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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(8): 088001, 2021 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477400

RESUMEN

The appearance of surface distortions on polymer melt extrudates, often referred to as sharkskin instability, is a long-standing problem. We report results of a simple physical model, which link the inception of surface defects with intense stretch of polymer chains and subsequent recoil at the region where the melt detaches from the solid wall of the die. The transition from smooth to wavy extrudate is attributed to a Hopf bifurcation, followed by a sequence of period doubling bifurcations, which eventually lead to elastic turbulence under creeping flow. The predicted flow profiles exhibit all the characteristics of the experimentally observed surface defects during polymer melt extrusion.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451107

RESUMEN

The present work focuses on the in-silico investigation of the steady-state blood flow in straight microtubes, incorporating advanced constitutive modeling for human blood and blood plasma. The blood constitutive model accounts for the interplay between thixotropy and elasto-visco-plasticity via a scalar variable that describes the level of the local blood structure at any instance. The constitutive model is enhanced by the non-Newtonian modeling of the plasma phase, which features bulk viscoelasticity. Incorporating microcirculation phenomena such as the cell-free layer (CFL) formation or the Fåhraeus and the Fåhraeus-Lindqvist effects is an indispensable part of the blood flow investigation. The coupling between them and the momentum balance is achieved through correlations based on experimental observations. Notably, we propose a new simplified form for the dependence of the apparent viscosity on the hematocrit that predicts the CFL thickness correctly. Our investigation focuses on the impact of the microtube diameter and the pressure-gradient on velocity profiles, normal and shear viscoelastic stresses, and thixotropic properties. We demonstrate the microstructural configuration of blood in steady-state conditions, revealing that blood is highly aggregated in narrow tubes, promoting a flat velocity profile. Additionally, the proper accounting of the CFL thickness shows that for narrow microtubes, the reduction of discharged hematocrit is significant, which in some cases is up to 70%. At high pressure-gradients, the plasmatic proteins in both regions are extended in the flow direction, developing large axial normal stresses, which are more significant in the core region. We also provide normal stress predictions at both the blood/plasma interface (INS) and the tube wall (WNS), which are difficult to measure experimentally. Both decrease with the tube radius; however, they exhibit significant differences in magnitude and type of variation. INS varies linearly from 4.5 to 2 Pa, while WNS exhibits an exponential decrease taking values from 50 mPa to zero.

3.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(18)2020 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962308

RESUMEN

This work focuses on the advanced modeling of the thixotropic nature of blood, coupled with an elasto-visco-plastic formulation by invoking a consistent and validated model for TEVP materials. The proposed model has been verified for the adequate description of the rheological behavior of suspensions, introducing a scalar variable that describes dynamically the level of internal microstructure of rouleaux at any instance, capturing accurately the aggregation and disaggregation mechanisms of the RBCs. Also, a non-linear fitting is adopted for the definition of the model's parameters on limited available experimental data of steady and transient rheometric flows of blood samples. We present the predictability of the new model in various steady and transient rheometric flows, including startup shear, rectangular shear steps, shear cessation, triangular shear steps and LAOS tests. Our model provides predictions for the elasto-thixotropic mechanism in startup shear flows, demonstrating a non-monotonic relationship of the thixotropic index on the shear-rate. The intermittent shear step test reveals the dynamics of the structural reconstruction, which in turn is associated with the aggregation process. Moreover, our model offers robust predictions for less examined tests such as uniaxial elongation, in which normal stress was found to have considerable contribution. Apart from the integrated modeling of blood rheological complexity, our implementation is adequate for multi-dimensional simulations due to its tensorial formalism accomplished with a single time scale for the thixotropic effects, resulting in a low computational cost compared to other TEVP models.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12611-12617, 2020 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434919

RESUMEN

We report experimental microfluidic measurements and theoretical modeling of elastoviscoplastic materials under steady, planar elongation. Employing a theory that allows the solid state to deform, we predict the yielding and flow dynamics of such complex materials in pure extensional flows. We find a significant deviation of the ratio of the elongational to the shear yield stress from the standard value predicted by ideal viscoplastic theory, which is attributed to the normal stresses that develop in the solid state prior to yielding. Our results show that the yield strain of the material governs the transition dynamics from the solid state to the liquid state. Finally, given the difficulties of quantifying the stress field in such materials under elongational flow conditions, we identify a simple scaling law that enables the determination of the elongational yield stress from experimentally measured velocity fields.

5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 563: 381-393, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887702

RESUMEN

HYPOTHESIS: We investigate if the shear-stress exerted on the wall of a glass microchannel can be a robust and accurate criterion for the safe electro-osmotic transfer of polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains dissolved in a NaCl aquatic solvent. To this end, a comprehensive multiscale formulation based on the rheological and electrochemical modeling of the PEO dynamics is proposed. Phenomena that occur in microscale, e.g., the migration of PEO to the core region of the channel and Polymeric Depletion Layer (PDL) formation, and in nanoscale, e.g., the development of an electric double layer on the glass surface and ionic steric effects, are included. EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENT: We study the electro-osmotic flow of PEO solutions (0.1-0.5%), flowing in a glass microchannel of rectangle shape, with dimensions of 300 µm in length and 75 µm in height. We vary the externally applied electric field (300-500 V/cm), and the bulk ionic concentration (0.001-10 mM). FINDINGS: We find that all features of our formulation are indeed essential to reproduce the experimental data of Huang, Chen, Wong, Liow, Soft Matter, (2016) precisely. Although the PDL formation preserves the fragile nature of biopolymers, the dominant stress is the normal stress, and the critical value is at the PDL interface. A new design criterion for microdevices is proposed.

6.
Biorheology ; 52(3): 183-210, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26406781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In microcirculation, the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the complexity of the microvessel network are responsible for the high flow resistance and the large reduction of the blood pressure. Red blood cell aggregation along with inward radial migration are two significant mechanisms determining the former. Yet, their impact on hemodynamics in non-straight vessels is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the steady state blood flow in stenotic rigid vessels is examined, employing a sophisticated non-homogeneous constitutive law. The effect of red blood cells migration on the hydrodynamics is quantified and the constitutive model's accuracy is evaluated. METHODS: A numerical algorithm based on the two-dimensional mixed finite element method and the EVSS/SUPG technique for a stable discretization of the mass and momentum conservation equations in addition to the constitutive model is employed. RESULTS: The numerical simulations show that a cell-depleted layer develops along the vessel wall with an almost constant thickness for slow flow conditions. This causes the reduction of the drag force and the increase of the pressure gradient as the constriction ratio decreases. CONCLUSIONS: Viscoelastic effects in blood flow were found to be responsible for steeper decreases of tube and discharge hematocrits as decreasing function of constriction ratio.


Asunto(s)
Eritrocitos/citología , Microvasos/química , Velocidad del Flujo Sanguíneo , Movimiento Celular , Elasticidad , Hematócrito , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Microvasos/fisiología , Modelos Cardiovasculares
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