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1.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17188, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462677

RESUMEN

Vegetation and precipitation are known to fundamentally influence each other. However, this interdependence is not fully represented in climate models because the characteristics of land surface (canopy) conductance to water vapor and CO2 are determined independently of precipitation. Working within a coupled atmosphere and land modelling framework (CAM6/CLM5; coupled Community Atmosphere Model v6/Community Land Model v5), we have developed a new theoretical approach to characterizing land surface conductance by explicitly linking its dynamic properties to local precipitation, a robust proxy for moisture available to vegetation. This will enable regional surface conductance characteristics to shift fluidly with climate change in simulations, consistent with general principles of co-evolution of vegetation and climate. Testing within the CAM6/CLM5 framework shows that climate simulations incorporating the new theory outperform current default configurations across several error metrics for core output variables when measured against observational data. In climate simulations for the end of this century the new, adaptive stomatal conductance scheme provides a revised prognosis for average and extreme temperatures over several large regions, with increased primary productivity through central and east Asia, and higher rainfall through North Africa and the Middle East. The new projections also reveal more frequent heatwaves than originally estimated for the south-eastern US and sub-Saharan Africa but less frequent heatwaves across east Europe and northeast Asia. These developments have implications for evaluating food security and risks from extreme temperatures in areas that are vulnerable to climate change.


Asunto(s)
Atmósfera , Ecosistema , Predicción , Calor , África del Sur del Sahara , Cambio Climático
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(4): e2309881120, 2024 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190514

RESUMEN

Climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of short-term (~1 y) drought events-the most common duration of drought-globally. Yet the impact of this intensification of drought on ecosystem functioning remains poorly resolved. This is due in part to the widely disparate approaches ecologists have employed to study drought, variation in the severity and duration of drought studied, and differences among ecosystems in vegetation, edaphic and climatic attributes that can mediate drought impacts. To overcome these problems and better identify the factors that modulate drought responses, we used a coordinated distributed experiment to quantify the impact of short-term drought on grassland and shrubland ecosystems. With a standardized approach, we imposed ~a single year of drought at 100 sites on six continents. Here we show that loss of a foundational ecosystem function-aboveground net primary production (ANPP)-was 60% greater at sites that experienced statistically extreme drought (1-in-100-y event) vs. those sites where drought was nominal (historically more common) in magnitude (35% vs. 21%, respectively). This reduction in a key carbon cycle process with a single year of extreme drought greatly exceeds previously reported losses for grasslands and shrublands. Our global experiment also revealed high variability in drought response but that relative reductions in ANPP were greater in drier ecosystems and those with fewer plant species. Overall, our results demonstrate with unprecedented rigor that the global impacts of projected increases in drought severity have been significantly underestimated and that drier and less diverse sites are likely to be most vulnerable to extreme drought.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Ecosistema , Pradera , Ciclo del Carbono , Cambio Climático , Proteínas Tirosina Quinasas Receptoras
3.
Ecol Appl ; 33(4): e2821, 2023 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36806368

RESUMEN

Invasive species science has focused heavily on the invasive agent. However, management to protect native species also requires a proactive approach focused on resident communities and the features affecting their vulnerability to invasion impacts. Vulnerability is likely the result of factors acting across spatial scales, from local to regional, and it is the combined effects of these factors that will determine the magnitude of vulnerability. Here, we introduce an analytical framework that quantifies the scale-dependent impact of biological invasions on native richness from the shape of the native species-area relationship (SAR). We leveraged newly available, biogeographically extensive vegetation data from the U.S. National Ecological Observatory Network to assess plant community vulnerability to invasion impact as a function of factors acting across scales. We analyzed more than 1000 SARs widely distributed across the USA along environmental gradients and under different levels of non-native plant cover. Decreases in native richness were consistently associated with non-native species cover, but native richness was compromised only at relatively high levels of non-native cover. After accounting for variation in baseline ecosystem diversity, net primary productivity, and human modification, ecoregions that were colder and wetter were most vulnerable to losses of native plant species at the local level, while warmer and wetter areas were most susceptible at the landscape level. We also document how the combined effects of cross-scale factors result in a heterogeneous spatial pattern of vulnerability. This pattern could not be predicted by analyses at any single scale, underscoring the importance of accounting for factors acting across scales. Simultaneously assessing differences in vulnerability between distinct plant communities at local, landscape, and regional scales provided outputs that can be used to inform policy and management aimed at reducing vulnerability to the impact of plant invasions.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Humanos , Especies Introducidas , Plantas , Geografía
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(7): 1922-1938, 2023 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607160

