles/química , Diálisis Renal , Receptores de Trasplantes , Triazinas/efectos adversos , Triazinas/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/efectos adversos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
12.
J Clin Virol ; 132: 104618, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919222

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the analytical performances, sensitivity and specificity, of two rapid tests (Covid- Presto® test rapid Covid-19 IgG/IgM and NG-Test® IgM-IgG COVID-19) and one automated immunoassay (Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG) for detecting anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. This study was performed with: (i) a positive panel constituted of 88 SARS-CoV-2 specimens collected from patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, and (ii) a negative panel of 120 serum samples, all collected before November 2019, including 64 samples with a cross-reactivity panel. Sensitivity of Covid-Presto® test for IgM and IgG was 78.4% and 92.0%, respectively. Sensitivity of NG-Test® for IgM and IgG was 96.6% and 94.9%, respectively. Sensitivity of Abbott IgG assay was 96.5% showing an excellent agreement with the two rapid tests (κ = 0.947 and κ = 0.936 for NGTest ® and Covid-Presto® test, respectively). An excellent agreement was also observed between the two rapid tests (κ = 0.937). Specificity for IgM was 100% and 86.5% for Covid-Presto® test and NG-Test®, respectively. Specificity for IgG was 92.0%, 94.9% and 96.5% for Covid-Presto®, NGTest ®, and Abbott, respectively. Most of the false positive results observed with NG-Test® resulted from samples containing malarial antibodies. In conclusion, performances of these 2 rapid tests are very good and comparable to those obtained with automated immunoassay, except for IgM specificity with the NG-Test®. Thus, isolated IgM should be cautiously interpreted due to the possible false-positive reactions with this test. Finally, before their large use, the rapid tests must be reliably evaluated with adequate and large panel including early seroconversion and possible cross-reactive samples.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1658, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903610

RESUMEN

HIV-2 infection is characterized by low viremia and slow disease progression as compared to HIV-1 infection. Circulating CD14++CD16+ monocytes were found to accumulate and CD11c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC) to be depleted in a Portuguese cohort of people living with HIV-2 (PLWHIV-2), compared to blood bank healthy donors (HD). We studied more precisely classical monocytes; CD16+ inflammatory (intermediate, non-classical and slan+ monocytes, known to accumulate during viremic HIV-1 infection); cDC1, important for cross-presentation, and cDC2, both depleted during HIV-1 infection. We analyzed by flow cytometry these PBMC subsets from Paris area residents: 29 asymptomatic, untreated PLWHIV-2 from the IMMUNOVIR-2 study, part of the ANRS-CO5 HIV-2 cohort: 19 long-term non-progressors (LTNP; infection ≥8 years, undetectable viral load, stable CD4 counts≥500/µL; 17 of West-African origin -WA), and 10 non-LTNP (P; progressive infection; 9 WA); and 30 age-and sex-matched controls: 16 blood bank HD with unknown geographical origin, and 10 HD of WA origin (GeoHD). We measured plasma bacterial translocation markers by ELISA. Non-classical monocyte counts were higher in GeoHD than in HD (54 vs. 32 cells/µL, p = 0.0002). Slan+ monocyte counts were twice as high in GeoHD than in HD (WA: 28 vs. 13 cells/µL, p = 0.0002). Thus cell counts were compared only between participants of WA origin. They were similar in LTNP, P and GeoHD, indicating that there were no HIV-2 related differences. cDC counts did not show major differences between the groups. Interestingly, inflammatory monocyte counts correlated with plasma sCD14 and LBP only in PLWHIV-2, especially LTNP, and not in GeoHD. In conclusion, in LTNP PLWHIV-2, inflammatory monocyte counts correlated with LBP or sCD14 plasma levels, indicating a potential innate immune response to subclinical bacterial translocation. As GeoHD had higher inflammatory monocyte counts than HD, our data also show that specific controls are important to refine innate immunity studies.

15.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(3)2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832526

RESUMEN

There is a high prevalence of human herpesviruses in lung samples of IPF patients but this does not differ from controls, neither regarding prevalence, viral load levels nor co-infection rates. Herpesvirus saimiri DNA is not detected in any lung samples. https://bit.ly/2ZrKiDJ.

16.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(559)2020 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817357

RESUMEN

It is of paramount importance to evaluate the prevalence of both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and their differing antibody response profiles. Here, we performed a pilot study of four serological assays to assess the amounts of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum samples obtained from 491 healthy individuals before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, 51 individuals hospitalized with COVID-19, 209 suspected cases of COVID-19 with mild symptoms, and 200 healthy blood donors. We used two ELISA assays that recognized the full-length nucleoprotein (N) or trimeric spike (S) protein ectodomain of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we developed the S-Flow assay that recognized the S protein expressed at the cell surface using flow cytometry, and the luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assay that recognized diverse SARS-CoV-2 antigens including the S1 domain and the carboxyl-terminal domain of N by immunoprecipitation. We obtained similar results with the four serological assays. Differences in sensitivity were attributed to the technique and the antigen used. High anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were associated with neutralization activity, which was assessed using infectious SARS-CoV-2 or lentiviral-S pseudotype virus. In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, seroconversion and virus neutralization occurred between 5 and 14 days after symptom onset, confirming previous studies. Seropositivity was detected in 32% of mildly symptomatic individuals within 15 days of symptom onset and in 3% of healthy blood donors. The four antibody assays that we used enabled a broad evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody profiling in different subpopulations within one region.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Femenino , Citometría de Flujo/métodos , Francia/epidemiología , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Inmunoprecipitación/métodos , Luciferasas , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas de Neutralización , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Adulto Joven
17.
J Clin Virol ; 130: 104573, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769025

