Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 15 de 15
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Ann Bot ; 128(1): 1-16, 2021 07 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038211

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous laboratory studies have suggested selection for root hair traits in future crop breeding to improve resource use efficiency and stress tolerance. However, data on the interplay between root hairs and open-field systems, under contrasting soils and climate conditions, are limited. As such, this study aims to experimentally elucidate some of the impacts that root hairs have on plant performance on a field scale. METHODS: A field experiment was set up in Scotland for two consecutive years, under contrasting climate conditions and different soil textures (i.e. clay loam vs. sandy loam). Five barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes exhibiting variation in root hair length and density were used in the study. Root hair length, density and rhizosheath weight were measured at several growth stages, as well as shoot biomass, plant water status, shoot phosphorus (P) accumulation and grain yield. KEY RESULTS: Measurements of root hair density, length and its correlation with rhizosheath weight highlighted trait robustness in the field under variable environmental conditions, although significant variations were found between soil textures as the growing season progressed. Root hairs did not confer a notable advantage to barley under optimal conditions, but under soil water deficit root hairs enhanced plant water status and stress tolerance resulting in a less negative leaf water potential and lower leaf abscisic acid concentration, while promoting shoot P accumulation. Furthermore, the presence of root hairs did not decrease yield under optimal conditions, while root hairs enhanced yield stability under drought. CONCLUSIONS: Selecting for beneficial root hair traits can enhance yield stability without diminishing yield potential, overcoming the breeder's dilemma of trying to simultaneously enhance both productivity and resilience. Therefore, the maintenance or enhancement of root hairs can represent a key trait for breeding the next generation of crops for improved drought tolerance in relation to climate change.


Asunto(s)
Hordeum , Agua , Sequías , Fitomejoramiento , Raíces de Plantas , Suelo
2.
Eur J Agron ; 91: 74-83, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129966

RESUMEN

This work compared root length distributions of different winter wheat genotypes with soil physical measurements, in attempting to explain the relationship between root length density and soil depth. Field experiments were set up to compare the growth of various wheat lines, including near isogenic lines (Rht-B1a Tall NIL and Rht-B1c Dwarf NIL) and wheat lines grown commercially (cv. Battalion, Hystar Hybrid, Istabraq, and Robigus). Experiments occurred in two successive years under rain fed conditions. Soil water content, temperature and penetrometer resistance profiles were measured, and soil cores taken to estimate vertical profiles of pore distribution, and root number with the core-break method and by root washing. Root length distributions differed substantially between years. Wetter soil in 2014/2015 was associated with shallower roots. Although there was no genotypic effect in 2014/2015, in 2013/2014 the dwarf wheat had the most roots at depth. In the shallower layers, some wheat lines, especially Battalion, seemed better at penetrating non-structured soil. The increase in penetrometer resistance with depth was a putative explanation for the rapid decrease in root length density with depth. Differences between the two years in root profiles were greater than those due to genotype, suggesting that comparisons of different genotypic effects need to take account of different soil conditions and seasonal differences. We also demonstrate that high yields are not necessarily linked to resource acquisition, which did not seem to be limiting in the low yielding dwarf NIL.

3.
Plant Sci ; 263: 94-106, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818388

RESUMEN

Selecting rootstocks for high nitrogen acquisition ability may allow decreased N fertilizer application without reducing tomato yields, minimizing environmental nitrate pollution. A commercial hybrid tomato variety was grafted on a genotyped population of 130 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Solanum pimpinellifolium, and compared with self- and non-grafted controls under contrasting nitrate availabilities (13.8 vs 1.0mM) in the nutrient solution. Grafting itself altered xylem sap composition under N-sufficient conditions, particularly Na+ (8.75-fold increase) concentration. N deprivation decreased shoot dry weight by 72.7% across the grafted RIL population, and one RIL rootstock allowed higher total leaf N content than the best of controls, suggesting more effective N uptake. Sixty-two significant QTLs were detected by multiple QTL mapping procedure for leaf N concentration (LNC), vegetative growth, and the xylem sap concentrations of Mn and four phytohormone groups (cytokinins, gibberellins, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid). Only three LNC QTLs could be common between nitrogen treatments. Clustering of rootstock QTLs controlling LNC, leaf dry weight and xylem sap salicylic acid concentration in chromosome 9 suggests a genetic relationship between this rootstock phytohormone and N uptake efficiency. Some functional candidate genes found within 2 Mbp intervals of LNC and hormone QTLs are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Genotipo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/genética , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotes de la Planta , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Xilema/genética , Xilema/metabolismo
4.
Plant Soil ; 415(1): 407-422, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025056

