Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 8 de 8
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
2.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(67): 1-40, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of infection in infants. Currently, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is the major strategy to prevent invasive group B streptococcus disease. However, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis does not prevent maternal sepsis, premature births, stillbirths or late-onset disease. Maternal vaccination may offer an alternative strategy. Multivalent polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccine development is under way and a serocorrelate of protection is needed to expedite vaccine licensure. OBJECTIVES: The ultimate aim of this work is to determine the correlate of protection against the major group B streptococcus disease-causing serotypes in infants in the UK. The aim of this feasibility study is to test key operational aspects of the study design. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of pregnant women and their infants in a 6-month period (1 July to 31 December 2018). SETTING: Five secondary and tertiary hospitals from London and South England. National iGBS disease surveillance was conducted in all trusts in England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years who were delivering at one of the selected hospitals and who provided consent during the study period. There were no exclusion criteria. INTERVENTIONS: No interventions were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) To test the feasibility of collecting serum at delivery from a large cohort of pregnant women. (2) To test the key operational aspects for a proposed large serocorrelates study. (3) To test the feasibility of collecting samples from those with invasive group B streptococcus. RESULTS: A total of 1823 women were recruited during the study period. Overall, 85% of serum samples were collected at three sites collecting only cord blood. At the two sites collecting maternal, cord and infant blood samples, the collection rate was 60%. A total of 614 women were screened for group B streptococcus with a colonisation rate of 22% (serotype distribution: 30% III, 25% Ia, 16% II, 14% Ib, 14% V and 1% IV). A blood sample was collected from 34 infants who were born to colonised women. Maternal and infant blood and the bacterial isolates for 15 newborns who developed invasive group B streptococcal disease during the study period were collected (serotype distribution: 29% III, 29% II, 21% Ia, 7% Ib, 7% IV and 7% V). LIMITATIONS: Recruitment and sample collection were dependent on the presence of research midwives rather than the whole clinical team. In addition, individualised consent limited the number of women who could be approached each day, and site set-up for the national surveillance study and the limited time period of this feasibility study limited recruitment of all eligible participants. CONCLUSIONS: We have verified the feasibility of collecting and processing rectovaginal swabs and blood samples in pregnant women, as well as samples from those with invasive group B streptococcal disease. We have made recommendations for the recruitment of cases within the proposed GBS3 study and for controls both within GBS3 and as an extension of this feasibility study. FUTURE WORK: A large case-control study comparing specific immunoglobulin G levels in mothers whose infants develop invasive group B streptococcal disease with those in colonised mothers whose infants do not develop invasive group B streptococcal disease is recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN49326091; IRAS project identification number 246149/REC reference number 18/WM/0147. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 67. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Asunto(s)
Profilaxis Antibiótica , Serogrupo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/prevención & control , Vacunas Estreptocócicas/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Sangre Fetal , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Suero , Streptococcus agalactiae/aislamiento & purificación , Reino Unido
3.
Euro Surveill ; 24(31)2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387673

RESUMEN

BackgroundIn the United Kingdom (UK), in recent influenza seasons, children are offered a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4), and eligible adults mainly trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV).AimTo estimate the UK end-of-season 2017/18 adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) and the seroprevalence in England of antibodies against influenza viruses cultured in eggs or tissue.MethodsThis observational study employed the test-negative case-control approach to estimate aVE in primary care. The population-based seroprevalence survey used residual age-stratified samples.ResultsInfluenza viruses A(H3N2) (particularly subgroup 3C.2a2) and B (mainly B/Yamagata/16/88-lineage, similar to the quadrivalent vaccine B-virus component but mismatched to TIV) dominated. All-age aVE was 15% (95% confidence interval (CI): -6.3 to 32) against all influenza; -16.4% (95% CI: -59.3 to 14.9) against A(H3N2); 24.7% (95% CI: 1.1 to 42.7) against B and 66.3% (95% CI: 33.4 to 82.9) against A(H1N1)pdm09. For 2-17 year olds, LAIV4 aVE was 26.9% (95% CI: -32.6 to 59.7) against all influenza; -75.5% (95% CI: -289.6 to 21) against A(H3N2); 60.8% (95% CI: 8.2 to 83.3) against B and 90.3% (95% CI: 16.4 to 98.9) against A(H1N1)pdm09. For ≥ 18 year olds, TIV aVE against influenza B was 1.9% (95% CI: -63.6 to 41.2). The 2017 seroprevalence of antibody recognising tissue-grown A(H3N2) virus was significantly lower than that recognising egg-grown virus in all groups except 15-24 year olds.ConclusionsOverall aVE was low driven by no effectiveness against A(H3N2) possibly related to vaccine virus egg-adaption and a new A(H3N2) subgroup emergence. The TIV was not effective against influenza B. LAIV4 against influenza B and A(H1N1)pdm09 was effective.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Virus de la Influenza B/inmunología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Vacunas Atenuadas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Influenza B/aislamiento & purificación , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Atención Primaria de Salud , Estaciones del Año , Vigilancia de Guardia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/inmunología , Adulto Joven
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(9): 1708-1718, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441745

