Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 251
Filtrar
1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676595

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To address the increasing incidence of gonorrhoea and antimicrobial resistance, we compared the efficacy of Listerine and Biotène mouthwashes for preventing gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: The OMEGA trial was a multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind randomised controlled trial among MSM, done at three urban sexual health clinics and one general practice clinic in Australia. Men were eligible if they were diagnosed with oropharyngeal gonorrhoea by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) in the previous 30 days or were aged 16-24 years. They were randomly assigned to receive Listerine (intervention) or Biotène (control) via a computer-generated sequence (1:1 ratio, block size of four). Participants, clinicians, data collectors, data analysts, and outcome adjudicators were masked to the interventions after assignment. Participants were instructed to rinse and gargle with 20 mL of mouthwash for 60 s at least once daily for 12 weeks. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected by research nurses every 6 weeks, and participants provided saliva samples every 3 weeks, to be tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae with NAAT and quantitative PCR. The primary outcome was proportion of MSM diagnosed with oropharyngeal N gonorrhoeae infection at any point over the 12-week period, defined as a positive result for either oropharyngeal swabs or saliva samples by NAAT, and the cumulative incidence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea at the week 12 visit. A modified intention-to-treat analysis for the primary outcome was done that included men who provided at least one follow-up specimen over the 12-week study period. The trial was registered on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12616000247471). FINDINGS: Between March 30, 2016, and Oct 26, 2018, 786 MSM were screened and 256 were excluded. 264 MSM were randomly assigned to the Biotène group and 266 to the Listerine group. The analysis population included 227 (86%) men in the Biotène group and 219 (82%) in the Listerine group. Oropharyngeal gonorrhoea was detected in ten (4%) of 227 of MSM in the Biotène group and in 15 (7%) of 219 in the Listerine group (adjusted risk difference 2·5%, 95% CI -1·8 to 6·8). The cumulative incidence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea at the week 12 visit did not differ between the two mouthwash groups (adjusted risk difference 3·1%, 95% CI -1·4 to 7·7). INTERPRETATION: Listerine did not reduce the incidence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea compared with Biotène. However, previous research suggests that mouthwash might reduce the infectivity of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea; therefore, further studies of mouthwash examining its inhibitory effect on N gonorrhoeae are warranted to determine if it has a potential role for the prevention of transmission. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534904

RESUMEN

Ambitious World Health Organization targets for disease elimination require monitoring of epidemics using routine health data in settings of decreasing and low incidence. We evaluated two methods commonly applied to routine testing results to estimate incidence rates that assume uniform probability of infection between consecutive negative and positive tests based on: 1. the midpoint of this interval; and 2. a randomly selected point on this interval. We compared these with an approximation to the Poisson-binomial distribution which assigns partial incidence to time-periods based on the uniform probability of occurrence in these intervals. We assessed bias, variance and convergence of estimates using simulations of Weibull distributed failure times with systematically varied baseline incidence, and varying trend. We considered results for quarterly, half-yearly and yearly incidence estimation frequencies. We applied methods to assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence in HIV-negative patients from the Treatment with Antiretrovirals and their Impact on Positive And Negative men study between 2012 and 2018. The Poisson-binomial method had reduced bias and variance at low levels of incidence and for increased estimation frequency, with increased consistency of estimation. Application of methods to real-world assessment of HIV incidence found decreased variance in Poisson-binomial model estimates, with observed incidence declining to levels where simulation results had indicated bias in midpoint and random-point methods.