RESUMEN

Background and aims: There is an urgent need to develop new high throughput approaches to phenotype roots in the field. Excavating roots to make direct measurements is labour intensive. An alternative to excavation is to measure soil drying profiles and to infer root activity. Methods: We grew 23 lines of wheat in 2013, 2014 and 2015. In each year we estimated soil water profiles with electrical resistance tomography (ERT), electromagnetic inductance (EMI), penetrometer measurements and measurements of soil water content. We determined the relationships between the measured variable and soil water content and matric potential. Results: We found that ERT and penetrometer measurements were closely related to soil matric potential and produced the best discrimination between wheat lines. We found genotypic differences in depth of water uptake in soil water profiles and in the extent of surface drying. Conclusions: Penetrometer measurements can provide a reliable approach to comparing soil drying profiles by different wheat lines, and genotypic rankings are repeatable across years. EMI, which is more sensitive to soil water content than matric potential, and is less effective in drier soils than the penetrometer or ERT, nevertheless can be used to rapidly screen large populations for differences in root activity.

6.
J Exp Bot ; 66(8): 2315-24, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25740924

RESUMEN

Previous studies with partial rootzone drying (PRD) irrigation demonstrated that alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Alternated) increased leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf) compared with maintaining the same wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Fixed). To determine the relative contributions of different parts of the rootzone to this ABA signal, [X-ABA]leaf of potted, split-root tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants was modelled by quantifying the proportional water uptake from different soil compartments, and [X-ABA]leaf responses to the entire pot soil-water content (θpot). Continuously measuring soil-moisture depletion by, or sap fluxes from, different parts of the root system revealed that water uptake rapidly declined (within hours) after withholding water from part of the rootzone, but was rapidly restored (within minutes) upon re-watering. Two hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, [X-ABA]leaf was equally well predicted according to θpot alone and by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Six hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, water uptake by roots in drying soil was minimal and, instead, occurred mainly from the newly irrigated part of the rootzone, thus [X-ABA]leaf was best predicted by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Contrary to previous results, alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone did not enhance [X-ABA]leaf compared with PRD-Fixed irrigation. Further work is required to establish whether altered root-to-shoot ABA signalling contributes to the improved yields of crops grown with alternate, rather than fixed, PRD.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Desecación , Exudados de Plantas/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Agua/química , Xilema/metabolismo , Convección , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiología , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Suelo/química
7.
Tree Physiol ; 33(5): 537-49, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23677119

RESUMEN

Anatomical, physiological and phytohormonal changes involved in drought tolerance were examined in different Pinus radiata D. Don breeds subjected to soil drying and rewatering. Breeds with the smallest stomatal chamber size had the lowest transpiration rate and the highest intrinsic water-use efficiency. Xylem cell size was positively correlated with leaf hydraulic conductance and needle indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations, whereas transpiration rate was negatively correlated with needle abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Since these two phytohormones seem important in regulating the P. radiata drought response, they were simultaneously immunolocalized in roots and needles of the most tolerant breed (P. radiata var. radiata × var. cedrosensis) during two sequential drought cycles and after rewatering. During drought, IAA was unequally distributed into the pointed area of the needle cross-section and mainly located in mesophyll and vascular tissue cells of needles, possibly inducing needle epinasty, whereas ABA was principally located in guard cells, presumably to elicit stomata closure. In the roots, at the end of the first drought cycle, while strong IAA accumulation was observed in the cortex, ABA levels decreased probably due to translocation to the leaves. Rewatering modified the distribution of both IAA and ABA in the needles, causing an accumulation principally in vascular tissue, with residual concentrations in mesophyll, likely favouring the acclimatization of the plants for further drought cycles. Contrarily, in the roots IAA and ABA were located in the exodermis, a natural barrier that regulates the phytohormone translocation to other plant tissues and hormone losses to the soil solution after rewatering. These results confirm that immunolocalization is an efficient tool to understand the translocation of IAA and ABA in plants subjected to different water stress situations, and clarify their role in regulating physiological responses such as stomata closure and epinasty in needles and root development.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Pinus/metabolismo , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Biomasa , Deshidratación , Inmunohistoquímica , Pinus/citología , Pinus/fisiología , Hojas de la Planta/citología , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Raíces de Plantas/citología , Raíces de Plantas/fisiología , Estomas de Plantas/citología , Estomas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estomas de Plantas/fisiología , Plantones/citología , Plantones/metabolismo , Plantones/fisiología , Suelo , Agua/fisiología , Xilema/citología , Xilema/metabolismo , Xilema/fisiología
8.
Funct Plant Biol ; 39(5): 366-378, 2012 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480789