RESUMEN

Responses of the terrestrial biosphere to rapidly changing environmental conditions are a major source of uncertainty in climate projections. In an effort to reduce this uncertainty, a wide range of global change experiments have been conducted that mimic future conditions in terrestrial ecosystems, manipulating CO2 , temperature, and nutrient and water availability. Syntheses of results across experiments provide a more general sense of ecosystem responses to global change, and help to discern the influence of background conditions such as climate and vegetation type in determining global change responses. Several independent syntheses of published data have yielded distinct databases for specific objectives. Such parallel, uncoordinated initiatives carry the risk of producing redundant data collection efforts and have led to contrasting outcomes without clarifying the underlying reason for divergence. These problems could be avoided by creating a publicly available, updatable, curated database. Here, we report on a global effort to collect and curate 57,089 treatment responses across 3644 manipulation experiments at 1145 sites, simulating elevated CO2 , warming, nutrient addition, and precipitation changes. In the resulting Manipulation Experiments Synthesis Initiative (MESI) database, effects of experimental global change drivers on carbon and nutrient cycles are included, as well as ancillary data such as background climate, vegetation type, treatment magnitude, duration, and, unique to our database, measured soil properties. Our analysis of the database indicates that most experiments are short term (one or few growing seasons), conducted in the USA, Europe, or China, and that the most abundantly reported variable is aboveground biomass. We provide the most comprehensive multifactor global change database to date, enabling the research community to tackle open research questions, vital to global policymaking. The MESI database, freely accessible at doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7153253, opens new avenues for model evaluation and synthesis-based understanding of how global change affects terrestrial biomes. We welcome contributions to the database on GitHub.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Ecosistema , Biomasa , Cambio Climático , Clima , Suelo
5.
Ecology ; 104(3): e3940, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457179

RESUMEN

In a changing climate, the future survival and productivity of species rely on individual populations to respond to shifting environmental conditions. Many tree species, including northern red oak (Quercus rubra), exhibit phenotypic plasticity, the ability to respond to changes in environmental conditions at within-generation time scales, through varying traits such as leaf phenology. Phenotypic plasticity of phenology may vary among populations within a species' range, and it is unclear if the range of plasticity is adequate to promote fitness. Here, we used a 58-year-old common garden to test whether northern red oak populations differed in phenological sensitivity to changes in temperature and whether differences in phenological sensitivity were associated with differences in productivity and survival (proxies of fitness). We recorded 8 years of spring leaf emergence and autumn leaf coloration and loss in 28 distinct populations from across the species' full range. Across the 28 populations, spring leaf out consistently advanced in warmer years, but fall phenology was less responsive to changes in temperature. Southern, warm-adapted populations had larger shifts in phenology in response to springtime warming but had lower long-term survival. Moreover, higher phenological sensitivity to spring warming was not strongly linked to increased productivity. Instead, fitness was more closely linked to latitudinal gradients. Although springtime phenological sensitivity to climate change is common across northern red oak populations, responses of productivity and survival, which could determine longer-term trajectories of species abundance, are more variable across the species' range.


Asunto(s)
Quercus , Quercus/fisiología , Temperatura , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Árboles , Fenotipo , Estaciones del Año , Cambio Climático
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(21): 6115-6134, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069191

RESUMEN

The degree to which elevated CO2 concentrations (e[CO2 ]) increase the amount of carbon (C) assimilated by vegetation plays a key role in climate change. However, due to the short-term nature of CO2 enrichment experiments and the lack of reconciliation between different ecological scales, the effect of e[CO2 ] on plant biomass stocks remains a major uncertainty in future climate projections. Here, we review the effect of e[CO2 ] on plant biomass across multiple levels of ecological organization, scaling from physiological responses to changes in population-, community-, ecosystem-, and global-scale dynamics. We find that evidence for a sustained biomass response to e[CO2 ] varies across ecological scales, leading to diverging conclusions about the responses of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. While the distinct focus of every scale reveals new mechanisms driving biomass accumulation under e[CO2 ], none of them provides a full picture of all relevant processes. For example, while physiological evidence suggests a possible long-term basis for increased biomass accumulation under e[CO2 ] through sustained photosynthetic stimulation, population-scale evidence indicates that a possible e[CO2 ]-induced increase in mortality rates might potentially outweigh the effect of increases in plant growth rates on biomass levels. Evidence at the global scale may indicate that e[CO2 ] has contributed to increased biomass cover over recent decades, but due to the difficulty to disentangle the effect of e[CO2 ] from a variety of climatic and land-use-related drivers of plant biomass stocks, it remains unclear whether nutrient limitations or other ecological mechanisms operating at finer scales will dampen the e[CO2 ] effect over time. By exploring these discrepancies, we identify key research gaps in our understanding of the effect of e[CO2 ] on plant biomass and highlight the need to integrate knowledge across scales of ecological organization so that large-scale modeling can represent the finer-scale mechanisms needed to constrain our understanding of future terrestrial C storage.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Ecosistema , Biomasa , Carbono , Ciclo del Carbono , Humanos , Plantas
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(22): e2117389119, 2022 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622892

RESUMEN

Human-induced abiotic global environmental changes (GECs) and the spread of nonnative invasive species are rapidly altering ecosystems. Understanding the relative and interactive effects of invasion and GECs is critical for informing ecosystem adaptation and management, but this information has not been synthesized. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate effects of invasions, GECs, and their combined influences on native ecosystems. We found 458 cases from 95 published studies that reported individual and combined effects of invasions and a GEC stressor, which was most commonly warming, drought, or nitrogen addition. We calculated standardized effect sizes (Hedges' d) for individual and combined treatments and classified interactions as additive (sum of individual treatment effects), antagonistic (smaller than expected), or synergistic (outside the expected range). The ecological effects of GECs varied, with detrimental effects more likely with drought than the other GECs. Invasions were more strongly detrimental, on average, than GECs. Invasion and GEC interactions were mostly antagonistic, but synergistic interactions occurred in >25% of cases and mostly led to more detrimental outcomes for ecosystems. While interactive effects were most often smaller than expected from individual invasion and GEC effects, synergisms were not rare and occurred across ecological responses from the individual to the ecosystem scale. Overall, interactions between invasions and GECs were typically no worse than the effects of invasions alone, highlighting the importance of managing invasions locally as a crucial step toward reducing harm from multiple global changes.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Antropogénicos , Ecosistema , Especies Introducidas , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Temperatura
9.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(5): 540-545, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273367

RESUMEN

Researchers use both experiments and observations to study the impacts of climate change on ecosystems, but results from these contrasting approaches have not been systematically compared for droughts. Using a meta-analysis and accounting for potential confounding factors, we demonstrate that aboveground biomass responded only about half as much to experimentally imposed drought events as to natural droughts. Our findings indicate that experimental results may underestimate climate change impacts and highlight the need to integrate results across approaches.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Ecosistema , Biomasa , Cambio Climático
10.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(2): 665-684, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543495

RESUMEN

Terrestrial ecosystems regulate Earth's climate through water, energy, and biogeochemical transformations. Despite a key role in regulating the Earth system, terrestrial ecology has historically been underrepresented in the Earth system models (ESMs) that are used to understand and project global environmental change. Ecology and Earth system modeling must be integrated for scientists to fully comprehend the role of ecological systems in driving and responding to global change. Ecological insights can improve ESM realism and reduce process uncertainty, while ESMs offer ecologists an opportunity to broadly test ecological theory and increase the impact of their work by scaling concepts through time and space. Despite this mutualism, meaningfully integrating the two remains a persistent challenge, in part because of logistical obstacles in translating processes into mathematical formulas and identifying ways to integrate new theories and code into large, complex model structures. To help overcome this interdisciplinary challenge, we present a framework consisting of a series of interconnected stages for integrating a new ecological process or insight into an ESM. First, we highlight the multiple ways that ecological observations and modeling iteratively strengthen one another, dispelling the illusion that the ecologist's role ends with initial provision of data. Second, we show that many valuable insights, products, and theoretical developments are produced through sustained interdisciplinary collaborations between empiricists and modelers, regardless of eventual inclusion of a process in an ESM. Finally, we provide concrete actions and resources to facilitate learning and collaboration at every stage of data-model integration. This framework will create synergies that will transform our understanding of ecology within the Earth system, ultimately improving our understanding of global environmental change, and broadening the impact of ecological research.


Asunto(s)
Planeta Tierra , Ecosistema , Ecología , Incertidumbre , Agua
12.
AoB Plants ; 11(6): plz064, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777651

RESUMEN

Thermal acclimation of plant respiration is highly relevant to climate projections; when included in models, it reduces the future rate of atmospheric CO2 rise. Although all living plant tissues respire, few studies have examined differences in acclimation among tissues, and leaf responses have received greater attention than stems and roots. Here, we examine the short-term temperature acclimation of leaf, stem and root respiration within individuals of eight disparate species acclimated to five temperatures, ranging from 15 to 35 °C. To assess acclimation, we measured instantaneous tissue temperature response curves (14-50 °C) on each individual following a 7-day acclimation period. In leaves and photosynthetic stems, the acclimation temperature had little effect on the instantaneous tissue temperature response of respiration, indicating little to no thermal acclimation in these tissues. However, respiration did acclimate in non-photosynthetic tissues; respiratory rates measured at the acclimation temperature were similar across the different acclimation temperatures. Respiratory demand of photosynthetic tissue increased with acclimation temperature as a result of increased photosynthetic demands, resulting in rates measured at the acclimation temperature that increased with increasing acclimation temperature. In non-photosynthetic tissue, the homeostatic response of respiration suggests that acclimation temperature had little influence on respiratory demand. Our results indicate that respiratory temperature acclimation differs by tissue type and that this difference is the consequence of the coupling between photosynthesis and respiration in photosynthetic, but not non-photosynthetic tissue. These insights provide an avenue for improving the representation of respiratory temperature acclimation in large-scale models.

13.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(9): 1309-1320, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427733

RESUMEN

Direct quantification of terrestrial biosphere responses to global change is crucial for projections of future climate change in Earth system models. Here, we synthesized ecosystem carbon-cycling data from 1,119 experiments performed over the past four decades concerning changes in temperature, precipitation, CO2 and nitrogen across major terrestrial vegetation types of the world. Most experiments manipulated single rather than multiple global change drivers in temperate ecosystems of the USA, Europe and China. The magnitudes of warming and elevated CO2 treatments were consistent with the ranges of future projections, whereas those of precipitation changes and nitrogen inputs often exceeded the projected ranges. Increases in global change drivers consistently accelerated, but decreased precipitation slowed down carbon-cycle processes. Nonlinear (including synergistic and antagonistic) effects among global change drivers were rare. Belowground carbon allocation responded negatively to increased precipitation and nitrogen addition and positively to decreased precipitation and elevated CO2. The sensitivities of carbon variables to multiple global change drivers depended on the background climate and ecosystem condition, suggesting that Earth system models should be evaluated using site-specific conditions for best uses of this large dataset. Together, this synthesis underscores an urgent need to explore the interactions among multiple global change drivers in underrepresented regions such as semi-arid ecosystems, forests in the tropics and subtropics, and Arctic tundra when forecasting future terrestrial carbon-climate feedback.


