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1.
Urology ; 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354914

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To project the proportion of the urology workforce that is from under-represented in medicine (URiM) groups between 2021-2061. METHODS: Demographic data were obtained from AUA Census and ACGME Data Resource Books. The number of graduating urology residents and proportion of URiM graduating residents were characterized with linear models. Stock and Flow models were used to project future population numbers and proportions of URiM practicing urologists, contingent on assumptions regarding trainee demographics, retirement trends, and growth in the field. RESULTS: Currently, there is an increase in the percentage of URiM graduates by 0.145% per year. If historical trends continue, URiM urologists will likely comprise 16.2% of urology residency graduates and 13.3% of the practicing urological workforce in 2061. These percentages would constitute an underrepresentation of URiM urologists relative to the projected 44.2% of the U.S. population who would identify as American Indian/Alaskan Native, Black/African American, Latinx/Hispanic and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander by 2060.1 An increase in the percentage of URiM graduates by 0.845% per year would result in 44.2% URiM urology residency graduates and 26.1% URiM practicing urologists by 2061. An interactive app was designed to allow for a range of assumptions to be explored and for future data to be incorporated. CONCLUSION: URiM physician representation within urology over the next 40years will remain disproportionately low compared to that of the projected share of people of color in the general U.S. POPULATION: In order to achieve the AUA's Diversity, Equity and Inclusion goals, a concerted effort to implement interventions to recruit, train, and retain a generation of racially diverse urologists appears necessary.

2.
Can J Urol ; 31(1): 11777-11783, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401257

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Grant funding to Urology has decreased over the last decade. Documented lack of gender and race diversity at the faculty level raises concerns for funding disparities. This study sought to characterize disparities based upon race and gender in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding data to Urologic faculty. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data from 145 ACGME accredited Urology residency programs incorporating faculty gender and underrepresented in medicine (URiM) status was utilized. The NIH Research Portfolio Online Report Tool was queried between 1985 and 2023 for grants related to current Urology faculty. URiM status, gender, years of practice, academic rank, and Doximity residency program rank were factors in multivariable analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2,131 faculty were included. Three hundred one Urologists received 793 urologic grants for a total of $993,919,052 in funding. By race, grants were awarded to: White 72.9%, Asian 21.8%, Hispanic 3.0%, Black 2.1%. Men received 708 grants (89.3%) worth $917,083,475 total. Women received 85 grants (10.7%) worth $76,835,577 total. Likelihood of being awarded a grant was significantly associated with non-URiM status (p < 0.001) and men (p < 0.0001). On multivariable analysis, Doximity rank (p < 0.001) and academic rank (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of receiving a grant; male gender, URiM status, and years of practice were not. Academic rank was also a significant predictor of number of grants received (p = 0.04) and total funding (p = 0.04); years of practice, Doximity rank, URiM status, and gender were not. CONCLUSIONS: NIH grants were more likely awarded to higher ranked faculty from higher Doximity ranked institutions with no differences based on URiM status or gender.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Urología , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Urólogos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
4.
Urology ; 178: 9-16, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37149061

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To characterize academic productivity for underrepresented minorities (URMs) vs non-URMs and by gender in Urology. METHODS: A database was created from 145 Urology residency programs. URM status was determined by origin of name, photo, biography, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Doximity. A PubMed query was performed for publication output. URM status, gender, post-graduate year/years of practice, and Doximity residency rank were factors in multivariable analysis. RESULTS: For residents, the median total publications was 2 [1,5] for URMs and 2 [1,5] for non-URMs (P=.54). The median first/last author publications was 1 [0,2] for URMs and 1 [0,2] for non-URMs (P=.79). The median total publications was 2 [0,4] for women and 2 [1,6] for men (P=.003). The median first/last author publications was 1 [0,2] for women and 1 [0,2] for men (P=.14). For faculty, the median total publications was 12 [3,32] for URMs and 19 [6,45] for non-URMs (P=.0002). The median first/last author publications was 4.5 [1,12] for URMs and 7 [2,20] for non-URM faculty (P=.0002). The median total publications was 11 [5,25] for women and 20 [6,49] for men (P<.0001). The median first/last author publications was 4 [1,11] for women and 8 [2,22] for men (P<.0001). On multivariable analysis, there was no difference in total publications and first/last author publications for URMs vs non-URMs. There remained a difference between genders for residents and faculty with total publications but not first/last author publications (P=.002/P=.10 residents, P=.004/P=.07 faculty). CONCLUSION: Academic productivity was not different in URMs and non-URMs for both residents and faculty. Men residents and faculty had more total publications compared to women.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Urología , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Urólogos , Grupos Minoritarios , Instituciones Académicas , Urología/educación , Docentes Médicos
5.
Urol Pract ; 10(2): 187-192, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37103408

