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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 142-148, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915350

RESUMEN

Hypertension (HTN) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality and the prevalence of hypertension is increasing particularly in middle- and low-income countries including Bangladesh. No data are available for the prevalence of hypertension among the government employees in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, conducted from 30 October to 31 December 2016, 1219 government employees aging ≥18 years working in Rangpur city were evaluated for the presence of HTN and its risk factors. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data, data on the presence of various known risk factors of hypertension were collected. Hypertension was defined with systolic BP ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90mmHg or those getting treatment for hypertension. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 23.0; odds of hypertension among subjects with risk factors were calculated and p ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.3% among the study subjects. Significantly higher odds of having hypertension were observed in study subjects with the age groups of 35-49 (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.51-2.99, p<0.001) and ≥50 (OR: 4.96, 95% CI: 3.43-7.18, p<0.001) years than age group <35 years. Employees who were averagely satisfied and not satisfied for their jobs also had higher odds (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, p=0.049 and OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 3.43-7.18, p=0.337) of having hypertension than fully satisfied ones. Having diabetes mellitus was found to increase the odds (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.51-2.99, p<0.001) of hypertension. Male gender, urban/suburban residence, not doing physical exercise, sedentary/light working habit, overweight/obesity also increased the odds of having hypertension though these were not statistically significant. There is a high burden of hypertension among the government employees in Rangpur city. Age, job satisfaction and diabetes were independent risk factors of hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Empleados de Gobierno/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Población Suburbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219560

RESUMEN

Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases (GTD) is group of pregnancy related tumors characterized by abnormal levels of "ß-hCG" with higher incidence in South-East Asia, especially India. Our laboratory has reported that wild type BRCA1 transcriptionally regulates ß-hCG in Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBCs). These factors culminated into analysis of BRCA1 status in GTD, which would emanate into elucidation of BRCA1- ß-hCG relationship and unraveling etio-pathology of GTD. BRCA1 level in GTD is down-regulated due to the over-expression of DNMT3b and subsequent promoter hypermethylation, when compared to the normal placentae accompanied with its shift in localization. There is an inverse correlation of serum -hCG levels with BRCA1 mRNA expression. The effects of Methotrexate (MTX), which is the first line chemotherapeutic used for GTD treatment, when analyzed in comparison with Plumbagin (PB) revealed that PB alone is efficient than MTX alone or MTX-PB in combination, in showing selective cytotoxicity against GTD. Interestingly, PB increases BRCA1 levels post treatment, altering DNMT3b levels and resultant BRCA1 promoter methylation. Also, cohort study analyzed the incidence of GTD at SAT Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, which points out that 11.5% of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN) cases were referred to Regional Cancer Centre (RCC), Thiruvananthapuram, for examination of breast lumps. This has lend clues to supervene the risk of GTD patients towards BRCA1 associated diseases and unveil novel therapeutic for GTD, a plant derived naphthoquinone, PB, already reported as selectively cytotoxic against BRCA1 defective tumors.

3.
3 Biotech ; 8(10): 409, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237956

RESUMEN

The current work is focused on establishing therapeutic protocol using unconventional drugs of herbal origin and studying their mechanism of action at molecular level in the treatment of bovine sub-clinical mastitis. It explores the potential of different cytokines which can be used for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of bovine sub-clinical mastitis. Prosopis juliflora alkaloids was administered intramammarily in 24 sub-clinically affected quarters once a day for 5 consecutive days at the rate of 10 ml of 1% formulation. In 18 disease control quarters, sterile normal saline was infused. The bacterial cultural examination, somatic cell count (SCC) and cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α) expression by real-time PCR were evaluated on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 post-last treatment from milk samples. Around 75.0% of treatment group quarters showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in SCC on day 28 post-last treatment, whereas 94.4% control group quarters did not show any significant decline in SCC. 58.3% of treated quarters showed both bacteriological cure as well as significant (p < 0.05) reduction in SCC on day 28 post-last treatment. While, among control group quarters, 83.3% quarters not only remained bacteriological positive, they also did not show any significant decline in SCC. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloids of P. juliflora was evaluated. Lower concentrations of alkaloids (0.25% and 0.50%) dissolved in normal saline showed zone of inhibition against 12 out of 15 isolates, however higher concentration (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 5%) showed zone of inhibition against all 15 bacterial isolates. The gene expression level of IL-1ß, IL-8 and IFN-γ cytokines exhibited significant difference between healthy and sub-clinically affected quarters highlighting the potential of these cytokines in the diagnosis of bovine sub-clinical mastitis. Down-regulation of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ cytokines in treated quarters can be explored for making the prognosis and monitoring post-treatment disease progression of bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The P. juliflora alkaloid demonstrated strong in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity, along with causing immunomodulation by enhancing post-treatment gene expression of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines. Therefore, P. juliflora alkaloids hold a strong claim as an effective alternative herbal therapy in bovine sub-clinical mastitis.