3.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(3): 195-199, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555761

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most research focuses on individual selling sex but very few on paying for sex. This study aimed to determine the proportion of males and females who paid for sex and associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a short survey at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March and April 2019, which included a question on whether they had paid for sex in the past 3 months. The proportion of individuals who had paid for sex was calculated by sex and sexual orientation. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify individual's factors (e.g., demographics, sexual orientation, and HIV/sexually transmitted infection [STI] positivity) associated with paying for sex in the past 3 months. RESULTS: The proportion who reported paying for sex in the past 3 months was 12.2% (42/345) among heterosexual males, followed by 6.4% (23/357) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and 0.2% (1/430) among females. HIV status, preexposure prophylaxis use, and sexual orientation were not associated with paying for sex among MSM. No MSM living with HIV reported paying for sex in the past 3 months. There was a significant association between paying for sex and gonorrhea (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-7.71; P = 0.041) but not HIV, syphilis, and chlamydia among MSM. HIV/STI was not associated with paying for sex among heterosexual males. CONCLUSIONS: Paying for sex was more commonly reported among heterosexual males, followed by MSM. Females were very unlikely to pay for sex. There was a limited association between HIV/STI diagnosis and paying for sex among males.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243633, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370362

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To overcome key knowledge gaps in relation to justice involved and vulnerable young people and their sexual health and to compare this group with their peers from other youth health surveys in Australia to determine the extent of the issues. METHODS: Young people, aged between 14 and 17 years, who had ever been or were currently involved with the criminal justice system were purposively sampled. The survey was anonymous and delivered using Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI). RESULTS: A total of 465 justice involved MeH-JOSH young people, aged between 14 and 17 years, participated in the study: 44% Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) and 37% not attending school. Of the total valid responses, 76% (n = 348) reported having ever had sex, with sexual initiation at a median age of 14 years. We compared these data with their peers in other Australian surveys and found that young people in our study had a higher engagement in sex and start having sex at a younger age, reporting more sexual partners at all ages. CONCLUSIONS: The sexual behaviours of young people involved in the justice system in this study suggest they may be at a greater risk for sexually transmissible infections than their age-matched peers in the general population. Policymakers should elevate them to a priority population for targeting sexual health services and health promotion.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Sexual , Adolescente , Australia , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Parejas Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 834, 2020 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176727

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is estimated to affect 1 in 3 women globally and is associated with obstetric and gynaecological sequelae. Current recommended therapies have good short-term efficacy but 1 in 2 women experience BV recurrence within 6 months of treatment. Evidence of male carriage of BV-organisms suggests that male partners may be reinfecting women with BV-associated bacteria (henceforth referred to as BV-organisms) and impacting on the efficacy of treatment approaches solely directed to women. This trial aims to determine the effect of concurrent male partner treatment for preventing BV recurrence compared to current standard of care. METHODS: StepUp is an open-label, multicentre, parallel group randomised controlled trial for women diagnosed with BV and their male partner. Women with clinical-BV defined using current gold standard diagnosis methods (≥3 Amsel criteria and Nugent score (NS) = 4-10) and with a regular male partner will be assessed for eligibility, and couples will then be consented. All women will be prescribed oral metronidazole 400 mg twice daily (BID) for 7 days, or if contraindicated, a 7-day regimen of topical vaginal 2% clindamycin. Couples will be randomised 1:1 to either current standard of care (female treatment only), or female treatment and concurrent male partner treatment (7 days of combined antibiotics - oral metronidazole tablets 400 mg BID and 2% clindamycin cream applied topically to the glans penis and upper shaft [under the foreskin if uncircumcised] BID). Couples will be followed for up to 12 weeks to assess BV status in women, and assess the adherence, tolerability and acceptability of male partner treatment. The primary outcome is BV recurrence defined as ≥3 Amsel criteria and NS = 4-10 within 12 weeks of enrolment. The estimated sample size is 342 couples, to detect a 40% reduction in BV recurrence rates from 40% in the control group to 24% in the intervention group within 12 weeks. DISCUSSION: Current treatments directed solely to women result in unacceptably high rates of BV recurrence. If proven to be effective the findings from this trial will directly inform the development of new treatment strategies to impact on BV recurrence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered on 12 February 2019 on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12619000196145, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1228-0106, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=376883&isReview=true ).