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We characterize factors associated with recruitment of underrepresented in medicine urology trainees and faculty to academic institutions given the excessive disparity between urology and other fields of medicine. METHODS: A database of urology faculty and residents in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education programs was created. Demographic data were obtained from departmental websites, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Doximity. Program prestige was defined by U.S. News and World Report rankings. Program location and city size were determined using the U.S. Census data. Multivariable analysis was performed assessing the association of gender, AUA section, city size, and rankings on underrepresented in medicine recruitment. RESULTS: Of urologists in this study 8.7% were underrepresented in medicine status. More women urologists were underrepresented in medicine (31.4%) than non-underrepresented in medicine (21.3%; P < .001). Factors predictive of more underrepresented in medicine urologists were practice in South Central AUA section (OR 2.1, P = .04), and medium metro areas (OR 1.6, P < .01). Among residents, factors predictive of more underrepresented in medicine urologists were female gender (P < .001), living in medium metro areas (P = .03), and training in top 10 programs (P = .001). Underrepresented in medicine faculty were more likely to be women compared to non-underrepresented in medicine faculty (P = .05). Pearson correlation test found no association between the presence of underrepresented in medicine faculty and underrepresented in medicine residents (r = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Underrepresented in medicine urology residents and faculty were more likely to be women, compared to non-underrepresented in medicine residents and faculty. Underrepresented in medicine residents are more prevalent in medium metro areas and in top 10 programs. More underrepresented in medicine faculty status was not associated with more underrepresented in medicine residents.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Medicina , Urología , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Urólogos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina
6.
Urology ; 171: 41-48, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272563

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe differences in urology mentorship exposure for medical students across race/ethnicity and to explore how much potential mentees valued the importance of race-concordant mentorship. METHODS: All medical students at UCLA received a cross-sectional survey. Dependent variables were perceived quality of mentorship in urology and association between race-concordant mentorship and perceived importance of race-concordant mentorship. Mentors were self-selected by medical students. Variables were compared across race/ethnicity using descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses. Subset analyses looking at race-concordance between mentor and student was performed using stratified Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. This was performed to determine if there were differences, across race/ethnicity, in rating of importance of having a race-concordant mentor. RESULTS: The likelihood of having a urologist as a mentor was similar across race/ethnicity. Under-Represented in Medicine (URiM) students were more likely to report that having a mentor of the same race/ethnicity was extremely important (Asian 9%, Black 58%, Latinx 55% and White 3%, P < .001) compared to their non-URiM peers who were more likely to rate having a race-concordant mentor as not at all important (Asian 34%, Black 5%, Latinx 8%, White 79%, P < .001). URiM students with race-concordant mentors were still more likely to rate having a mentor of the same race/ethnicity as extremely/very important (73%) compared to their non-URiM peers (9%, P = .001). URiM students with race-discordant mentors also rated importance of mentors of the same race/ethnicity as extremely/very important (67%) compared to their non-URiM peers (11%, P = .006). CONCLUSION: URiM medical students regard race-concordant mentorship as extremely important. Interventions addressing mentor racial/ethnic concordance and those promoting culturally responsive mentorship may optimize recruitment of URiM students into urology.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , Urología , Humanos , Mentores , Estudios Transversales , Etnicidad
8.
Urol Oncol ; 40(8): 382.e1-382.e6, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750559