4.
Opt Express ; 24(23): 26044-26054, 2016 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27857343

RESUMEN

The responsivity of room-temperature, semiconductor-based photodetectors consisting of resonant RF circuits coupled to microstrip buslines is investigated. The dependence of the photodetector response on the semiconductor material and RF circuit geometry is presented, as is the detector response as a function of the spatial position of the incident light. We demonstrate significant improvement in detector response by choice of photoconductive material, and for a given material, by positioning our optical signal to overlap with positions of RF field enhancement. Design of RF circuits with strong field enhancement are demonstrated to further improve detector response. The improved detector response demonstrated offers opportunities for applications in RF photonics, materials metrology, or single read-out multiplexed detector arrays.

5.
Food Policy ; 62: 28-40, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27478297

RESUMEN

Nearly half of the malnourished population of the world lives in South Asia, and agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the people in this region. Many review exercises have analysed the available evidences to understand the ways in which agriculture can be leveraged to enhance nutritional status; however, very few of them have employed a systematic approach ensuring internal and external validity. The present paper seeks to fill this gap for strengthening the policy recommendations. It demonstrates an association between agricultural interventions and nutritional outcomes; and it shows that the production of targeted nutrition-rich crops, homestead gardens, and diversification of the agricultural production system towards fruits and vegetables and aquaculture can potentially improve nutrient intake and nutritional outcomes. The empowerment of women and nutrition knowledge play a crucial role in establishing linkage between agriculture and nutritional outcomes.

6.
Semin Cutan Med Surg ; 35(2): 68-73, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27416311

RESUMEN

Hormones and androgens play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Multiple hormonal modulators are now available for the treatment of acne. The efficacies and side effects of currently available hormonal agents are reviewed here including the use of oral contraceptives, spironolactone, flutamide, cyproterone acetate, finasteride, and cortexolone 17α-propionate. Hormonal therapies are an efficacious treatment option for acne among females. With the growing need to reduce antibiotic exposures, hormonal therapies should be more widely studied and incorporated into acne treatment strategies.


Asunto(s)
Acné Vulgar/tratamiento farmacológico , Anticonceptivos/uso terapéutico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapéutico , Hormonas/metabolismo , Administración Oral , Cortodoxona/análogos & derivados , Cortodoxona/uso terapéutico , Acetato de Ciproterona/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Finasterida/uso terapéutico , Flutamida/uso terapéutico , Hormonas/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Propionatos/uso terapéutico , Espironolactona/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 73(5): 856-63, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26386632

RESUMEN

Skin is an important interface between the host and its environment. Inflammatory dermatoses often have disrupted skin barrier function, rendering patients more susceptible to allergenic triggers leading to an exaggerated immune response. The skin surface lipid film, an important component of the skin barrier, comprises a mixture of keratinocyte and sebaceous gland-derived lipids. Recent evidence demonstrated that defective keratinocyte lipid synthesis predisposes for the development of atopic dermatitis. However, the important role of sebaceous gland-derived lipids in skin inflammatory diseases may be underrecognized. This overview focuses on the importance of the contribution of sebaceous glands to barrier function. Sebaceous gland alteration may play a role in the pathogenesis of common skin diseases including acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis.