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: RT-PCR testing is crucial in the diagnostic of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The use of reliable and comparable PCR assays is a cornerstone to allow use of different PCR assays depending on the local equipment. In this work, we provide a comparison of the Cobas® (Roche) and the RealStar® assay (Altona). METHODS: Assessment of the two assays was performed prospectively in three reference Parisians hospitals, using 170 clinical samples. They were tested with the Cobas® assay, selected to obtain a distribution of cycle threshold (Ct) as large as possible, and tested with the RealStar assay with three largely available extraction platforms: QIAsymphony (Qiagen), MagNAPure (Roche) and NucliSENS-easyMag (BioMérieux). RESULTS: Overall, the agreement (positive for at least one gene) was 76 %. This rate differed considerably depending on the Cobas Ct values for gene E: below 35 (n = 91), the concordance was 99 %. Regarding the positive Ct values, linear regression analysis showed a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.88 and the Deming regression line revealed a strong correlation with a slope of 1.023 and an intercept of -3.9. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean difference (Cobas® minus RealStar®) was + 3.3 Ct, with a SD of + 2.3 Ct. CONCLUSIONS: In this comparison, both RealStar® and Cobas® assays provided comparable qualitative results and a high correlation when both tests were positive. Discrepancies exist after 35 Ct and varied depending on the extraction system used for the RealStar® assay, probably due to a low viral load close to the detection limit of both assays.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos , Juego de Reactivos para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Carga Viral , Proteínas Virales/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236642, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756581

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The long-term prognosis of HIV-2-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still challenging, due to the intrinsic resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and the suboptimal response to some protease inhibitors (PI). The objective was to describe the 5-years outcomes among HIV-2 patients harboring drug-resistant viruses. METHODS: A clinic-based cohort of HIV-2-patients experiencing virologic failure, with at least one drug resistance mutation was followed from January 2012 to August 2017 in Côte d'Ivoire. Follow-up data included death, lost to follow-up (LTFU), immuno-virological responses. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 31 HIV-2 patients with virologic failure and with at least one drug resistance mutation were included. Two-third of them were men, 28(90.3%) were on PI-based ART-regimen at enrolment and the median age was 50 years (IQR = 46-54). The median baseline CD4 count and viral load were 456 cells/mm3 and 3.7 log10 c/mL respectively, and the participants have been followed-up in median 57 months (IQR = 24-60). During this period, 21 (67.7%) patients switched at least one antiretroviral drug, including two (6.5%) and three (9.7%) who switched to a PI-based and an integrase inhibitor-based regimen respectively. A total of 10(32.3%) patients died and 4(12.9%) were LTFU. The 36 and 60-months survival rates were 68.5% and 64.9%, respectively. Among the 17 patients remaining in care, six(35.3%) had an undetectable viral load (<50 c/mL) and for the 11 others, the viral load ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 log10 c/mL. Twelve patients were receiving lopinavir at the time of first genotype, five(42%) had a genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) ≤1 and 4(33%) a GSS >2. CONCLUSIONS: The 36-months survival rate among ART-experienced HIV-2 patients with drug-resistant viruses is below 70%,lower than in HIV-1. There is urgent need to improve access to second-line ART for patients living with HIV-2 in West Africa.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/efectos adversos , Farmacorresistencia Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-2/genética , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Antirretrovirales/administración & dosificación , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Costa de Marfil/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/genética , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/efectos adversos , VIH-2/efectos de los fármacos , VIH-2/patogenicidad , Humanos , Lopinavir/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/efectos adversos , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Carga Viral/genética
19.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104520, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652476

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of efficient, reliable and sensitive PCR assays is a cornerstone in the race to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this work we performed an independent evaluation of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Kit Researh Use Only (Altona) for SARS-CoV-2 detection. METHODS: A comparative limit of detection (LoD) assessment was performed between RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 and the currently WHO recommended RT-PCR (WHO-PCR) workflow using a quantified clinical sample. Assessment of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 assay was also performed using 83 primary clinical samples in comparison with the WHO-PCR. RESULTS: The RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated a slightly higher sensitivity than the WHO recommended assay with a limit of detection at 625 copies/mL instead of 1250 copies/mL for the WHO-PCR in our conditions. The overall percent agreement between RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 and WHO-PCR on 83 clinical samples was 97.6 % (81/83) with a sensitivity at 97.8 % (45/46) and specificity at 97.3 % (36/37). No cross reaction was encountered for the other human coronaviruses (HKU1, OC43, NL63, 229E). CONCLUSIONS: In this comparison of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 assay with the reference WHO assay, we observed a slightly better sensitivity of the RealStar® assay. It provides a robust option for all molecular biology laboratories, with a strong real-life LoD and is compatible with various real-time PCR platforms.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Pandemias , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
20.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(4): 1219-1222, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622895
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