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The therapeutic benefit of intravesical instillation of hexaminolevulinate (HAL) at the time of transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the safety of repeated administration of HAL from a phase III pre-trial planned analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients evaluated in the study received at least 1 dose of HAL at the time of office cystoscopy, and a subset of these patients (n = 103, 33.2%) received a second dose a few weeks later at the time of TURBT. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded, and the safety of repeat use of HAL was determined by comparing the proportion of patients with AEs considered causally related to HAL in the surveillance examination compared to the OR examination. Association between categorical variables was tested using Fisher's Exact Test, and a P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: HAL-related AEs were experienced by 6 patients (2.2%) during surveillance cystoscopy and 3 patients (3.4%) following TURBT (P = 0.76); 181 patients (59.5%) had prior exposure to HAL before enrolling in the study with no difference in the number of AEs when comparing prior exposure to HAL to no prior exposure (P = 0.76). Of the patients who previously received intravesical therapy, 8 (2.9%) had at least 1 AE during surveillance compared to 3 (9.7%) who had no prior intravesical therapy (P = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Repeat use of HAL is safe even when administered within a few weeks of receiving a dose of intravesical therapy.


Asunto(s)
Cistoscopía , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Ácido Aminolevulínico/efectos adversos , Ácido Aminolevulínico/análogos & derivados , Cistectomía/métodos , Cistoscopía/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía
9.
Urology ; 168: 50-58, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718136

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To contextualize the low representation of Under-Represented in Medicine (URiM) in urology, we examine differences in timing and perceived quality of urology clinical and research exposures for medical students across race/ethnicity. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to all medical students at University of California, Los Angeles. Dependent variables were timing of urology exposure and perceived quality of urology exposure. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were used to compare variables across race/ethnicity. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of early exposure to urology across race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Black and Latinx students were significantly less likely to discover urology before MS3 (P <.001). Although URiM students were more likely to recall receiving a urology interest group invitation (Asian 46%, Black 53%, Latinx 67%, White 48%, P = .03), they were less likely to attend an event (Asian 23%, Black 4%, Latinx 3% and White 15%, P <.001) despite being more likely to be interested in urology (Asian 32%, Black 38%, Latinx 50%, White 28%, P = .01). Black students were more likely to gain exposure via family/friend with a urological diagnosis. Black and Latinx students were twice as dissatisfied with timing and method of medical school exposure to urology versus their peers. There were differences across race/ethnicity for whether or not a student had engaged in urology research (Asian 10%, Black 5%, Latinx 2%, White 2%, P = .01). CONCLUSION: Racial/ethnic disparities exist in early exposure to urology, involvement in urology interest group, access to research, and satisfaction with exposure to urology. Interventions addressing the timing and quality of urology exposures may optimize recruitment of URiM students into urology.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , Urología , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Etnicidad , Facultades de Medicina
12.
Eur Urol ; 81(3): 223-228, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933753

RESUMEN

A recent phase 3 trial of intravesical nadofaragene firadenovec reported a promising complete response rate for patients with bacillus Calmette-Guérin-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. This study examined the ability of antiadenovirus antibody levels to predict the durability of therapeutic response to nadofaragene firadenovec. A standardized and validated quantitative assay was used to prospectively assess baseline and post-treatment serum antibody levels among 91 patients from the phase 3 trial, of whom 47 (52%) were high-grade recurrence free at 12 mo (responders). While baseline titers did not predict treatment response, 3-mo titer >800 was associated with a higher likelihood of durable response (p = 0.026). Peak post-treatment titers >800 were noted in 42 (89%) responders versus 26 (59%) nonresponders (p = 0.001; assay sensitivity, 89%; negative predictive value, 78%). Moreover, 22 (47%) responders compared with eight (18%) nonresponders had a combination of peak post-treatment titers >800 and peak antibody fold change >8 (p = 0.004; assay specificity, 82%; positive predictive value, 73%). A majority of responders continued to have post-treatment antibody titers >800 after the first 6 mo of therapy. In conclusion, serum antiadenovirus antibody quantification may serve as a novel predictive marker for nadofaragene firadenovec response durability. Future studies will focus on large-scale validation and clinical utility of the assay. PATIENT SUMMARY: This study reports on a planned secondary analysis of a phase 3 multicenter clinical trial that established the benefit of nadofaragene firadenovec, a novel intravesical gene therapeutic, for the treatment of patients with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-unresponsive high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Prospective assessment of serum anti-human adenovirus type-5 antibody levels of patients in this trial indicated that a combination of post-treatment titers and fold change from baseline can predict treatment efficacy. While this merits additional validation, our findings suggest that serum antiadenovirus antibody levels can serve as an important predictive marker for the durability of therapeutic response to nadofaragene firadenovec.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Administración Intravesical , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Invasividad Neoplásica , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Prospectivos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico
13.
Urology ; 162: 9-19, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469768

