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Preprint en Portugués | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-1625


The present narrative review synthesized scientific evidence regarding gender and race inequality in the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on women's productive/reproductive work, gender-based violence, and the access to sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS). The results demonstrated that the effective control of the pandemic and the preservation of rights should consider social inequality. Besides the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2, the literature discusses that access barriers to SRHS can lead to an increase of unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions, and maternal mortality. Also, the social distancing has led several women to stay confined with their aggressors, which hinders the access to reporting services, incurring in the increase of gender-based violence and severe outcomes to health. As the main responsible for the care, women are more prone to get the virus in both professional and domestic spheres. The conciliation between work and family has become more difficult for them during the pandemic. Literature naturalizes gender, race, and social class differences, emphasizing risk factors. An intersectional research plan is needed to support the information of public policies that incorporate human rights and embrace the needs of the most vulnerable groups to the COVID-19.

Esta revisão narrativa sintetizou evidências científicas sobre desigualdades de gênero e raça na pandemia da COVID-19, enfocando o trabalho produtivo/reprodutivo das mulheres, a violência de gênero e o acesso aos serviços de saúde sexual e reprodutiva (SSR). Os resultados confirmam que as desigualdades sociais devem ser consideradas para o efetivo controle da pandemia e a preservação de direitos. Para além dos efeitos diretos do SARS-CoV-2, discute-se que barreiras de acesso a serviços de SSR podem ocasionar o aumento de gravidezes não-pretendidas, abortos inseguros e mortalidade materna. O distanciamento social tem obrigado muitas mulheres a permanecer confinadas com seus agressores e dificultado o acesso a serviços de denúncia, incorrendo no aumento da violência de gênero e em desfechos graves à saúde. Como principais responsáveis pelo cuidado, as mulheres estão mais expostas a adoecer nas esferas profissional e doméstica. A conciliação trabalho-família tornou-se mais difícil para elas durante a pandemia. A literatura naturaliza as diferenças de gênero, raça e classe, com ênfase em fatores de risco. Uma agenda de pesquisa com abordagem interseccional é necessária para embasar a formulação de políticas que incorporem os direitos humanos e atendam às necessidades dos grupos mais vulneráveis à COVID-19.

Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319170


The scarcity of data on natural history and ecology of lizards still limits the understanding of population dynamics for many species. We attempt to evaluate possible effects of climate change on the population dynamics of three lizard species (Ameiva ameiva, Gonatodes humeralis and Norops fuscoauratus) in two Amazonian localities (Caxiuanã National Forest and Ducke Reserve). We calculated a tolerance index combining environmental thermal adequacy with the b-d model, which consider survival and reproductive rates to calculate population dynamics. Thus, we simulated population growth rates based on current and future environmental operative temperatures, considering an optimistic and a business-as-usual scenario of greenhouse gases emissions (GGE), and evaluate if the sensitivity of life history traits to population growth rate are likely to be trigged by climate change. Our results demonstrated that both populations of G. humeralis and the Ducke population of N. fuscoauratus may become locally extinct under both scenarios of GGE, while both populations of A. ameiva are likely to decrease, but without reaching a scenario of local extirpation. This study represents the first effort to evaluate the sensitivity of lizard populations and elasticity to climate change and demonstrate the geographic variability of these traits in three widespread and habitat-generalist species. We highlight the need of new studies focusing on species with different biological trait patterns, such as endemic distributions and habitat-specialists, to provide the theoretical and empirical basis for biologically informed conservation strategies and actions, in order to minimize the potential extinction of populations due to climate change.

Cambio Climático , Lagartos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Intervalos de Confianza , Dinámica Poblacional , América del Sur , Especificidad de la Especie
J Therm Biol ; 78: 401-414, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509664


In recent decades, changes in climate have caused impacts on natural and human systems on all continents and across the oceans and many species have shifted their geographic ranges, seasonal activities, migration patterns, abundances and interactions in response to these changes. Projections of future climate change are uncertain, but the Earth's warming is likely to exceed 4.8 °C by the end of 21th century. The vulnerability of a population, species, group or system due to climate change is a function of impact of the changes on the evaluated system (exposure and sensitivity) and adaptive capacity as a response to this impact, and the relationship between these elements will determine the degree of species vulnerability. Predicting the potential future risks to biodiversity caused by climate change has become an extremely active field of research, and several studies in the last two decades had focused on determining possible impacts of climate change on Lepidosaurians, at a global, regional and local level. Here we conducted a systematic review of published studies in order to seek to what extent the accumulated knowledge currently allow us to identify potential trends or patterns regarding climate change effects on lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians and tuatara. We conducted a literature search among online literature databases/catalogues and recorded 255 studies addressing the influence of climate change on a total of 1918 species among 49 Lepidosaurian's families. The first study addressing this subject is dated 1999. Most of the studies focused on species distribution, followed by thermal biology, reproductive biology, behavior and genetics. We concluded that an integrative approach including most of these characteristics and also bioclimatic and environmental variables, may lead to consistent and truly effective strategies for species conservation, aiming to buffer the climate change effects on this group of reptiles.

Cambio Climático , Reptiles/fisiología , Aclimatación , Distribución Animal , Animales , Biodiversidad , Temperatura Corporal