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Clindamicina/uso terapéutico , Metronidazol/uso terapéutico , Parejas Sexuales , Vaginosis Bacteriana/tratamiento farmacológico , Administración Intravaginal , Administración Oral , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Australia , Clindamicina/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/administración & dosificación , Nueva Zelanda , Pene/microbiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vaginosis Bacteriana/microbiología
6.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-16, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034268

RESUMEN

Western Australia criminalises sex work whilst some other Australian jurisdictions have decriminalised the industry. This article examines the role of Western Australia's legislation in reinforcing stigma and discrimination of sex workers. It draws on stigma and discrimination-specific results from open-ended survey responses and interview data collected as part of a larger cross-sectional mixed-methods study. Experiences and/or anticipation of stigma and discrimination resulted in some sex workers concealing their involvement in sex work from family, friends and their home communities. This was a major barrier to accessing health care and protective services and impacted negatively on their mental health and wellbeing. There is a need for policy change and support to shift society's perception of sex work to that of a legitimate occupation to decrease sex workers' experiences of stigma and discrimination and improve their access to and utilisation of health care and protective services. These findings highlight the need for the decriminalisation of the Western Australian sex industry and the development of training programmes for police and healthcare workers to reduce the stigma and discrimination experienced by sex workers in these settings.

7.
J Sex Res ; : 1-12, 2020 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052063

RESUMEN

Intoxication can be a factor in unwanted sex, but research on the extent of the issue in both women and men is limited. We assessed the prevalence, correlates, and 10-year time-trends of unwanted sex due to intoxication among a representative sample of 4,279 women and 3,875 men aged 16-69 years in Australia and considered how these vary by gender. In 2012-13, 16% of women and 10% of men reported ever having had a sexual experience when they "did not want to because they were too drunk or high at the time." For both women and men, this was associated with younger age, bisexual activity, and reports of lifetime injection drug use, sexually transmitted infections, and forced sex. Among women only, it was associated with drinking above guideline levels and ever having terminated a pregnancy. Among men only, it was associated with current tobacco smoking, elevated psychosocial distress, and poor general health. Compared with 2001-02 data, fewer men reported unwanted intoxicated sex, while there were no changes for women as a whole. Interpreting these findings through an intersectional assemblage framework supports stronger understanding of the multiple factors influencing sexuality and substance use with implications for promoting equity, safety, and sexual health.

8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 769, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819360

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmissible infection (STI) and blood-borne virus (BBV) diagnoses data are a core component of the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). However, the NNDSS data alone is not enough to understand STI and BBV burden among priority population groups, like Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, because it lacks testing, treatment and management data. Here, we describe the processes involved in establishing a STI and BBV sentinel surveillance network representative of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services (ACCHS)-known as the ATLAS network-to augment the NNDSS and to help us understand the burden of disease due to STI and BBV among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. METHODS: Researchers invited participation from ACCHS in urban, regional and remote areas clustered in five clinical hubs across four Australian jurisdictions. Participation agreements were developed for each clinical hub and individual ACCHS. Deidentified electronic medical record (EMR) data relating to STI and BBV testing, treatment and management are collected passively from each ACCHS via the GRHANITEtm data extraction tool. These data are analysed centrally to inform 12 performance measures which are included in regular surveillance reports generated for each ACCHS and clinical hub. RESULTS: The ATLAS network currently includes 29 ACCHS. Regular reports are provided to ACCHS to assess clinical practice and drive continuous quality improvement initiatives internally. Data is also aggregated at the hub, jurisdictional and national level and will be used to inform clinical guidelines and to guide future research questions. The ATLAS infrastructure can be expanded to include other health services and potentially linked to other data sources using GRHANITE. CONCLUSIONS: The ATLAS network is an established national surveillance network specific to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The data collected through the ATLAS network augments the NNDSS and will contribute to improved STI and BBV clinical care, guidelines and policy program-planning.