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the historical trends and factors underlying the current state of racial/ethnic representation within the urology workforce at each stage of the educational pipeline. METHODS: Using data from the US Census Bureau and the Association of American Medical Colleges, trends in racial/ethnic distribution for 2007-2008 to 2019-2020 were tracked in the educational pipeline for academic urologists. This pipeline was defined as progressively diminishing cohorts, starting with the US population, leading to medical school application, acceptance, and graduation, through to urology residency application, matching, and graduation, and ending with urology faculty appointment. A comparative cohort analysis was performed for academic year 2018-2019 for differences in racial/ethnic distribution across cohorts by binomial tests. RESULTS: From 2007-2008 to 2019-2020, while the proportion of Latinx/Hispanic urology applicants increased by 0.38% per year (95% CI 0.24, 0.52), their proportion in the urology resident population remained unchanged (0.07% per year, 95% CI -0.20, 0.06) from 2011-2012 to 2019-2020. There was a decrease in the proportion of Black urology applicants (-0.13% per year, 95% CI -0.24, -0.02) and no change in the resident population (-0.03% per year, 95% CI -0.11, 0.05), despite an increase in total number of residents (n = 1043 to n = 1734) from 2009-2010 to 2019-2020. In 2018-2019, there were step-wise decreases in proportion of Black and Latinx/Hispanic members represented at critical stages of the educational pipeline (P <0.0001). CONCLUSION: Attrition in URM urologists occur at key educational stages. This paper offers opportunities for the design of interventions to diversify the urology workforce.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Urología , Diversidad Cultural , Humanos , Grupos Raciales , Recursos Humanos
14.
Urology ; 162: 128-136, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186139

RESUMEN

This article offers a framework for critically examining the structures, policies, norms, practices, and values that shape the Urology Match as a foundation for interventions to improve diversity, equity, inclusion, and justice in the workforce. Points of leverage for transformational change in the urology workforce diversification include modifying the structure of the urology application process, optimizing reviewer factors, addressing Under-Represented in Medicine applicant experience, providing resources to applicants, and evaluating selection criteria. To achieve an inclusive diverse urology workforce, we must change policy and practice, expand what we include in the norm, which will translate into increased value ascribed to a more varied cohort of applicants, leading to the establishment of structures that accommodate true diversity.


Asunto(s)
Urología , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina , Humanos , Políticas , Urología/educación , Recursos Humanos
15.
JMIR Cancer ; 7(2): e25800, 2021 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156341

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the most clinically effective intravesical treatment for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), particularly for patients with high-risk NMIBC such as those with carcinoma in situ. BCG treatments could be optimized to improve patient safety and conserve supply by predicting BCG efficacy based on tumor characteristics or clinicopathological criteria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the ability of specific clinicopathological criteria to predict tumor recurrence in patients with NMIBC who received BCG therapy along various treatment timelines. METHODS: A total of 1331 patients (stage Ta, T1, or carcinoma in situ) who underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor between 2006 and 2017 were included. Univariate analysis, including laboratory tests (eg, complete blood panels, creatinine levels, and hemoglobin A1c levels) within 180 days of BCG therapy initiation, medications, and clinical and demographic variables to assess their ability to predict NMIBC recurrence, was completed. This was followed by multivariate regression that included the elements of the Club Urológico Español de Tratamiento Oncológico (CUETO) scoring model and variables that were significant predictors of recurrence in univariate analysis. RESULTS: BCG was administered to 183 patients classified as intermediate or high risk, and 76 (41.5%) experienced disease recurrence. An abnormal neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio measured within 180 days of induction BCG therapy was a significant predictor (P=.047) of future cancer recurrence and was a stronger predictor than the CUETO score or the individual variables included in the CUETO scoring model through multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: An abnormal neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio within 180 days of BCG therapy initiation is predictive of recurrence and could be suggestive of additional or alternative interventions.