RESUMEN

We describe the effects of the 7-valent (PCV7) and 13-valent (PCV13) pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on pneumococcal meningitis in England and Wales during July 1, 2000-June 30, 2016. Overall, 84,473 laboratory-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease cases, including 4,160 (4.9%) cases with meningitis, occurred. PCV7 implementation in 2006 did not lower overall pneumococcal meningitis incidence because of replacement with non-PCV7-type meningitis incidence. Replacement with PCV13 in 2010, however, led to a 48% reduction in pneumococcal meningitis incidence by 2015-16. The overall case-fatality rate was 17.5%: 10.7% among patients <5 years of age, 17.3% among patients 5-64 years of age, and 31.9% among patients >65 years of age. Serotype 8 was associated with increased odds of death (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.7). In England and Wales, an effect on pneumococcal meningitis was observed only after PCV13 implementation. Further studies are needed to assess pneumococcal meningitis caused by the replacing serotypes.


Asunto(s)
Meningitis Neumocócica/epidemiología , Vacunas Neumococicas/administración & dosificación , Streptococcus pneumoniae/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Vacuna Neumocócica Conjugada Heptavalente/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Vacunación Masiva , Meningitis Neumocócica/mortalidad , Meningitis Neumocócica/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vacunas Conjugadas , Gales/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 255, 2019 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern. The weather factors that influence spatial and seasonal distributions are not fully understood. METHODS: To investigate the impacts of temperature and rainfall on Campylobacter infections in England and Wales, cases of Campylobacter were linked to local temperature and rainfall at laboratory postcodes in the 30 days before the specimen date. Methods for investigation included a comparative conditional incidence, wavelet, clustering, and time series analyses. RESULTS: The increase of Campylobacter infections in the late spring was significantly linked to temperature two weeks before, with an increase in conditional incidence of 0.175 cases per 100,000 per week for weeks 17 to 24; the relationship to temperature was not linear. Generalized structural time series model revealed that changes in temperature accounted for 33.3% of the expected cases of Campylobacteriosis, with an indication of the direction and relevant temperature range. Wavelet analysis showed a strong annual cycle with additional harmonics at four and six months. Cluster analysis showed three clusters of seasonality with geographic similarities representing metropolitan, rural, and other areas. CONCLUSIONS: The association of Campylobacteriosis with temperature is likely to be indirect. High-resolution spatial temporal linkage of weather parameters and cases is important in improving weather associations with infectious diseases. The primary driver of Campylobacter incidence remains to be determined; other avenues, such as insect contamination of chicken flocks through poor biosecurity should be explored.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Animales , Pollos , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Humanos , Estaciones del Año , Gales/epidemiología
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 198, 2018 04 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To understand the impact of weather on infectious diseases, information on weather parameters at patient locations is needed, but this is not always accessible due to confidentiality or data availability. Weather parameters at nearby locations are often used as a proxy, but the accuracy of this practice is not known. METHODS: Daily Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium cases across England and Wales were linked to local temperature and rainfall at the residence postcodes of the patients and at the corresponding postcodes of the laboratory where the patient's specimen was tested. The paired values of daily rainfall and temperature for the laboratory versus residence postcodes were interpolated from weather station data, and the results were analysed for agreement using linear regression. We also assessed potential dependency of the findings on the relative geographic distance between the patient's residence and the laboratory. RESULTS: There was significant and strong agreement between the daily values of rainfall and temperature at diagnostic laboratories with the values at the patient residence postcodes for samples containing the pathogens Campylobacter or Cryptosporidium. For rainfall, the R-squared was 0.96 for the former and 0.97 for the latter, and for maximum daily temperature, the R-squared was 0.99 for both. The overall mean distance between the patient residence and the laboratory was 11.9 km; however, the distribution of these distances exhibited a heavy tail, with some rare situations where the distance between the patient residence and the laboratory was larger than 500 km. These large distances impact the distributions of the weather variable discrepancies (i.e. the differences between weather parameters estimated at patient residence postcodes and those at laboratory postcodes), with discrepancies up to ±10 °C for the minimum and maximum temperature and 20 mm for rainfall. Nevertheless, the distributions of discrepancies (estimated separately for minimum and maximum temperature and rainfall), based on the cases where the distance between the patient residence and the laboratory was within 20 km, still exhibited tails somewhat longer than the corresponding exponential fits suggesting modest small scale variations in temperature and rainfall. CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that, for the purposes of studying the relationships between meteorological variables and infectious diseases using data based on laboratory postcodes, the weather results are sufficiently similar to justify the use of laboratory postcode as a surrogate for domestic postcode. Exclusion of the small percentage of cases where there is a large distance between the residence and the laboratory could increase the precision of estimates, but there are generally strong associations between daily weather parameters at residence and laboratory.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Infecciones por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiosis/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Laboratorios , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura , Gales/epidemiología
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 18(4): 441-451, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395999