RESUMEN

To determine whether irrigation strategy altered the sensitivity of Citrus leaf gas exchange to soil, plant and atmospheric variables, mature (16-year-old) Fino 49 lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. grafted on Citrus macrophylla Wester) were exposed to three irrigation treatments: control (irrigated with 100% of crop potential evapotranspiration, ETc), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD) treatments,which received 75% ETc during the period of highest evaporative demand and 50% ETc otherwise. Furthermore, to assess the physiological significance of root-to-shoot ABA signalling, the seasonal dynamics of leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf) were evaluated over two soil wetting-drying cycles during a 2-week period in summer. Although stomatal conductance (gs) declined with increased leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (LAVPD), lower leaf water potential and soil water availability, [X-ABA]leaf was only related to stomatal closure in well irrigated trees under moderate (<2.5kPa) atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Differences in [X-ABA]leaf were not detected between treatments either before or immediately after (<12h) rewatering the dry side of PRD trees. Leaf water potential was higher in control trees, but decreased similarly in all irrigation treatments as daily LAVPD increased. In contrast, DI and PRD trees showed lower stomatal sensitivity to LAVPD than control trees. Although DI and PRD decreased stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, these treatments did not significantly decrease yield, but PRD increased crop water use efficiency (WUE) by 83% compared with control trees. Thus PRD-induced enhancement of crop WUE in a semiarid environment seems to involve physiological mechanisms other than increased [X-ABA]leaf.

9.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 13(3): 546-50, 2011 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21489107

RESUMEN

Tomato high pigment (hp) mutants represent an interesting horticultural resource due to their enhanced accumulation of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamin C. Since hp mutants are known for their exaggerated light responses, the molecules accumulated are likely to be antioxidants, recruited to deal with light and others stresses. Further phenotypes displayed by hp mutations are reduced growth and an apparent disturbance in water loss. Here, we examined the impact of the hp1 mutation and its near isogenic line cv Micro-Tom (MT) on stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), CO(2) assimilation (A) and water use efficiency (WUE). Detached hp1 leaves lost water more rapidly than control leaves, but this behaviour was reversed by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), indicating the ability of hp1 to respond to this hormone. Although attached hp1 leaves had enhanced gs, E and A compared to control leaves, genotypic differences were lost when water was withheld. Both instantaneous leaf-level WUE and long-term whole plant WUE did not differ between hp1 and MT. Our results indicate a link between exaggerated light response and water loss in hp1, which has important implications for the use of this mutant in both basic and horticultural research.


Asunto(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiología , Transpiración de Plantas/fisiología , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Adaptación Ocular , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Variación Genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Mutación , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Estomas de Plantas/fisiología , Transpiración de Plantas/genética , Agua/metabolismo
10.
J Exp Bot ; 58(11): 3017-24, 2007.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17728295