16.
Urology ; 155: 186-191, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587939

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To interrogate the National Veterans Health Administration (VA) database to determine if beta-blocker use at time of initiation of androgen therapy deprivation (ADT) would result in improved oncological outcomes in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: All men diagnosed with high risk PCa (PSA >20) from 2000-2008 who were on ADT ≥ 6 months were identified. Patients receiving ADT concurrently with primary radiation therapy were excluded. Pharmacy data was interrogated for all beta-blockers, but then focused on the selective beta-1 blocker metoprolol. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated for overall survival (OS), PCa specific survival (CSS) and skeletal related events (SREs). RESULTS: In 39,198 patients with high risk PCa on ADT, use of any beta-blocker was not associated with improvement in OS, CSS, or SREs. Further analyses focusing on metoprolol found that 10,224 (31.9%) had used metoprolol while 21,834 had no beta-blocker use. Multivariable analysis with Inverse Propensity Score Weighting, adjusted for factors including PSA, Gleason score, and duration ADT, found that utilization of metoprolol was not associated with improvement in OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.97, P = .19), CSS (HR 0.94, P = .23) or SREs (HR 0.98, P = .79). CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, metoprolol use in conjunction with ADT in high risk PCa was not associated with improvement in OS, CSS, or risk of SRE. In contrast to a recent smaller clinical study, our data strongly suggests no cancer specific benefit to beta-blocker use in advanced PCa.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas de Andrógenos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Óseas/secundario , Metoprolol/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Próstata/terapia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(1): 107-117, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: BCG is the most effective therapy for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Nadofaragene firadenovec (also known as rAd-IFNa/Syn3) is a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus that delivers human interferon alfa-2b cDNA into the bladder epithelium, and a novel intravesical therapy for BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We aimed to evaluate its efficacy in patients with BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. METHODS: In this phase 3, multicentre, open-label, repeat-dose study done in 33 centres (hospitals and clinics) in the USA, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older, with BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status of 2 or less. Patients were excluded if they had upper urinary tract disease, urothelial carcinoma within the prostatic urethra, lymphovascular invasion, micropapillary disease, or hydronephrosis. Eligible patients received a single intravesical 75 mL dose of nadofaragene firadenovec (3 × 1011 viral particles per mL). Repeat dosing at months 3, 6, and 9 was done in the absence of high-grade recurrence. The primary endpoint was complete response at any time in patients with carcinoma in situ (with or without a high-grade Ta or T1 tumour). The null hypothesis specified a complete response rate of less than 27% in this cohort. Efficacy analyses were done on the per-protocol population, to include only patients strictly meeting the BCG-unresponsive definition. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of treatment. The study is ongoing, with a planned 4-year treatment and monitoring phase. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02773849. FINDINGS: Between Sept 19, 2016, and May 24, 2019, 198 patients were assessed for eligibility. 41 patients were excluded, and 157 were enrolled and received at least one dose of the study drug. Six patients did not meet the definition of BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and were therefore excluded from efficacy analyses; the remaining 151 patients were included in the per-protocol efficacy analyses. 55 (53·4%) of 103 patients with carcinoma in situ (with or without a high-grade Ta or T1 tumour) had a complete response within 3 months of the first dose and this response was maintained in 25 (45·5%) of 55 patients at 12 months. Micturition urgency was the most common grade 3-4 study drug-related adverse event (two [1%] of 157 patients, both grade 3), and there were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Intravesical nadofaragene firadenovec was efficacious, with a favourable benefit:risk ratio, in patients with BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. This represents a novel treatment option in a therapeutically challenging disease state. FUNDING: FKD Therapies Oy.