9.
Sex Health ; 17(4): 303-310, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741429

RESUMEN

Background Surveillance data indicate that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are more likely than their non-Indigenous counterparts to experience sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and teenage pregnancy. Despite increasing emphasis on the need for strengths-based approaches to Aboriginal sexual health, limited published data document how young Aboriginal people reduce sexual health risks encountered in their everyday lives. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 35 young Aboriginal women and men aged 16-21 years in two remote Australian settings were conducted; inductive thematic analysis examining sexual health risk reduction practices was also conducted. RESULTS: Participants reported individual and collective STI and pregnancy risk reduction strategies. Individual practices included accessing and carrying condoms; having a regular casual sexual partner; being in a long-term trusting relationship; using long-acting reversible contraception; having fewer sexual partners; abstaining from sex; accessing STI testing. More collective strategies included: refusing sex without a condom; accompanied health clinic visits with a trusted individual; encouraging friends to use condoms and go for STI testing; providing friends with condoms. CONCLUSION: Findings broaden understanding of young Aboriginal people's sexual health risk reduction strategies in remote Aboriginal communities. Findings signal the need for multisectoral STI prevention and sexual health programs driven by young people's existing harm minimisation strategies and cultural models of collective support. Specific strategies to enhance young people's sexual health include: peer condom distribution; accompanied health service visits; peer-led health promotion; continued community-based condom distribution; enhanced access to a fuller range of available contraception in primary care settings; engaging health service-experienced young people as 'youth health workers'.

10.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-16, 2020 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744466

RESUMEN

Best practice in sex work research advocates for a 'nothing about us without us' methodology. This study employed sex workers as peer researchers to assist in evaluating the sexual health outcomes and well-being of sex workers in Western Australia. All eight peer researchers were invited to reflect on their experiences as peer researchers through semi-structured interviews, and seven peer researchers participated. Giving sex workers a voice and the opportunity to facilitate change for their peers was the primary driver for participation. Some peer researchers from English speaking backgrounds experienced challenges engaging and communicating with study participants for whom English was not their first language. Others experienced role conflict on hearing viewpoints contrary to their own beliefs. Access to support from the project team and other peer researchers was a key enabler for undertaking the peer researcher role. The majority of peer researchers were motivated to participate in the research by the possibility of future changes to sex work-related legislation, and support for sex workers based on the research findings. Research partnerships with peer researchers that offer employment throughout the research process, including co-authorship of journal articles, opportunities for leadership roles and collaboration in research translation activities can increase research impact.

11.
Sex Health ; 17(4): 384-386, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838836

RESUMEN

Sex workers confront unique challenges in the face of COVID-19. Data from an international sex work website popular with cisgender men and transgender men and women suggest that, after a period of physical distancing, many sex workers are returning to in-person work: from May to August 2020, active sex work profiles increased 9.4% (P < 0.001) and newly created profiles increased by 35.6% (P < 0.001). Analysis of sex work and COVID-19 guidelines published by five community-based organisations found that they focused on altering sexual practices, enhancing hygiene and pivoting to virtual work. To capitalise on these guidelines, funding and research for implementation and evaluation are needed to support COVID-19 risk reduction strategies for sex workers.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexo Seguro , Apoyo Social , Personas Transgénero/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
12.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727927

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate rates of acute epididymitis diagnosed in Australian hospital settings. METHODS: Yearly hospital admission and emergency department (ED) rates of epididymitis as primary diagnoses were calculated for 15-44-year-old men for three states (Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland) from 2009 to 2014 using population denominators. Zero inflated Poisson regression models were used to analyse variation in rates by year, age, and residential area. Additionally, we investigated national epididymitis admission trends from 2009 to 2018 using generalised linear models. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, there was a total of 7375 admissions and 17 281 ED presentations for which epididymitis was the main reason for care. Most epididymitis diagnoses (94.0% in admissions, 99.7% in EDs) were without abscess, and 2.5% of admissions were for chlamydial epididymitis. Almost a quarter (23.3%) of epididymitis diagnosed in EDs resulted in hospital admission. In 2014, the epididymitis rate per 100 000 men was 38.7 in admissions and 91.9 in EDs. Comparing 2014 with 2009, the overall epididymitis diagnosis rate increased in admissions by 32% (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.32, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.44) and in ED attendances by 40% (aIRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.49). By age, the highest rates were among men 35-44 years in admissions and men 15-24 years in EDs. National admission rates of epididymitis during 2009-2018 showed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: Rates of epididymitis diagnosis in hospital admission and ED presentations increased. Different age-related rates in these settings suggest a different aetiology or differential severity by age group.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e16757, 2020 06 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579128