RESUMEN

Growth of temperate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants aeroponically in tropical greenhouses under ambient root-zone temperatures (A-RZTs) exposes roots to temperatures of up to 40 degrees C during the middle of the day, and severely limits root and shoot growth. The role of ethylene in inhibiting growth was investigated with just-germinated (24-h-old) seedlings in vitro, and 10-d-old plants grown aeroponically. Compared with seedlings maintained at 20 degrees C, root elongation in vitro was inhibited by 39% and root diameter increased by 25% under a temperature regime (38 degrees C/24 degrees C for 7 h/17 h) that simulated A-RZT in the greenhouse. The effects on root elongation were partially alleviated by supplying the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors aminooxyacetic acid (100-500 microM) or aminoisobutyric acid (5-100 microM) to the seedlings. Application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to seedlings grown at 20 degrees C mimicked the high temperature effects on root elongation (1 microM) and root diameter (1 mM). Compared with plants grown at a constant 20 degrees C root-zone temperature, A-RZT plants showed decreased stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation, shoot and root biomass, total root length, the number of root tips, and root surface area, but increased average root diameter. Addition of 10 microM ACC to the nutrient solution of plants grown at a constant 20 degrees C root-zone temperature mimicked the effects of A-RZT on these parameters but did not influence relative water content. Addition of 30 microM aminoisobutyric acid or 100 microM aminooxyacetic acid to the nutrient solution of A-RZT plants increased stomatal conductance and relative water content and decreased average root diameter, but had no effect on other root parameters or root and shoot biomass or photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation. Although ethylene is important in regulating root morphology and elongation at A-RZT, the failure of ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors to influence shoot carbon gain limits their use in ameliorating the growth inhibition induced by A-RZT.


Asunto(s)
Etilenos/biosíntesis , Calor , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ácidos Aminoisobutíricos/farmacología , Ácido Aminooxiacético/farmacología , Etilenos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantones/metabolismo
11.
J Exp Bot ; 58(6): 1485-95, 2007.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17322547

RESUMEN

The role of bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity in the interaction between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum=Solanum lycopersicum) and Pseudomonas brassicacearum was studied in different strains. The phytopathogenic strain 520-1 possesses ACC deaminase activity, an important trait of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that stimulates root growth. The ACC-utilizing PGPR strain Am3 increased in vitro root elongation and root biomass of soil-grown tomato cv. Ailsa Craig at low bacterial concentrations (10(6) cells ml-1 in vitro and 10(6) cells g-1 soil) but had negative effects on in vitro root elongation at higher bacterial concentrations. A mutant strain of Am3 (designated T8-1) that was engineered to be ACC deaminase deficient failed to promote tomato root growth in vitro and in soil. Although strains T8-1 and 520-1 inhibited root growth in vitro at higher bacterial concentrations (>10(6) cells ml-1), they did not cause disease symptoms in vitro after seed inoculation, or in soil supplemented with bacteria. All the P. brassicacearum strains studied caused pith necrosis when stems or fruits were inoculated with a bacterial suspension, as did the causal organism of this disease (P. corrugata 176), but the non-pathogenic strain Pseudomonas sp. Dp2 did not. Strains Am3 and T8-1 were marked with antibiotic resistance and fluorescence to show that bacteria introduced to the nutrient solution or on seeds in vitro, or in soil were capable of colonizing the root surface, but were not detected inside root tissues. Both strains showed similar colonization ability either on root surfaces or in wounded stems. The results suggest that bacterial ACC deaminase of P. brassicacearum Am3 can promote growth in tomato by masking the phytopathogenic properties of this bacterium.


Asunto(s)
Liasas de Carbono-Carbono/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiología , Pseudomonas/enzimología , Pseudomonas/patogenicidad , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Liasas de Carbono-Carbono/deficiencia , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Raíces de Plantas/microbiología , Plásmidos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Pseudomonas/genética
12.
J Exp Bot ; 54(385): 1281-8, 2003 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12654879

RESUMEN

Stomatal conductance (g(s)) of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants decreased during the second photoperiod (day 2) after withholding nitrate (N). Stomatal closure of N-deprived plants was not associated with a decreased shoot water potential (Psi(shoot)); conversely Psi(shoot) was lower in N-supplied plants. N deprivation transiently (days 2 and 3) alkalized (0.2-0.3 pH units) xylem sap exuded from de-topped root systems under root pressure, and xylem sap expressed from excised shoots by pressurization. The ABA concentration of expressed sap increased 3-4-fold when measured on days 2 and 4. On day 2, leaves detached from N-deprived and N-supplied plants showed decreased transpiration rates when fed an alkaline (pH 7) artificial xylem (AX) solution, independent of the ABA concentration (10-100 nM) supplied. Thus changes in xylem sap composition following N deprivation can potentially close stomata. However, the lower transpiration rate of detached N-deprived leaves relative to N-supplied leaves shows that factors residing within N-deprived leaves also mediate stomatal closure, and that these factors assume greater importance as the duration of N deprivation increases.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Capsicum/fisiología , Nitratos/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Transpiración de Plantas/fisiología , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/efectos de los fármacos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Transpiración de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Agua/fisiología
13.
J Exp Bot ; 53(375): 1765-70, 2002 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12147726