Asunto(s)
Adenoviridae/genética , Vacuna BCG/administración & dosificación , Carcinoma in Situ/terapia , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Terapia Genética , Vectores Genéticos , Interferón alfa-2/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/terapia , Administración Intravesical , Anciano , Vacuna BCG/efectos adversos , Carcinoma in Situ/genética , Carcinoma in Situ/mortalidad , Carcinoma in Situ/patología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Terapia Genética/efectos adversos , Terapia Genética/mortalidad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Invasividad Neoplásica , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología
19.
J Urol ; 204(4): 778-786, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698717

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Patients presenting with microhematuria represent a heterogeneous population with a broad spectrum of risk for genitourinary malignancy. Recognizing that patient-specific characteristics modify the risk of underlying malignant etiologies, this guideline sought to provide a personalized diagnostic testing strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic review incorporated evidence published from January 2010 through February 2019, with an updated literature search to include studies published up to December 2019. Evidence-based statements were developed by the expert Panel, with statement type linked to evidence strength, level of certainty, and the Panel's judgment regarding the balance between benefits and risks/burdens. RESULTS: Microhematuria should be defined as ≥ 3 red blood cells per high power field on microscopic evaluation of a single specimen. In patients diagnosed with gynecologic or non-malignant genitourinary sources of microhematuria, clinicians should repeat urinalysis following resolution of the gynecologic or non-malignant genitourinary cause. The Panel created a risk classification system for patients with microhematuria, stratified as low-, intermediate-, or high-risk for genitourinary malignancy. Risk groups were based on factors including age, sex, smoking and other urothelial cancer risk factors, degree and persistence of microhematuria, as well as prior gross hematuria. Diagnostic evaluation with cystoscopy and upper tract imaging was recommended according to patient risk and involving shared decision-making. Statements also inform follow-up after a negative microhematuria evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with microhematuria should be classified based on their risk of genitourinary malignancy and evaluated with a risk-based strategy. Future high-quality studies are required to improve the care of these patients.


Asunto(s)
Hematuria/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Hematuria/etiología , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 686, 2020 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709234

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND, CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: In spite of the mixed evidence for their impact, survivorship Care Plans (SCPs) are recommended to enhance quality of care for cancer survivors. Data on the feasibility of SCPs in bladder cancer (BC) is sparse. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study describes the iterative development, acceptability and feasibility of BC specific SCP (BC-SCP) in clinical settings. METHODS: In Phase I, we developed the BC-SCP. In Phase II, we conducted four focus groups with 19 patients and 15 providers to examine its acceptability and usability challenges. Data analyses using the Atlas.ti program, informed refinement of the BC-SCP. In Phase III, we conducted feasibility testing of the refined BC-SCP with 18 providers from 12 health-centers. An encounter survey was completed after each assessment to examine the feasibility of the BC-SCP. Chi-square and Fisher Exact tests were used for comparative analyses. RESULTS: During phase I, we observed high patient and provider acceptability of the BC-SCP and substantial engagement in improving its content, design, and structure. In Phase II, providers completed 59 BC-SCPs. Mean time for BC-SCP completion was 12.3 min. Providers reported that BC-SCP content was clear, did not hamper clinic flow and was readily completed with easy-to-access information. Comparative analyses to examine differences in SCP completion time by patient clinico-demographic characteristics and provider type revealed no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our BC-SCP has clinical relevance, and can be used in an active practice setting. However, considerable progress will be necessary to achieve implementation of and sharing the BC-SCP with patients and care providers, particularly within the electronic medical record. In summary, BC-SCPs are essential to improve the follow up care of BC survivors. Clinical resources are required to ensure appropriate implementation of BC-SCPs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study HUM00056082.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Planificación de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Supervivencia , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/terapia , Anciano , Supervivientes de Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Cualitativa
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