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have substantially reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes; however, replacement disease with non-PCV serotypes remains a concern. We describe the population effect of the seven-valent and 13-valent PCVs (PCV7 and PCV13) on invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales. METHODS: Using national invasive pneumococcal disease surveillance data for 2016/17, we compared incidence rate ratios (IRRs) against pre-PCV13 (2008/09-2009/10) and pre-PCV7 (2000/01-2005/06) baselines. We also estimated the number of invasive pneumococcal disease cases prevented since the introduction of PCVs. FINDINGS: In 2016/17, overall invasive pneumococcal disease incidence (9·87 cases per 100 000; 5450 cases) across all age groups was 37% lower (IRR 0·63, 95% CI 0·60-0·65) than pre-PCV7 incidence (14·79 per 100 000; 8167 cases) and 7% lower (0·93; 0·89-0·97) than pre-PCV13 incidence (10·13 per 100 000; 5595 cases). By 2016/17, PCV7-type invasive pneumococcal disease incidence across all age groups had decreased by 97% (0·24 per 100 000; 0·03, 0·02-0·04) compared with the pre-PCV7 period, whereas additional PCV13-type invasive pneumococcal disease decreased by 64% (1·66 per 100 000; 0·36, 0·32-0·40) since the introduction of PCV13. Invasive pneumococcal disease incidence due to non-PCV13 serotypes doubled (7·97 per 100 000; 1·97, 1·86-2·09) since the introduction of PCV7, and accelerated since 2013/14-especially serotypes 8, 12F, and 9N, which were responsible for more than 40% of invasive pneumococcal disease cases by 2016/17. Invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in children younger than 5 years remained stable since 2013/14, with nearly all replacement disease occurring in adults. We estimated 38 366 invasive pneumococcal disease cases were prevented in the 11 years since the introduction of PCV7. INTERPRETATION: Both PCV7 and PCV13 have had a major effect in reducing the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales; however, rapid increases in some non-PCV13 serotypes are compromising the benefits of the programme. FUNDING: Public Health England.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna Neumocócica Conjugada Heptavalente/inmunología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/microbiología , Vacunas Neumococicas/inmunología , Serogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/clasificación , Streptococcus pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Gales/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 6: 42-50, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193709

RESUMEN

Background: Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) is a major public health concern. The effectiveness of 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) against IPD in older age-groups is not fully understood. We measured PPV23 effectiveness against IPD and interpreted changes in IPD incidence between 2000 and 2017. Methods: Public Health England conducts enhanced national IPD surveillance in England and Wales. The indirect cohort method was used to estimate PPV23 effectiveness against IPD in individuals aged ≥ 65 years eligible for PPV23 vaccination during 2012-2016. IPD incidence in 2016/17 was compared to rates during 2000-2003, when neither PPV23 nor pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were routinely used in England and Wales. Findings: PPV23 effectiveness, irrespective of time since vaccination, was 27% (95% CI, 17-35) after adjusting for age, co-morbidity and year of infection. Vaccine effectiveness reduced non-significantly (p = 0.13) with time since vaccination, from 41% (95% CI, 23-54) for those vaccinated within two years, to 34% (95% CI, 16-48) for those vaccinated 2-4 years previously, and 23% (95% CI, 12-32) for those vaccinated ≥ 5 years previously. Vaccine effectiveness did not vary significantly by age but was highest in previously healthy individuals (45%; 95%CI, 27-59). IPD incidence for PPV23 serotypes not included in the PCVs did not decrease after routine PPV23 use but increased significantly since PCV introduction in 2006. Interpretation: PPV23 offers moderate short-term protection against IPD in older adults. PPV23 serotypes comprise an increasing proportion of IPD cases in older adults because of serotype replacement following routine PCV use in children. Funding: European Union's Horizon 2020.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA