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J Chiropr Med ; 19(1): 1-8, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192186


Objective: We sought to investigate whether there is any additional effect of coupled cognitive and physical rehabilitation compared to exercise training alone on walking and cognitive performance in individuals with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted from March to November 2015 with 30 individuals with RRMS (aged 20 to 50 years; 21 women, 9 men), who underwent detailed medical and neurologic examination. They were randomly allocated using sealed envelopes to either the study group, who received physical and cognitive rehabilitation (dual-task training), or the control group, who received physical rehabilitation alone. Participants (in both groups) were assessed twice (8 weeks apart), before and after rehabilitation. Assessment tools were the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), neuropsychological evaluation (using RehaCom), and walking tests. Results: After training, the control group significantly improved regarding MMSE, attention/concentration test, and 10-meter walking test, whereas the scores of the study group significantly improved in all studied parameters (Expanded Disability Status Scale, MMSE, logical reasoning, and attention/concentration and walking tests). The differential (delta) scores from before to after rehabilitation were significantly higher in the study group for logical reasoning, attention/concentration, and 2-minute walking distance scores. Conclusions: Coupled physical and cognitive (dual-task) training showed concurrent improvement in cognitive and walking abilities in individuals with RRMS which exceeded that achieved by physical training alone.

Neurol Res ; 41(9): 771-779, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084342


Objective: Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is a sleep-related focal epilepsy which is often misdiagnosed. Despite active pharmacological therapy in the management of this disorder, satisfactory seizure control still cannot be achieved. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify this disorder among people who were seeking medical advice at Cairo University Epilepsy Unit (CUEU), characterizing its clinical, electroencephalographic and imaging features besides identifying possible indicators of inadequate seizure control on drug-therapy. Patients and methods: This study was carried out on 26 patients with SHE who were subjected to detailed history taking and examination in addition to home video recording, video electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring and brain imaging. Ictal semiology and EEGs were reviewed and analyzed by experienced neurologists. Results: SHE is an uncommon sleep-related focal epilepsy. In our series, median age of the patients was 18.5 years. It is characterized by being sporadic, with often frontal lobe seizure onset (14/26, 53.8%) and with occasional occurrence in wakefulness. Adolescence age at disease onset (11 years, 6-15), duration less than 1 min, clustering, lack of auras and often uninformative brain imaging (22/25, 88%) are all documented features. Moreover, it has a relatively poor outcome on pharmacological therapy (16/26, 61.5%). Longer disease duration (>4.5 years) was a significant feature of the patients exhibiting inadequate seizure control. Conclusions: Our data show relatively poor prognosis of SHE on medical therapy. Its outcome is significantly related to disease duration at the time of diagnosis. Abbreviation: SHE = Sleep related hypermotor epilepsy.

Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Electroencefalografía , Convulsiones/fisiopatología , Vigilia/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Egipto , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Convulsiones/diagnóstico , Grabación en Video/métodos , Adulto Joven
Neuroradiol J ; 31(5): 490-495, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024291


Purpose Monitoring of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is required to prevent secondary optic nerve damage. Sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a noninvasive method to evaluate intracranial hypertension. Different ONSD cut-off values have been reported probably due to ethnic variations. Our aim was to determine optic nerve sonographic examination cut-off points to predict raised ICP in IIH patients. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 99 IIH post-pubertal female patients (both probable and definite) and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Sonographic ONSD and optic nerve diameter (OND) were obtained 3 mm behind the posterior edge of the globe in a horizontal plane via a 7-13 MHz linear probe. Lumbar puncture was then carried out on the patients. Results The opening cerebrospinal fluid pressure documented in the patient group was 279.64 ± 65.97 mm H2O. A statistically significant difference was found between IIH patients and controls regarding ONSD. The best ONSD cut-off value indicating raised ICP was 6.05 mm with an area under the curve of 0.850 (95% confidence interval 0.805 to 0.894, 73.2% sensitivity and 91.4% specificity). Regarding OND/ONSD ratio, there was an insignificant difference between both groups. Conclusion Sonographic ONSD but not OND/ONSD ratio could offer a bedside adjunct or alternative indicator of elevated ICP in IIH patients. Ethnic differences, however, should be noted when using this parameter.

Hipertensión Intracraneal/diagnóstico por imagen , Presión Intracraneal , Nervio Óptico/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Adolescente , Adulto , Área Bajo la Curva , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión Intracraneal/fisiopatología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nervio Óptico/patología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Curva ROC , Punción Espinal , Adulto Joven
Neurol Res ; 40(9): 728-735, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799769


BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and proper monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) could reduce morbidity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to explore and monitor reflection of raised ICP in IIH on optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), papillary height and ophthalmic vessels hemodynamics, using transorbital sonography (TOS). METHODS: The study included 24 IIH patients and 30 controls. Patients were compared to controls (phase I) then reassessed twice; 1 week and 4 weeks later (phase II). Both groups underwent clinical evaluation and TOS to measure ONSD, papillary elevation, and color Doppler indices of the ophthalmic vessels. Patients underwent lumbar puncture (LP) to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. RESULTS: ONSD was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). The cut-off value was 6.2 mm. Papillary elevation (p = 0.006) and ONSD (p = 0.006) were significantly reduced 4 weeks following LP. Baseline color Doppler indices of the ophthalmic vessels were comparable between both groups and the changes observed during the follow-up visits in the patients were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Reflected ICP changes on ONSD and papilla, measured by TOS, could be a valuable noninvasive additional tool to diagnose and monitor IIH patients. IIH insignificantly influences ophthalmic vessels hemodynamics. Abbreviation BMI: Body mass index. CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid. EDV: End diastolic velocity. ICP: Intracranial pressure. IH:intracranial hypertension. IIH: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. LP: Lumbar puncture. MI: Mechanical index. MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging. MRV: Magnetic resonance venography. OA: Ophthalmic artery OND: Optic nerve diameter. ONSD: Optic nerve sheath diameter. OV: Ophthalmic vein. PIs: Pulsatility indices. PSV: Peak systolic velocity. ROC: Receiver operator characteristic. TOS: Trans-orbital sonography.

Ojo/irrigación sanguínea , Ojo/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipertensión Intracraneal/diagnóstico por imagen , Nervio Óptico/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía Doppler en Color , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Hipertensión Intracraneal/patología , Presión Intracraneal , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nervio Óptico/patología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Estudios Prospectivos , Punción Espinal , Adulto Joven
Epilepsy Behav ; 80: 272-279, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398625


OBJECTIVE: Variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction have been reported in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS). Our aim was to perform quantitative analyses of the brain responses to cognitive tasks using event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) and correlating the results with the scores of neuropsychological tests in patients with BCECTS. METHODS: This case control study included 30 patients with BCECTS and 20 controls. Clinical assessment, neuropsychological tests, the Positive wave at 300 msec (P300) parameters recording, and quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) analysis were carried out for both groups. Alpha power ERD and ERS were measured in six different brain regions during an auditory oddball paradigm. RESULTS: Children with epilepsy showed a statistically significant poorer performance in verbal intelligence quotient (IQ), performance IQ, and total scale IQ and lower number of correct responses. Moreover, both groups showed diffuse alpha power attenuation in response to the target tones. After summation of the alpha power ERD over all brain regions to get the net diffuse ERD, the patients' group showed a statistically significant smaller net alpha ERD compared with that of the control group (P=0.001). No significant correlations between the alpha ERD percentage, recorded P300 parameters, and neuropsychological tests scores were found. CONCLUSIONS: Children with BCECTS have subtle cognitive dysfunction proved by significantly lower scores of verbal IQ and performance IQ subtests. The significantly smaller net diffuse alpha power ERD detected in children with epilepsy may be an electrophysiological indicator of disruptive brain activation in relation to cognitive attentional tasks; however, its correlation with neuropsychological tests was insignificant.

Atención/fisiología , Epilepsia Rolándica/fisiopatología , Epilepsia Rolándica/psicología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Sincronización Cortical , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Sincronización de Fase en Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
Epilepsy Behav ; 79: 106-111, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274604


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The occurrence of cardiac electrical abnormalities such as repolarization disorders in patients with epilepsy was previously documented and may, in part, clarify the mechanism of sudden unexpected death in those patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of cardiac repolarization disorders among patients with epilepsy and whether specific demographic- or disease-related features were associated with their occurrence. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 1000 subjects with epilepsy who were compared with age- and sex-matched 2500 subjects without epilepsy. Clinical assessment, which included careful history taking and examination, was carried out for all participants in addition to resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. Electrocardiograms were reviewed by experienced cardiologists. Electrocardiogram intervals were measured, and morphological abnormalities were identified using standard guidelines. RESULTS: Repolarization abnormalities were found in 142 (14.2%) patients with epilepsy. A statistically significant elevation in percentage of corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (both severe and borderline) among patients with epilepsy compared with controls was documented (8.4% vs 2%, P<0.001). Epilepsy increased the likelihood of hosting prolonged QTc more than 4 times (95% confidence interval: 3.175-6.515; odds ratio: 4.548; P<0.001). Affected patients were significantly older (95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.044; odds ratio: 1.027; P=0.001), and the abnormality was significantly more prevalent among those with poor seizure control (95% confidence interval: 1.103-2.966; odds ratio: 1.809; P=0.019). On the other hand, early repolarization (ER) pattern and Brugada type ECG pattern (BP) were significantly more prevalent in subjects without epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: Corrected QT interval prolongation (both severe and borderline) was more prevalent among patients with epilepsy, especially if uncontrolled or elderly. Electrocardiogram should be established as a part of the diagnostic workup of epilepsy in order to identify such electrocardiographic abnormality.

Arritmias Cardíacas/etiología , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Epilepsia/complicaciones , Convulsiones/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Muerte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiología , Egipto/epidemiología , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Femenino , Cardiopatías , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Convulsiones/fisiopatología