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Australian Collaboration for Coordinated Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance (ACCESS) was established to monitor national testing and test outcomes for blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) in key populations. ACCESS extracts deidentified data from sentinel health services that include general practice, sexual health, and infectious disease clinics, as well as public and private laboratories that conduct a large volume of BBV/STI testing. An important attribute of ACCESS is the ability to accurately link individual-level records within and between the participating sites, as this enables the system to produce reliable epidemiological measures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of GRHANITE software in ACCESS to extract and link deidentified data from participating clinics and laboratories. GRHANITE generates irreversible hashed linkage keys based on patient-identifying data captured in the patient electronic medical records (EMRs) at the site. The algorithms to produce the data linkage keys use probabilistic linkage principles to account for variability and completeness of the underlying patient identifiers, producing up to four linkage key types per EMR. Errors in the linkage process can arise from imperfect or missing identifiers, impacting the system's integrity. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the quality of the linkages created and evaluate the outcome of the linkage for ongoing public health surveillance. METHODS: Although ACCESS data are deidentified, we created two gold-standard datasets where the true match status could be confirmed in order to compare against record linkage results arising from different approaches of the GRHANITE Linkage Tool. We reported sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values where possible and estimated specificity by comparing a history of HIV and hepatitis C antibody results for linked EMRs. RESULTS: Sensitivity ranged from 96% to 100%, and specificity was 100% when applying the GRHANITE Linkage Tool to a small gold-standard dataset of 3700 clinical medical records. Medical records in this dataset contained a very high level of data completeness by having the name, date of birth, post code, and Medicare number available for use in record linkage. In a larger gold-standard dataset containing 86,538 medical records across clinics and pathology services, with a lower level of data completeness, sensitivity ranged from 94% to 95% and estimated specificity ranged from 91% to 99% in 4 of the 6 different record linkage approaches. CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings suggest that the GRHANITE Linkage Tool can be used to link deidentified patient records accurately and can be confidently used for public health surveillance in systems such as ACCESS.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570787

RESUMEN

Background: Substantial declines in genital warts (GW) have been observed in countries with quadrivalent HPV vaccination programmes, with Australia showing the highest reductions due to early commencement and high vaccination coverage. There is a real potential to achieve GW elimination; however, no GW elimination definition exists. Taking Australia as a case study, we aimed to reach expert consensus on a proposed GW elimination definition using a modified Delphi process. Method: We used modelling and epidemiological data to estimate the expected number of new GW cases, from pre-vaccination (baseline) in 2006 to the year 2060 in Australian heterosexuals, men who have sex with men (MSM), and newly arrived international travellers and migrants. We used these data and the literature, to develop a questionnaire containing ten elimination-related items, each with 9-point Likert scales (1-strongly disagree; 9-strongly agree). The survey was completed by 18 experts who participated in a full day face-to-face modified Delphi study, in which individuals and then small groups discussed and scored each item. The process was repeated online for items where consensus (≥70% agreement) was not initially achieved. Median and coefficient of variation (COV) were used to describe the central tendency and variability of responses, respectively. Findings: There was a 95% participation rate in the face-to-face session, and 84% response rate in the final online round. The median item score ranged between 7.0 and 9.0 and the COV was ≤0.30 on all items. Consensus was reached that at ≥80% HPV vaccination coverage, GW will be eliminated as a public health problem in Australia by 2060. During this time period there will be a 95% reduction in population-level incidence compared with baseline, equivalent to <1 GW case per 10,000 population. The reductions will occur most rapidly in Australian heterosexuals, with 73%, 90% and 97% relative reductions by years 2021, 2030 and 2060, respectively. The proportion of new GW cases attributable to importation will increase from 3.6% in 2006 to ~49% in 2060. Interpretation: Our results indicate that the vaccination programme will minimise new GW cases in the Australian population, but importation of cases will continue. This is the first study to define GW elimination at a national level. The framework developed could be used to define GW elimination in other countries, with thresholds particularly valuable for vaccination programme impact evaluation. Funding: LK supported through an Australian Government Research Training Programme Scholarship; unconditional funding from Seqirus to support the Delphi Workshop.