Asunto(s)
Acné Vulgar/etiología , Dermatitis Atópica/etiología , Lípidos/análisis , Glándulas Sebáceas/metabolismo , Sebo/química , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Piel , Acné Vulgar/tratamiento farmacológico , Dermatitis Atópica/patología , Dermatitis Seborreica/metabolismo , Dermatitis Seborreica/microbiología , Humanos , Psoriasis/etiología , Rosácea/etiología , Glándulas Sebáceas/patología , Sebo/metabolismo
8.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 29(2): 85-90, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25803018

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Optimal management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate diagnostic yields and downstream clinical outcomes comparing video capsule endoscopy (VCE) with push enteroscopy (PE). METHODS: Patients with OGIB and negative esophagogastroduodenoscopies and colonoscopies were randomly assigned to VCE or PE and followed for 12 months. End points included diagnostic yield, acute or chronic bleeding, health resource utilization and crossovers. RESULTS: Data from 79 patients were analyzed (VCE n=40; PE n=39; 82.3% overt OGIB). VCE had greater diagnostic yield (72.5% versus 48.7%; P<0.05), especially in the distal small bowel (58% versus 13%; P<0.01). More VCE-identified lesions were rated possible or certain causes of bleeding (79.3% versus 35.0%; P<0.05). During follow-up, there were no differences in the rates of ongoing bleeding (acute [40.0% versus 38.5%; P not significant], chronic [32.5% versus 45.6%; P not significant]), nor in health resource utilization. Fewer VCE-first patients crossed over due to ongoing bleeding (22.5% versus 48.7%; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A VCE-first approach had a significant diagnostic advantage over PE-first in patients with OGIB, especially with regard to detecting small bowel lesions, affecting clinical certainty and subsequent further small bowel investigations, with no subsequent differences in bleeding or resource utilization outcomes in follow-up. These findings question the clinical relevance of many of the discovered endoscopic lesions or the ability to treat most of these effectively over time. Improved prognostication of both patient characteristics and endoscopic lesion appearance with regard to bleeding behaviour, coupled with the impact of therapeutic deep enteroscopy, is now required using adapted, high-quality study methodologies.


Asunto(s)
Endoscopía Capsular/estadística & datos numéricos , Enteroscopía de Doble Balón/estadística & datos numéricos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 23(1): 56-61, 2014 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24584374

RESUMEN

Patients with epilepsy experience recurrent, unprovoked seizures. In most of the cases seizure occurs spontaneously, but there may be association with various triggers. These triggers may act as seizure precipitating factors (SPFs). This study was done to find out the most common SPFs and their relationship to different types epileptic patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh. This cross sectional study was carried out in specialized epilepsy weekly outdoor clinic and Medicine outpatient department (OPD) of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from January 2008 to July 2011, which included 1168 epilepsy patients. All patients attending the clinic were included in the study. Epilepsy syndromes were broadly classified into four categories using the classification system of international league against epilepsy (ILAE) namely, generalized epilepsy (GE), localization related epilepsy (LRE), symptomatic and unclassified. Each patient was evaluated and classified by consultant neurologist. All participants were interviewed through a predesigned close ended questionnaire that included a long list of 30 precipitating factors. Among all the patients 71.5% were male, with most common age group 11-20 years (36.8%). About 62% could indentify at least one precipitator. Excitation (25.2%) was the most common SPF reported by patients followed by emotional stress in 17.7%. Fever precipitated seizure in 16.4% of the subjects. A good number of them (15.5%) noticed that whenever there was sleep deprivation, they had an attack of epilepsy. However, drug withdrawal, playing outside and head trauma were also common among the patients, about 11.7%, 11.3% and 8.4% respectively. Most of the patients can identify their seizure precipitant and clustering of many SPFs suggests a common patho-physiologic mechanism for these triggers. Excitation, sleep deprivation, fever, watching television and head trauma showed a strong association with generalized epilepsy. Patients with seizure disorder should be evaluated for presence of SPFs, because identification of these might help in proper management of epilepsy.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia/complicaciones , Convulsiones/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Desencadenantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Atención Terciaria de Salud
10.
Ayu ; 35(2): 198-205, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25558168

