Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
J Interprof Care ; 34(1): 44-49, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064272

RESUMEN

Interprofessional education (IPE) is an evolving educational approach for preparing healthcare professional students to provide patient care in a collaborative team atmosphere. One of the important outcomes to be achieved is understanding the stereotypical views of health professionals held by themselves and by others to eventually reduce negative and harmful stereotypes and to foster an environment of mutual respect and trust amongst healthcare professionals. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a change in healthcare students' stereotypical belief about the characteristics of healthcare professionals before and after an IPE activity focused on smoking cessation. The Student Stereotype Rating Questionnaire (SSRQ) was used to assess the students' stereotype ratings of their professions and other healthcare professions before and after the IPE activity. The ratings were made in relation to nine attributes. Sixty-eight students from five different majors (Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Public Health, and Respiratory Therapy) participated in the IPE activity. All the students involved in the activity responded to both the pre and post surveys (response rate, 100%). The participating students' combined ratings revealed a significant change in the perspectives of medical, pharmacy, and respiratory therapy students in all of the nine attributes. While for public health students, differences were significant in two aspects: professional competence and practical skills. Three central themes emerged after the IPE session from the open-ended questions: roles and responsibilities, patient-centered care, and integrated healthcare team. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that stereotyping exists among different healthcare profession student groups in Qatar and that IPE can impact both hetero-stereotypes and auto-stereotypes. The positive change in perception following the IPE activity indicates the effectiveness and the value of these short duration IPE activities in negating stereotypical views.

2.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 278, 2019 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of faculty members and academic administrators, at Qatar University College of Pharmacy, towards interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice by identifying enablers, barriers and resources needed to implement IPE within the pharmacy curriculum. METHODS: A qualitative methodology was employed using focus groups discussions. Two focus groups were conducted, one focus group with faculty members (n = 5) and another focus group with academic administrators (n = 5) at Qatar University College of Pharmacy. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim by an independent experienced transcriber and validated by the study principal researcher. Thematic analysis was undertaken to generate key themes and subthemes. RESULTS: The study participants highlighted a number of enablers and challenges encountered as a result of the initial IPE events, for integrating IPE into the pharmacy curriculum. Many provided recommendations and suggestions for effective implementation of IPE. Analysis of the results focused on three main categories: enablers, barriers and recommendations. Overall, seven major themes were identified: 1) intrinsic enabling factors (initial IPE experiences, cross-appointed faculty, accreditation); 2) extrinsic enabling factors (national policy & legislation and advances in pharmacists' role); 3) student related benefits (roles & responsibilities and agents for change); 4) student hindering factors (student engagement, perceptions & attitudes and gender issues); 5) partnering academic institutions (logistical issues, familiarity with other curricula and commitment); 6) practice environment (hierarchy, healthcare professionals' attitude and lack of collaborative practice) and 7) IPE delivery (dedicated structure, IPE curriculum and extrinsic support). CONCLUSION: Pharmacy academics had positive perceptions towards IPE suggesting a high level of support and readiness to pursue IPE and an opportunity for pharmacy academics to drive the IPE agenda forward in Qatar. However, a number of challenges were reported. These are important to consider to ensure the development of effective strategies for the integration and enhancement of IPE and collaborative practice.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Desarrollo de Programa , Curriculum , Grupos Focales , Farmacéuticos , Qatar , Investigación Cualitativa
3.
Simul Healthc ; 14(4): 271-275, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730468

RESUMEN

STATEMENT: A phenomenon is occurring in international settings where the language of program delivery and assessment does not match the primary language of practice. It is unknown whether determining competence in English disadvantages students for practice in non-English settings. As such, we conducted a pilot study to determine student performance and perceptions after completion of two Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) examinations, one conducted in English and one conducted in Arabic within an Arabic-speaking Middle Eastern setting. Twenty-two students completed both OSCEs. Overall scores were similar but student rankings differed. Students were more confident performing in Arabic, felt that the Arabic examination was more reflective of practice, and believed that use of Arabic OSCEs can promote better patient care. Findings support the notion that student success may be influenced by language of assessment and that we may need to rethink how we determine assessment validity in these emerging international education settings.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Lenguaje , Competencia Clínica/normas , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Qatar
4.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(12): 1395-1405, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709731