15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591488

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Recommendations of 'social distancing' and home quarantines to combat the global COVID-19 pandemic have implications for sex and intimacy, including sex work. This study examined the effects of COVID-19 on male sex work globally and investigated how men who sold sex responded to and engaged with the virus in the context of work. METHODS: This study made use of an existing database of deidentified data extracted from the online profiles maintained by male sex workers on a large, international website. Website engagement metrics were calculated for the periods before (September to December 2019) and during COVID-19 (January to May 2020); Poisson regression analyses were used to assess changes over time before and after, while a content analysis was undertaken to identify modes of engagement with the virus. RESULTS: Data were collected from 78 399 profiles representing 19 388 individuals. In the 'before' period, the number of active profiles was stable (inter-rate ratio (IRR)=1.01, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.01, p=0.339) but during COVID-19 decreased by 26.3% (IRR=0.90, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.91, p<0.001). Newly created profiles also decreased during COVID-19 (59.4%; IRR=0.71, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.74, p<0.001) after a period of stability. In total, 211 unique profiles explicitly referenced COVID-19; 185 (85.8%) evoked risk reduction strategies, including discontinuation of in-person services (41.2%), pivoting to virtual services (38.9%), COVID-19 status disclosure (20.9%), enhanced sanitary and screening requirements (12.3%) and restricted travel (5.2%). Some profiles, however, seemed to downplay the seriousness of COVID-19 or resist protective measures (14.7%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the contention that COVID-19 has dramatically impacted the sex industry; globally, male sex workers may be facing considerable economic strain. Targeted education and outreach are needed to support male sex workers grappling with COVID-19, including around the most effective risk reduction strategies. Those involved with the sex industry must have access to state-sponsored COVID-19 financial and other aid programmes to support individual and public health.

16.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(6): 389-394, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421299

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The resumption of sexual activity shortly after commencing treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is poorly described despite contributing to onward transmission. With azithromycin remaining an option for rectal Chlamydia trachomatis, resuming sex too early after treatment may contribute to antimicrobial resistance because of exposure of newly acquired STIs to subinhibitory concentrations. METHODS: Clinical and sexual behavioral data were collected from men participating in a trial assessing treatment efficacy for rectal chlamydia. Data were collected at recruitment and weekly for 3 weeks after commencing treatment. Outcome measures were resumption of any sexual activity or condomless receptive anal sex within 1, 2, or 3 weeks after commencing treatment. Generalized linear regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) to identify associated factors. RESULTS: Almost 1 in 10 men (9.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2-12.1) resumed condomless receptive anal sex within 1 week of commencing treatment. This was associated with current preexposure prophylaxis use (aRR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.5-4.8]) and having 9 or more sexual partners in the last 3 months (aRR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-5.0). Most men (75.0%; 95% CI, 71.3-78.5) resumed any sexual activity within 3 weeks; this was associated with a greater number of sexual partners (4-8 partners; aRR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; ≥9 partners; aRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Resuming condomless receptive anal sex early after treatment may facilitate onward transmission and promote antimicrobial resistance for STIs. Although azithromycin remains a treatment option, this analysis highlights the need for new health promotion messages regarding early resumption of sex and continued surveillance for antimicrobial resistance.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299331