Asunto(s)
Ciclo del Carbono , Ecosistema , Carbono , China , Europa (Continente)
14.
Nat Plants ; 5(2): 167-173, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737508

RESUMEN

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration should stimulate biomass production directly via biochemical stimulation of carbon assimilation, and indirectly via water savings caused by increased plant water-use efficiency. Because of these water savings, the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE) should be stronger at drier sites, yet large differences among experiments in grassland biomass response to elevated CO2 appear to be unrelated to annual precipitation, preventing useful generalizations. Here, we show that, as predicted, the impact of elevated CO2 on biomass production in 19 globally distributed temperate grassland experiments reduces as mean precipitation in seasons other than spring increases, but that it rises unexpectedly as mean spring precipitation increases. Moreover, because sites with high spring precipitation also tend to have high precipitation at other times, these effects of spring and non-spring precipitation on the CO2 response offset each other, constraining the response of ecosystem productivity to rising CO2. This explains why previous analyses were unable to discern a reliable trend between site dryness and the CFE. Thus, the CFE in temperate grasslands worldwide will be constrained by their natural rainfall seasonality such that the stimulation of biomass by rising CO2 could be substantially less than anticipated.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Pradera , Biomasa , Clima , Estaciones del Año
15.
Ann Bot ; 124(1): 41-52, 2019 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698658

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Future shifts in precipitation regimes and temperature are expected to affect plant traits dramatically. To date, many studies have explored the effects of acute stresses, but few have investigated the consequences of prolonged shifts in climatic conditions on plant growth and chemistry. METHODS: Plant size and metabolite profiles were assessed on naturally occurring Plantago lanceolata plants growing under different precipitation (ambient, 50 % less than ambient = drought) and temperature (ambient, +0.8, +2.4 and +4.0 °C above ambient) treatments at the Boston Area Climate Experiment (constructed in 2007). KEY RESULTS: The analysis of primary and secondary metabolites revealed pronounced effects of drought, and a precipitation × temperature interaction. Strikingly, the effects of precipitation were minimal at the two lower temperatures but marked at the two higher temperatures. Compared with the ambient condition, plants in the drought plots had lower concentrations of foliar nitrogen, amino acids and most sugars, and higher concentrations of sorbitol, citrate and malate, common stress-induced metabolites. This pattern was especially evident at high temperatures. Moreover, drought-exposed plants showed lower concentrations of catalpol, an iridoid glycoside. CONCLUSIONS: While the effect of warming on the metabolite profiles was less pronounced, differences were marked when combined with drought. Given the interactive effect of environmental variables on leaf chemistry, and the fact that woody and herbaceous plants seem to differ in their responses to temperature and precipitation, future studies should account for the direct and indirect effects of the community response to multifactorial field conditions.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Plantago , Nitrógeno , Hojas de la Planta , Temperatura
16.
New Phytol ; 222(1): 52-69, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449035