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics have been in use in the treatment of bovine mastitis since decades; however, their use is associated with cost issues and human health concern. Use of herbal drugs does not generally carry these disadvantages. Many plants/herbs have been evaluated in the treatment of bovine mastitis with additional property of immunomodulation in affected mammary gland. AIM: To evaluate a topical herbal drug in two breeds of cattle for its in-vivo immunomodulatory effect on cytokines production and antibacterial activity in bovine subclinical mastitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The response to treatment was evaluated by enumerating somatic cell count (SCC), determining total bacterial load, and studying the expression of different cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α). RESULTS: The pre- and post-treatment SCC in mastitic quarters statistically did not differ significantly, however, total bacterial load declined significantly from day 0 onwards in both the breeds. Highly significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in all the cytokines on day 0, 5, and 21 postlast treatment in both the breeds. The expression level of all the cytokines showed a significant increase on day 5, while a decrease was noticed on day 21 in both the breeds of cattle. The comparison of cytokine expression profiles between crossbred and Gir cattle revealed a significant difference in expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. However, other cytokines exhibited a similar pattern of expression in both breeds, which was non-significant. CONCLUSION: The topical herbal drug exhibited antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities in subclinical mastitis and thus the work supports its use as alternative herbal therapy against subclinical udder infection in bovines.

11.
Indian J Cancer ; 51(4): 487-90, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26842173

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data of febrile neutropenia (FN) from rural cancer centers is sparse. We did a audit of outcome of patients with FN in the period of March 2013-August 2013. The aim was to help us to develop rational antibiotic usage policies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients presenting with FN. Data regarding demographic profile, tumor type, intent of treatment, chemotherapy regimen, blood culture susceptibility details, use of antibiotics, response to antibiotics and complications of FN were noted. SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions) 16 was used for analysis. RESULTS: 67 patients had FN and there were 91 episodes. The median day of presentation with FN after start of chemotherapy was 10 days. The nadir absolute neutrophil count was 161.5 and nadir platelet count 1,00,000. The median multinational association for supportive care in cancer (MASCC) Score was 24. In accordance with MASCC there were 27 high risk FN and 64 low risk FN episodes. On multivariate analysis using logistic regression MASCC score strata was the only significant variable that predicted failure to 1st line antibiotics (P = 0.03) and mortality (P = 0.01). Nine patients (9.9%) had positive isolates on blood cultures. The blood culture isolates were predominantly Gram negative (66.7%). CONCLUSION: The importance of developing local guidelines for rational antibiotic usage is highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neutropenia Febril Inducida por Quimioterapia/complicaciones , Revisión de la Utilización de Medicamentos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Servicios de Salud Rural , Adulto , Anciano , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Instituciones Oncológicas , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , India , Masculino , Auditoría Médica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Phytother Res ; 27(10): 1423-38, 2013 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23147906

RESUMEN

Plant-based extracts present a large source of natural immune modulators, many of which have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Recent research efforts have identified plant extracts as potential modulators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the first responders in immunological defenses in normal and disease conditions. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the modulatory effects of plant-based extracts on TLR expression, signaling, and activation. We organized the review by extraction solvent and plant part showing how they impacted the TLRs. The phytochemical components of the extracts discovered to enable these effects are diverse and vary based on the plant part. The role of the extraction solvent and differences between the different phytochemical components, such as phenolics and polysaccharides, are discussed. Plant extracts hold promising treatments for controlling inflammation and, conversely, for stimulating the immune response. Further research is needed to identify bioactive components of the extracts, mechanisms of their action, and in vivo pharmacological effects using appropriate disease models to ultimately adapt the findings for clinical use.


Asunto(s)
Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores Toll-Like/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Humanos , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Fenoles/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Estructuras de las Plantas/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Solventes/química , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
15.
Eye (Lond) ; 26(11): 1487-9, 2012 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22935669

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of silicone oil as an adjunct to iodine 125 ((125)I) brachytherapy in attenuating radiation dose and reducing radiation retinopathy. METHODS: A 16-mm COMS plaque loaded with (125)I seeds was simulated in vitro on an eye model containing silicone oil as a vitreous substitute using BrachyDose. The radiation dose ratio of silicone oil vs water to ocular structures was calculated at angles subtended from the centre of the eye. Silicone oil was then used in three choroidal melanoma patients who underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy, silicone oil placement, and (125)I brachytherapy. RESULTS: Silicone oil reduced the ocular radiation dose in vitro to 65%. Radiation dose ratios on the retina increased from 0.45 to 0.99 when moving from points diametrically opposed to the plaque's central axis. In 10-24 months' follow-up, no patients have developed radiation retinopathy. Each patient required silicone oil removal and experienced cataract progression, and one also developed a retinal detachment. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that silicone oil attenuates radiation dose in vitro, and may protect against radiation retinopathy clinically in patients, however it requires extensive surgical interventions. Further studies in only very selected populations using silicone oil as an adjunct to (125)I brachytherapy will best elucidate its role in shielding radiation retinopathy.


Asunto(s)
Braquiterapia/métodos , Neoplasias de la Coroides/radioterapia , Endotaponamiento , Radioisótopos de Yodo/uso terapéutico , Melanoma/radioterapia , Traumatismos por Radiación/prevención & control , Protectores contra Radiación/uso terapéutico , Retina/efectos de la radiación , Aceites de Silicona , Anciano , Drenaje , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Vitrectomía
16.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 36(6): 929-34, 2012 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22367294

RESUMEN

Since first described in the mid 1990s, there has been burgeoning literature on IgG4-related sclerosing disease. The number of sites that may be involved is ever increasing, with the pancreas, salivary glands, and lymph nodes being the most commonly affected organs. There are no well-documented cases arising in the gastrointestinal tract. In this report, we present the first case to our knowledge of IgG4-related sclerosing disease involving the small bowel with a distinctly unusual clinicopathologic presentation. A previously well 46-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of intermittent abdominal pain with recent worsening due to small bowel obstruction. Following imaging, which showed jejunitis with surrounding mesenteric inflammatory changes, she proceeded to a segmental small bowel resection. The resected jejunum revealed an isolated, stenosing chronic ulcer associated with a necrotizing mesenteric arteritis. A transmural inflammatory infiltrate rich in IgG4 plasma cells was seen in the wall of the bowel and mesenteric artery. Abundant IgG4 interfollicular plasma cells were also identified in a mesenteric lymph node. The serum IgG4 level was elevated at >800 mg/dL (reference range 8 to 140 mg/dL). Although phlebitis is an almost constant feature of this disease, arteritis is not described other than in the lung and aorta. In this report, we also discuss the diagnostic pitfalls and the differential diagnoses that should be considered when this condition arises in the gastrointestinal tract.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes/diagnóstico , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Enfermedades del Yeyuno/diagnóstico , Arterias Mesentéricas/patología , Poliarteritis Nudosa/diagnóstico , Esclerosis/diagnóstico , Úlcera/diagnóstico , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/inmunología , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/terapia , Biomarcadores , Enfermedad Crónica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Obstrucción Intestinal/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Yeyuno/inmunología , Enfermedades del Yeyuno/terapia , Yeyuno/patología , Yeyuno/cirugía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ácido Micofenólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapéutico , Células Plasmáticas/inmunología , Poliarteritis Nudosa/inmunología , Prednisolona/uso terapéutico , Esclerosis/inmunología , Esclerosis/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Úlcera/inmunología
17.
Brain Res ; 1383: 196-205, 2011 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21281612

RESUMEN

Perceiving and interpreting social information richness is something that humans do automatically whenever they engage in social interactions. Numerous studies have identified neural substrates, including mirror neurons that may enable such social perception. In this study, we temporarily disrupted activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We investigated whether this cortical region, that is hypothesized to include mirror neurons, plays a central role in social perception. The LIFG was stimulated in the experimental condition (n=18), the vertex was targeted in the control condition (n=19). Disrupting LIFG, but not vertex, increased reaction times during an emotion recognition task, and eliminated the suppression of the 8-12Hz EEG µ rhythm, postulated as an index of mirroring activity. The results of this study provide further evidence for the role of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in social perception, and indicate that the MNS can be measured with EEG.


Asunto(s)
Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Percepción Social , Mapeo Encefálico , Electroencefalografía , Lateralidad Funcional/fisiología , Humanos , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal , Adulto Joven
18.
Nano Lett ; 10(10): 4086-92, 2010 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20831181

RESUMEN

Luminescent nanocrystals hold great potential for bioimaging because of their exceptional optical properties, but their use in live cells has been limited. When nanocrystals enter live cells, they are taken up in vesicles. This vesicular sequestration is persistent and precludes nanocrystals from reaching intracellular targets. Here, we describe a unique, cationic core-shell polymer colloid that translocates nanocrystals to the cytosol by disrupting endosomal membranes via a low-pH triggered mechanism. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry indicate that picomolar concentrations of quantum dots are sufficient for cytosolic labeling, with the process occurring within a few hours of incubation. We anticipate a host of advanced applications arising from efficient cytosolic delivery of nanocrystal imaging probes: from single particle tracking experiments to monitoring protein-protein interactions in live cells for extended periods.


Asunto(s)
Coloides/química , Endosomas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas , Polímeros/química , Supervivencia Celular , Coloides/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Luminiscencia , Microscopía Confocal/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/metabolismo , Puntos Cuánticos
19.
Emerg Med J ; 27(6): 486, 2010 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20562155

RESUMEN

Carotid dissection is a rare, but potentially fatal, cause of ischaemic stroke in young patients. It occurs when a small tear forms in the tunica intima of the arterial wall creating a space between the inner and outer layers of the vessel where blood can enter and form a haematoma. This can cause a stenosis or complete occlusion. Thromboembolic events are thought to be the cause of infarction in the majority of cases of stroke, rather than haemodynamic insufficiency, in patients with carotid dissection. Although traditionally thought to be most commonly caused by head or neck trauma, spontaneous carotid dissection is now an increasingly recognised cause of stroke in young patients. Clinical signs can often be subtle, with mild cerebral or cranial nerve dysfunction. Here, a case is reported of a spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection in a previously well 38-year-old man. An appropriate imaging modality is important to confirm the diagnosis before commencing anticoagulation treatment.


Asunto(s)
Disección de la Arteria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico , Adulto , Blefaroptosis/etiología , Arteria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagen , Arteria Carótida Interna/patología , Disección de la Arteria Carótida Interna/complicaciones , Disección de la Arteria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagen , Cefalea/etiología , Humanos , Angiografía por Resonancia Magnética , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Radiografía
20.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 105(6): 1292-7, 2010 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20068557

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about missed rates of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGC) in Western populations, with most data originating from Japanese centers quoting high missed rates of 23.5-25.8%. The objective of this study was to better define missed rates of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and the natural history of UGC in a Western population that underwent an initial EGD without cancer, but were subsequently diagnosed with a UGC. Our hypothesis was that a normal EGD rarely misses the detection of UGC. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. A prospectively maintained electronic database was used to identify all patients who underwent EGD between 1990 and 2004 at the study institution. Patients in this cohort who were diagnosed with UGC before 2006 were identified through the Western Australian Cancer Registry. We defined missed cancers as those diagnosed within 1 year of EGD, possible missed cancers as those diagnosed 1-3 years after EGD, and new cancers as those diagnosed more than 3 years after EGD. This study had no interventions and was conducted at a tertiary referral center. The main outcome measurement included UGC. RESULTS: Of the 28,064 EGDs performed, UGC was diagnosed subsequent to the procedure in 116 cases (0.41%). There were 29 missed cancers, 26 possible missed cancers, and 75 new cancers. Of the missed cancers, 11 were esophageal, 15 were gastric, and 3 were duodenal. In 69% (n=20) of the missed cancers, an abnormality was described at the site of malignancy. In 59% (n=17) of the missed cancers, the indication for EGD was an alarm symptom of dysphagia or suspected blood loss. In an univariate analysis, the presence of an alarm symptom was related to missed cancers, whereas operator experience, trainee participation, and usage of newer equipment were not. One of the main limitations of this study is that it was a retrospective review. CONCLUSIONS: UGC is rare after normal EGD, confirming the high accuracy of EGD. Institutional approval was granted for the conduct of this study.


Asunto(s)
Errores Diagnósticos , Neoplasias Duodenales/diagnóstico , Endoscopía del Sistema Digestivo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
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