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While many instruments have been developed, validated, and used to assess health literacy skills, their use and appropriateness among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are not widely studied. OBJECTIVE: To identify, appraise, and synthesize available health literacy assessment instruments used in patients with CVDs. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies that used validated measures to assess health literacy in patients with CVDs. Included studies were assessed for risk of bias and the identified instruments were evaluated based on their psychometric properties. Data were synthesized using a narrative approach. RESULTS: Forty-three studies were included in the review, of which 20 were cross-sectional studies and 12 were randomized controlled trials. Eleven health literacy assessment instruments were identified, of which only one was disease-specific. The Abbreviated version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) (n = 19) and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) (n = 13) were found to be the most commonly used instruments to assess health literacy in CVDs. CONCLUSIONS: The S-TOFHLA and the REALM are the most widely used instruments to evaluate health literacy in CVD population. More CVD-specific health literacy screening instruments are warranted. Assessment of health literacy should be a standard of care in patients with CVDs and effective interventions should be developed to improve the impact of limited health literacy on health outcomes in this population.

5.
Trials ; 20(1): 25, 2019 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621772

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is presently responsible for the death of over seven million people across the world. In Qatar, it is one of the main causes of premature deaths and preventable diseases. To reduce tobacco use, Qatar has ratified the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and has implemented many tobacco-control initiatives. In spite of these measures, tobacco use is still considered a public health threat in Qatar. Pharmacists practicing in retail/community pharmacy settings are often the first port of call for individuals requiring general health advice. Evidence has proven that they have a pivotal role in health promotion and disease prevention including tobacco cessation. However, pharmacists in Qatar are not actively involved in tobacco control and many have not received any education or training about smoking cessation counseling in the past. In an effort to build the capacity of pharmacists towards tobacco control in Qatar, the aim of the proposed study is to design, implement, and evaluate an intensive education program on tobacco dependence treatment for pharmacists in Qatar. METHODS/DESIGN: The study will be a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing an intensive tobacco-related education program versus non-tobacco-related training on pharmacists' tobacco-use-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and skills. Community pharmacists practicing in Qatar will be eligible for participation in the study. A random sample of pharmacists will be selected for participation. Consenting participants will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group will receive an intensive education program delivered by a multi-disciplinary group of educators, researchers, and clinicians with expertise in tobacco cessation. A short didactic session on a non-tobacco-related topic will be delivered to pharmacists in the control group. The study has two primary outcomes: post-intervention tobacco-related knowledge and post-intervention skills for tobacco cessation assessed using a multiple-choice-based evaluation instrument and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), respectively. The secondary study outcomes are post-intervention attitudes towards tobacco cessation and self-efficacy in tobacco-cessation interventions assessed using a survey instrument. An additional secondary study outcome is the post-intervention performance difference in relation to tobacco-cessation skills in the practice setting assessed using the simulated client approach. DISCUSSION: If demonstrated to be effective, this education program will be considered as a model that Qatar and the Middle East region can apply to overcome the burden of tobacco-use disorder. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03518476 . Registered on 8 May 2018. Version 1/22 June 2018.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia , Educación Continua en Farmacia , Farmacéuticos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Tamaño de la Muestra
6.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 6(3)2018 Aug 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104554

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess perceived medication-related burden among patients with multiple non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and to investigate the association between perceived burden and adherence to medication therapy. Using a cross-sectional study in three primary care clinics in Qatar, medication-related burden was measured using the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) among adults with diabetes, with or without other comorbidities. Adherence was measured using the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Two hundred and ninety-three eligible patients participated in the study. The majority of them reported experiencing minimal (66.8%) to moderate (24.1%) medication-related burden. There was a significant positive correlation between the scores of the LMQ (medication-related burden) and ARMS (medication adherence), rs (253) = 0.317, p < 0.0005.

7.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 40(5): 1388-1401, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051221