RESUMEN

The role of shoot water status in mediating the decline in leaf elongation rate of nitrogen (N)-deprived barley plants was assessed. Plants were grown at two levels of N supply, with or without the application of pneumatic pressure to the roots. Applying enough pressure (balancing pressure) to keep xylem sap continuously bleeding from the cut surface of a leaf allowed the plants to remain at full turgor throughout the experiments. Plants from which N was withheld required a greater balancing pressure during both day and night. This difference in balancing pressure was greater at high (2.0 kPa) than low (1.2 kPa) atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Pressurizing the roots did not prevent the decline in leaf elongation rate induced by withholding N at either high or low VPD. Thus low shoot water status did not limit leaf growth of N-deprived plants.


Asunto(s)
Hordeum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Nitrógeno/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agua/fisiología , Presión Atmosférica , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Oscuridad , Hordeum/efectos de los fármacos , Presión Hidrostática , Luz , Nitrógeno/deficiencia , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/fisiología , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Brotes de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agua/farmacología
14.
J Exp Bot ; 52(359): 1323-30, 2001 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11432951

RESUMEN

Aerial parts of lettuce plants were grown under natural tropical fluctuating ambient temperatures, but with their roots exposed to two different root-zone temperatures (RZTs): a constant 20 degrees C-RZT and a fluctuating ambient (A-) RZT from 23-40 degrees C. Plants grown at A-RZT showed lower photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf relative water content (RWC), and chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm than 20 degrees C-RZT plants on both sunny and cloudy days. Substantial midday depression of A and g(s) occurred on both sunny and cloudy days in both RZT treatments, although Fv/Fm did not vary diurnally on cloudy days. Reciprocal temperature transfer experiments investigated the occurrence and possible causes of stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis. For both temperature transfers, light-saturated stomatal conductance (gs sat) and photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A(sat)) were highly correlated with each other and with midday RWC, suggesting that A was limited by water stress-mediated stomatal closure. However, prolonged growth at A-RZT reduced light- and CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution (Pmax), indicating non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Tight temporal coupling of leaf nitrogen content and P(max) during both temperature transfers suggested that decreased nutrient status caused this non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis , Raíces de Plantas/fisiología , Clima Tropical , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fluorescencia , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Presión Osmótica , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Brotes de la Planta/fisiología , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de la radiación , Temperatura , Agua/metabolismo
15.
J Exp Bot ; 51(343): 239-48, 2000 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10938830

RESUMEN

Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants were grown aeroponically in a Singapore greenhouse under natural diurnally fluctuating ambient shoot temperatures, but at two different root-zone temperatures (RZTs): a constant 20 +/- 2 degrees C RZT and a diurnally fluctuating ambient (A) (25-40 degrees C) RZT. Plants grown at 20-RZT had more leaves, greater leaf area and dry weight than A-RZT plants. Reciprocal transfer experiments were conducted between RZTs to investigate the effect on plant growth, stomatal conductance (gs) and water relations. Transfer of plants from A-RZT to 20-RZT increased plant dry weight, leaf area, number of leaves, shoot water potential (psi shoot), and gs; while transfer of plants from 20-RZT to A-RZT decreased these parameters. Root hydraulic conductivity was measured in the latter transfer and decreased by 80% after 23 d at A-RZT. Transfer of plants from 20-RZT to A-RZT had no effect on xylem ABA concentration or xylem nitrate concentration, but reduced xylem sap pH by 0.2 units. At both RZTs, gs measured in the youngest fully expanded leaves increased with plant development. In plants with the same number of leaves, A-RZT plants had a higher gs than 20-RZT plants, but only under high atmospheric vapour pressure deficit. The roles of chemical signals and hydraulic factors in controlling gs of aeroponically grown Capsicum plants at different RZTs are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantas Medicinales , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Temperatura
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...