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1.
Kardiologiia ; 59(10S): 31-40, 2019 Jul 23.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876460

RESUMEN

Purpos. To assess the effectiveness of preventive counseling with focus on diet modification followed by remote support via telephone on awareness of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (RFs) in patients (pts) with high/very high CV risk. Material and methods. This is a prospective randomized controlled study of 100 pts with high/very high CV risk (5-9% and ≥10% according to the SCORE scale) and any 2 criteria for metabolic syndrome.  Pts were randomized into 2 groups in 1:1 ratio - the intervention group (n=50) and the control group (n=50). The intervention group received comprehensive preventive counseling with focus on diet modification followed by remote preventive counseling by phone every two weeks for the first 3 months after enrollment (a total of 6 sessions). The control group received usual care in Health centers which also included basic preventive counseling. A specially designed questionnaire was used to evaluate the awareness of the basic CV RFs, including open questions. The awareness was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Results. The groups were well balanced according to demographic and clinical features. The results of the study revealed an extremely low awareness of major CV RFs of pts in both groups at baseline: practically none of them indicated as RFs for cardiovascular disease elevated cholesterol (8,0% and 4,0%, respectively) and blood pressure (14.0% and 4.0%). At 6 month the level of awareness of CV RFs has increased significantly. Moreover, pts of the intervention group were more informed about elevated cholesterol (58,0% vs. 28,0%; p<0,01) and unhealthy diet (76,0% vs. 52,0%; p<0,05). At 12 month the level of awareness of CV RFs was significantly higher in both groups  to compare from baseline. Conclusion. Preventive counseling with focus on diet modification followed by 3 months  remote support via phone provided a significant improvement of awareness of CV RFs in pts with high/very high CV risk.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Presión Sanguínea , Consejo , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Kardiologiia ; 59(11): 21-30, 2019 Dec 11.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849296

RESUMEN

Background Long-term secondary preventive programs in coronary heart disease (CHD) are of highest efficacy but numerous logistical problems often compromise their implementation. Contemporary remote technologies have a potential to overcome these barriers. AIM: To assess  the impact of 2 preventive counselling programs with subsequent remote support in CHD patients with concomitant obesity. METHODS: A prospective randomized parallel-group study in 120 stable CHD patients hospitalized for elective coronary revascularization who were from 40 to 65 years old and had concomitant obesity. Patients were randomized (1:1:1) into 3 groups (n=40 each). Before discharge, Groups 1 and 2 received a single-session comprehensive counselling with focus on diet followed by remote counselling by phone (Group 1) or via text messages (Group 2). Remote counselling was delivered weekly (Months 1-3) and then monthly (Months 4-6). Group 3 received only standard advice from their attending physicians. The patients were followed for 12 months with assessment of adiposity measures, self-reported dietary patterns, physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), smoking status, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as well as of clinical events. RESULTS: At 1 year of follow-up, the patients from both intervention groups showed a marked improvement of several risk factors including obesity: the body mass index was reduced by 1.48±0.13 kg/m² in Group 1 and by 1.53±0.18 kg/m² in Group 2; the waist circumference went down by 7.62±0.49 and by 7.41±0.74 cm, respectively; the height-normalized fat mass decreased by 4.66±0.40 kg and 5.98±0.63 kg, respectively (all P values are <0.01 vs corresponding changes in the control group). These changes were coupled with more healthy dietary patterns and less sedentary lifestyles in both intervention groups: the proportion of patients with low activity level fell from 87.5% to 2.5% in Group 1 and from 80% to 10% in Group 2 (both p values <0.01 vs control). In Group 1, BP decreased by 18.08±2.20 mmHg (systolic) and 8.56±1.61 mmHg (diastolic); both р values <0.01 vs Group 3. In Group 2 systolic BP dropped by only 11.95±2.50 mmHg (non-significant) and diastolic BP by 6.33±1.52 mmHg (р<0.05 vs control). The proportion of smokers went down from 30% to 5% in Group 1 and from 22.5% to 0% in Group 2 (both p values <0.01 vs control). The fasting glucose levels decreased by 0.21±0.20 mmol/L in Group 1 and by 0.48±0.25 mmol/L in Group 2 (<0.01 vs control, both), but there were no meaningful improvements in blood lipids or CRP. CONCLUSION: Long-term (6 months) secondary prevention programs incorporating remote support technologies result into sustained improvement of key secondary prevention indicators in obese CHD patients, irrespective of the support modality (by phone or via electronic messaging).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria , Obesidad Abdominal , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Coronaria/complicaciones , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Prevención Secundaria
3.
Kardiologiia ; (10): 34-44, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359215

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: to assess the impact of preventive counseling with focus on diet modification on lipid and metabolic parameters in patients with high / very high cardiovascular (CV) risk who visited Health centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective randomized controlled study of patients aged 40 to 65 years with high/very high CV risk (≥5% according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation scale [SCORE]) and any 2 criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients were 1:1 randomized into 2 groups. The intervention group (n=50) received comprehensive preventive counseling with focus on diet modification followed by remote preventive counseling by phone every two weeks for the first 3 months after enrollment (a total of 6 sessions). The control group (n=50) received usual care in Health centers which also included basic preventive counseling. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (women 82%, age 59.74±4.66 years) were randomized. At baseline 81% of patients had high and 19% - very high CV risk. The groups were well balanced according to demographic and clinical features. At 1 year of follow-up patients from the intervention group experienced significant improvement of metabolic parameters compared with controls: their diastolic blood pressure (BP) decreased by 5.62±7.7 mm Hg, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) - by 0.5±0.83 and 0.46±0.62 mmol/l, respectively. Both groups experienced statistically and clinically significant decreases in systolic BP (intervention, - 17.76±16.2 mm Hg, control, - 13.44±15.6 mm Hg; both groups p.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Anciano , LDL-Colesterol , Consejo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
4.
Kardiologiia ; 57(S4): 47-52, 2017 04.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466182

RESUMEN

Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and abdominal obesity (AO) are a priority group for the most active implementation of secondary prevention efforts. The paper focuses on most challenging issues of cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) correction via comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs in patients with CHD and AO. Based on large randomized clinical trials results, intensive behavioral interventions in the form of counselling are beneficial for such patients especially during the long-term support stage. They produce small but important changes in health behaviors (which translate into weight reduction, more healthy nutrition and higher physical activity) and improve selected intermediate clinical endpoints.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria/complicaciones , Enfermedad Coronaria/terapia , Consejo , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Rehabilitación Cardiaca , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Prevención Secundaria
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