RESUMEN

Background Healthcare is provided by a variety of different professionals, including pharmacists who are integral members of the team, and all are expected to work collaboratively to provide quality care. Little is known about the perceptions of pharmacists in Qatar towards interprofessional collaboration. Positive attitudes towards interprofessional education are essential to successful implementation of interprofessional collaboration. Therefore, to develop effective collaboration strategies in practice settings, it was essential to survey the attitudes of practising pharmacists towards collaboration. Objective To explore the awareness, views, attitudes and perceptions of practising pharmacists in Qatar towards interprofessional education and collaborative practice. Setting Community, hospital and primary healthcare settings in Qatar. Methods This was a two-staged sequential explanatory mixed method design. It utilised a quantitative survey (Stage 1), based on a modified version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale. This was followed by a qualitative stage, utilising focus groups (Stage 2). Main outcome measures (1) Qatar pharmacists' attitudes towards interprofessional education and collaborative practice; (2) Practising pharmacists' perspectives in relation to enablers, barriers and recommendations regarding interprofessional education and collaborative practice. Results 63% of the practising pharmacists (n = 178) responded to the survey. Three focus groups followed (total n = 14). High scores indicating readiness and positive attitudes towards interprofessional education were reported for pharmacists working in hospital, community and primary healthcare settings. Qualitative analysis identified three overarching themes in relation to the enablers, barriers and recommendations for practising pharmacists working collaboratively. The enabling themes were: professional and patient related benefits, and current positive influences in Qatar; the barriers were patients' negative perceptions; the status of the pharmacy profession and current working practices and processes; the recommendations related to improving patients' perceptions about pharmacists and enhancing the status of pharmacy profession in Qatar. The findings from this study highlighted two major observations: the lack of existence of collaborative practice and hierarchy and power play. Conclusion Pharmacists demonstrated willingness and readiness to develop interprofessional learning and collaborative practice with significant steps already taken towards improving collaborative working practices in different care settings.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Servicios Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Conducta Cooperativa , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Qatar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
J Interprof Care ; : 1-15, 2018 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052106

RESUMEN

In an IPE environment, students are expected to have better understanding of the roles, responsibilities, and contribution of other health care professions to enhance interprofessional working and collaboration with an end result of improving patient-centred and team-based care. Although many studies have investigated students' attitudes, very few employ a mixed methods design and hardly are from Middle Eastern countries. A two-staged sequential explanatory mixed method design was used to comprehensively capture the perspectives of pharmacy students toward IPE and collaborative practice. A quantitative survey was conducted as the first stage of the study, followed by an in-depth discussion of these perspectives through a qualitative phase by conducting two focus groups. For the quantitative surveys, the overall response rate was 102/132 (77%) for pharmacy students in Qatar. This was followed by two focus groups with a total of 27 participants from senior and junior students. In exploring the qualitative data, three main themes were identified in relation to the pharmacy students' perspectives. These were on the pharmacy students' perception on the enablers (professional related benefits, patient-related benefits and current positive influences), barriers (previous IPE experiences, educational related issues and current working practices and processes), and recommendations to implementing IPE and collaborative practice (future IPE and pharmacy profession). Overall, the results demonstrate a strong readiness and positive perception by pharmacy students toward IPE and collaborative practice. This study has highlighted different dimensions in pharmacy students' perceptions. It also provided a useful insight into the readiness of pharmacy students in a Middle Eastern university. Students are seeking more IPE experiences formally incorporated into their curriculum and hence educators should capitalise on these positive and enthusiastic attitudes to identify the most effective means for delivering IPE and inform curricula planning. Collaborative practice-ready graduates will produce better-educated professionals delivering higher quality care.

9.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(4): 423-426, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793702

RESUMEN

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION: Written assessments are essential components of higher education practices. However, faculty members encounter common pitfalls when designing questions intended to evaluate student-learning outcomes. The objective of this project was to determine the impact of a mandatory examination peer review process on question accuracy, alignment with learning objectives, use of best practices in question design, and language/grammar. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT METHODS: A mandatory peer review process was implemented for all midterm (before phase) and final (after phase) examinations. Peer review occurred by two reviewers and followed a pre-defined guidance document. Non-punitive feedback given to faculty members served as the intervention. Frequencies of flagged questions according to guidance categories were compared between phases. RESULTS OF CQI INQUIRY: A total of 21 midterm and 21 final exam reviews were included in the analysis. A total of 637 questions were reviewed across all midterms and 1003 questions were reviewed across all finals. Few questions were flagged for accuracy and alignment with learning outcomes. The median total proportion of questions flagged for best practices was significantly lower for final exams versus midterm exams (15.8 vs. 6.45%, p = 0.014). The intervention did not influence language and grammar errors (9.68 vs. 10.0% of questions flagged before and after, respectively, p = 0.305). CONCLUSIONS: A non-punitive peer review process for written examinations can overcome pitfalls in exam creation and improve best practices in question writing. The peer-review process had a substantial effect at flagging language/grammar errors but error rate did not differ between midterm and final exams.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Docentes de Farmacia , Revisión por Expertos , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Escritura , Rendimiento Académico , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Programas Obligatorios , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Qatar , Universidades
10.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 14(6): 507-520, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28641999