RESUMEN

The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) updated recommendations on the use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in the Australian Immunisation Handbook in 2018, regarding the use of the recently available 9-valent (9vHPV) vaccine, Gardasil 9, and a 2-dose schedule for young adolescents for HPV vaccines. This report provides an overview of the relevant scientific evidence that underpinned these updated recommendations. The 9vHPV vaccine includes 5 HPV types (HPV 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) additional to the 4 that are also covered by the 4vHPV (Gardasil) vaccine (HPV 6,11,16,18). Accordingly, the 9vHPV vaccine is expected to prevent an additional 15% of cervical cancers and up to 20% of other HPV-related cancers. Non-inferior antibody responses after two 9vHPV vaccine doses given 6-12 months apart in girls and boys aged 9-14 years compared to women aged 16-26 years after three doses support the 2-dose schedule for adolescents of this age group. In clinical trials 9vHPV vaccine was well-tolerated with a similar safety profile to 4vHPV vaccine. The switch to 9vHPV vaccine and a 2-dose schedule is anticipated to improve public acceptability of the program and reduce HPV-related disease in the long-term.


Asunto(s)
Esquemas de Inmunización , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Masculino , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Adulto Joven
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 459, 2020 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252712

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Australian surveillance data document higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) among young Aboriginal people (15-29 years) in remote settings than non-Aboriginal young people. Epidemiological data indicate a substantial number of young Aboriginal people do not test for STIs. Rigorous qualitative research can enhance understanding of these findings. This paper documents socio-ecological factors influencing young Aboriginal people's engagement with clinic-based STI testing in two remote settings in the Northern Territory, Australia. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 35 young Aboriginal men and women aged 16-21 years; thematic analysis examining their perceptions and personal experiences of access to clinic-based STI testing. RESULTS: Findings reveal individual, social and health service level influences on willingness to undertake clinic-based STI testing. Individual level barriers included limited knowledge about asymptomatic STIs, attitudinal barriers against testing for symptomatic STIs, and lack of skills to communicate about STIs with health service staff. Social influences both promoted and inhibited STI testing. In setting 1, local social networks enabled intergenerational learning about sexual health and facilitated accompanied visits to health clinics for young women. In setting 2, however, social connectedness inhibited access to STI testing services. Being seen at clinics was perceived to lead to stigmatisation among peers and fear of reputational damage due to STI-related rumours. Modalities of health service provision both enhanced and inhibited STI testing. In setting 1, outreach strategies by male health workers provided young Aboriginal men with opportunities to learn about sexual health, initiate trusting relationships with clinic staff, and gain access to clinics. In setting 2, barriers were created by the location and visibility of the clinic, appointment procedures, waiting rooms and waiting times. Where inhibitive factors at the individual, social and health service levels exist, young Aboriginal people reported more limited access to STI testing. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first socio-ecological analysis of factors influencing young Aboriginal people's willingness to undertake testing for STIs within clinics in Australia. Strategies to improve uptake of STI testing must tackle the overlapping social and health service factors that discourage young people from seeking sexual health support. Much can be learned from young people's lived sexual health experiences and family- and community-based health promotion practices.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud del Indígena/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/etnología , Vigilancia de la Población , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/etnología , Adolescente , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Northern Territory/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Cualitativa , Salud Sexual/etnología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003044, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155145