RESUMEN

Contents Summary 52 I. Introduction 52 II. The Community Response to Extreme Drought (CRED) framework 55 III. Post-drought rewetting rates: system and community recovery 61 IV. Site-specific characteristics influencing community resistance and resilience 63 V. Conclusions 64 Acknowledgements 65 References 66 SUMMARY: As climate changes, many regions of the world are projected to experience more intense droughts, which can drive changes in plant community composition through a variety of mechanisms. During drought, community composition can respond directly to resource limitation, but biotic interactions modify the availability of these resources. Here, we develop the Community Response to Extreme Drought framework (CRED), which organizes the temporal progression of mechanisms and plant-plant interactions that may lead to community changes during and after a drought. The CRED framework applies some principles of the stress gradient hypothesis (SGH), which proposes that the balance between competition and facilitation changes with increasing stress. The CRED framework suggests that net biotic interactions (NBI), the relative frequency and intensity of facilitative (+) and competitive (-) interactions between plants, will change temporally, becoming more positive under increasing drought stress and more negative as drought stress decreases. Furthermore, we suggest that rewetting rates affect the rate of resource amelioration, specifically water and nitrogen, altering productivity responses and the intensity and importance of NBI, all of which will influence drought-induced compositional changes. System-specific variables and the intensity of drought influence the strength of these interactions, and ultimately the system's resistance and resilience to drought.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Ecosistema , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Conceptos Meteorológicos , Especificidad de la Especie , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Ecology ; 99(7): 1610-1620, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705984

RESUMEN

Realistic representations of plant carbon exchange processes are necessary to reliably simulate biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. These processes are known to vary over time and space, though the drivers of the underlying rates are still widely debated in the literature. Here, we measured leaf carbon exchange in >500 individuals of 98 species from the Neotropics to high boreal biomes to determine the drivers of photosynthetic and dark respiration capacity. Covariate abiotic (long- and short-term climate) and biotic (plant type, plant size, ontogeny, water status) data were used to explore significant drivers of temperature-standardized leaf carbon exchange rates. Using model selection, we found the previous week's temperature and soil moisture at the time of measurement to be a better predictor of photosynthetic capacity than long-term climate, with the combination of high recent temperatures and low soil moisture tending to decrease photosynthetic capacity. Non-trees (annual and perennials) tended to have greater photosynthetic capacity than trees, and, within trees, adults tended to have greater photosynthetic capacity than juveniles, possibly as a result of differences in light availability. Dark respiration capacity was less responsive to the assessed drivers than photosynthetic capacity, with rates best predicted by multi-year average site temperature alone. Our results suggest that, across large spatial scales, photosynthetic capacity quickly adjusts to changing environmental conditions, namely light, temperature, and soil moisture. Respiratory capacity is more conservative and most responsive to longer-term conditions. Our results provide a framework for incorporating these processes into large-scale models and a data set to benchmark such models.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Hojas de la Planta , Dióxido de Carbono , Ecosistema , Fotosíntesis , Temperatura , Árboles
19.
AoB Plants ; 10(1): ply003, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484151

RESUMEN

Predicting the effects of climate change on tree species and communities is critical for understanding the future state of our forested ecosystems. We used a fully factorial precipitation (three levels; ambient, -50 % ambient, +50 % ambient) by warming (four levels; up to +4 °C) experiment in an old-field ecosystem in the northeastern USA to study the climatic sensitivity of seedlings of six native tree species. We measured whole plant-level responses: survival, total leaf area (TLA), seedling insect herbivory damage, as well as leaf-level responses: specific leaf area (SLA), leaf-level water content (LWC), foliar nitrogen (N) concentration, foliar carbon (C) concentration and C:N ratio of each of these deciduous species in each treatment across a single growing season. We found that canopy warming dramatically increased the sensitivity of plant growth (measured as TLA) to rainfall across all species. Warm, dry conditions consistently reduced TLA and also reduced leaf C:N in four species (Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, Prunus serotina, Ulmus americana), primarily as a result of reduced foliar C, not increased foliar N. Interestingly, these conditions also harmed the other two species in different ways, increasing either mortality (Populus grandidentata) or herbivory (Quercus rubra). Specific leaf area and LWC varied across species, but did not show strong treatment responses. Our results indicate that, in the northeastern USA, dry years in a future warmer environment could have damaging effects on the growth capacity of these early secondary successional forests, through species-specific effects on leaf production (total leaves and leaf C), herbivory and mortality.

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