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, few studies compare progress toward the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Fast-Track targets among migrant populations. Fast-Track targets are aligned to the HIV diagnosis and care cascade and entail achieving 90-90-90 (90% of people living with HIV [PLHIV] diagnosed, 90% of those diagnosed on treatment, and 90% of those on treatment with viral suppression [VS]) by 2020 and 95-95-95 by 2030. We compared cascades between migrant and nonmigrant populations in Australia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a serial cross-sectional survey for HIV diagnosis and care cascades using modelling estimates for proportions diagnosed combined with a clinical database for proportions on treatment and VS between 2013-2017. We estimated the number of PLHIV and number diagnosed using New South Wales (NSW) and Victorian (VIC) data from the Australian National HIV Registry. Cascades were stratified by migration status, sex, HIV exposure, and eligibility for subsidised healthcare in Australia (reciprocal healthcare agreement [RHCA]). We found that in 2017, 17,760 PLHIV were estimated in NSW and VIC, and 90% of them were males. In total, 90% of estimated PLHIV were diagnosed. Of the 9,391 who were diagnosed and retained in care, most (85%; n = 8,015) were males. We excluded 38% of PLHIV with missing data for country of birth, and 41% (n = 2,408) of eligible retained PLHIV were migrants. Most migrants were from Southeast Asia (SEA; 28%), northern Europe (12%), and eastern Asia (11%). Most of the migrants and nonmigrants were males (72% and 83%, respectively). We found that among those retained in care, 90% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 95% of those on ART had VS (i.e., 90-90-95). Migrants had larger gaps in their HIV diagnosis and care cascade (85-85-93) compared with nonmigrants (94-90-96). Similarly, there were larger gaps among migrants reporting male-to-male HIV exposure (84-83-93) compared with nonmigrants reporting male-to-male HIV exposure (96-92-96). Large gaps were also found among migrants from SEA (72-87-93) and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; 89-93-91). Migrants from countries ineligible for RHCA had lower cascade estimates (83-85-92) than RHCA-eligible migrants (96-86-95). Trends in the HIV diagnosis and care cascades improved over time (2013 and 2017). However, there was no significant increase in ART coverage among migrant females (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.03; 95% CI 0.99-1.08; p = 0.154), nonmigrant females (IRR: 1.01; 95% CI 0.95-1.07; p = 0.71), and migrants from SEA (IRR: 1.03; 95% CI 0.99-1.07; p = 0.06) and SSA (IRR: 1.03; 95% CI 0.99-1.08; p = 0.11). Additionally, there was no significant increase in VS among migrants reporting male-to-male HIV exposure (IRR: 1.02; 95% CI 0.99-1.04; p = 0.08). The major limitation of our study was a high proportion of individuals missing data for country of birth, thereby limiting migrant status categorisation. Additionally, we used a cross-sectional instead of a longitudinal study design to develop the cascades and used the number retained as opposed to using all individuals diagnosed to calculate the proportions on ART. CONCLUSIONS: HIV diagnosis and care cascades improved overall between 2013 and 2017 in NSW and VIC. Cascades for migrants had larger gaps compared with nonmigrants, particularly among key migrant populations. Tracking subpopulation cascades enables gaps to be identified and addressed early to facilitate achievement of Fast-Track targets.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Vías Clínicas/tendencias , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Emigración e Inmigración/tendencias , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/tendencias , Brechas de la Práctica Profesional/tendencias , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Brechas de la Práctica Profesional/etnología , Retención en el Cuidado/tendencias , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Sex Health ; 17(1): 53-60, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928612

RESUMEN

Background Sexually transmissible infections (STIs) are rising among female sex workers (FSW) in Australia. The rise might be explained by changes in sexual practices; however, there is limited behavioural data available. This study aimed to explore the current sexual practices among FSW in Melbourne. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between September 2017 and March 2018. Participants were asked about current sexual practices with male clients in an average working week. The frequency and proportion of each sexual practice was calculated. RESULTS: There were 180 questionnaires included in the analysis. The median age of the FSW was 28 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 25-34). Most FSW (80.6%) worked in brothels. In an average working week, FSW had a median of 10 (IQR: 7-20) male clients. The most common sexual practices included: vaginal sex (98.3%), fellatio (97.2%), cunnilingus (92.2%) and tongue-kissing (83.7%). FSW had a median number of 10 (IQR: 6-18) vaginal, 10 (IQR: 5-18) fellatio, 7 (IQR: 2-10) cunnilingus and 6 (IQR: 2-10) tongue-kissing clients. Consistent condom use with all clients was highest for vaginal sex (97.1%), followed by anal sex (92.3%), then fellatio (78.9%). Only 3.1% used dental dams consistently for cunnilingus. CONCLUSION: Consistent condom use with all clients was high among FSWs, especially for vaginal and anal sex. However, one-fifth of FSW had condomless fellatio during an average working week. Tongue-kissing was more common than previously published. Peer-led sexual health education on safe sex practice for FSW is of high importance.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...