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of collaborative and multidisciplinary health care on the outcomes of care in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is well-established in the literature. However, there is lack of high quality evidence on the role of pharmacist care in this setting. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmacist care on patient outcomes (readmission, mortality, emergency visits, and medication adherence) in patients with ACS at or post-discharge. METHODS: The following electronic databases and search engines were searched from their inception to September 2016: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Campbell Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health System Evidence, Global Health Database, Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence-Based Practice Database, Academic Search Complete, ProQuest, PROSPERO, and Google Scholar. Studies were included if they evaluated the impact of pharmacist's care (compared with no pharmacist's care or usual care) on the outcomes of rehospitalization, mortality, and medication adherence in patients post-ACS discharge. Comparison of the outcomes with relevant statistics was summarized and reported. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies [13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four non-randomized clinical studies] involving 8391 patients were included in the review. The studies were of variable quality (poor to good quality) or risk of bias (moderate to critical risk). The nature and intensity of pharmacist interventions varied among the studies including medication reconciliation, medication therapy management, discharge medication counseling, motivational interviewing, and post-discharge face-to-face or telephone follow-up. Pharmacist-delivered interventions significantly improved medication adherence in four out of 12 studies. However, these did not translate to significant improvements in the rates of readmissions, hospitalizations, emergency visits, and mortality among ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist care of patients discharged after ACS admission was not associated with significant improvement in medication adherence or reductions in readmissions, emergency visits, and mortality. Future studies should use well-designed RCTs to assess the short- and long-terms effects of pharmacist interventions in ACS patients.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Coronario Agudo/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Farmacéuticos , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/mortalidad , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Servicios Farmacéuticos
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(5): 561-567, 2018 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28164230

RESUMEN

Background: Lack of adequate tobacco-related content in pharmacy curricula can interfere with pharmacist's ability to provide tobacco cessation interventions. This study aims to determine the extent of tobacco-related content in pharmacy schools' curricula across the Middle East region, instructional methods used, perceived adequacy and importance of tobacco education, and barriers for inclusion of tobacco-related content in pharmacy curricula. Methods: A web-based survey was sent to 120 schools of pharmacy in 13 Middle Eastern countries. Key faculty members were identified and sent an e-mail with an online link to the survey. Data were descriptively analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22. Results: Of the 120 pharmacy schools contacted, 59 schools completed the survey (49.2% response rate). Of this, 44 (74.6%) reported including tobacco-related content in their undergraduate curricula. Nicotine pharmacology and principles of addiction (64.4%), pharmacologic aids for tobacco cessation (61%), and health effects of tobacco (61%) were the most commonly reported topics. The topics that were least perceived to be adequately covered were monitoring outcomes of tobacco cessation interventions (5.9%) and epidemiology of tobacco use (15.4%). The top barriers to inclusion of tobacco-related topics in the curriculum were lack of time (75.9%), lack of experiential training sites focusing on tobacco cessation interventions (72.2%), lack of faculty expertize (66%), and perceived lack of priority of tobacco related content in pharmacy schools (66%). Conclusions: The current findings suggest that more efforts should be geared towards increasing content for tobacco education in schools of pharmacy across the Middle East and towards overcoming the identified barriers. Implications: This study is the first to assess the extent of tobacco-related content in pharmacy schools curricula across the Middle East countries. If pharmacy students are expected to deliver effective tobacco cessation services when they graduate as pharmacists, then schools of pharmacy in the Middle East should consider providing adequate tobacco-related content and training in undergraduate curricula. Pharmacy schools have to work on circumventing the identified barriers including lack of time, lack of experiential training sites offering tobacco cessation interventions, shortage of faculty with relevant expertize and placing low priority on tobacco education in pharmacy schools.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Uso de Tabaco , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Curriculum , Humanos , Medio Oriente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 40(1): 84-93, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147964

RESUMEN

Background Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a major public health issue and is one of the top ten causes of death in Qatar. Objective To describe the activities, and attitudes of Qatar pharmacists toward diabetes, to measure their diabetes knowledge and to assess their perceived barriers for diabetes care. Setting Community and ambulatory pharmacies in Qatar. Method Study objectives were addressed in a cross sectional survey of community and ambulatory pharmacists in Qatar. A phone call explaining the study was made to all community and ambulatory pharmacists in Qatar. Consenting pharmacists anonymously completed the survey either online or as paper. Main outcome measure Diabetes related activities, knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers. Results Over 7 months, 126 surveys were collected (28% response rate). The majority of pharmacists always or often counselled patients on the appropriate time to take each medication and on medication side effects (90%, n = 100/111 and 73%, n = 81/111 respectively). Yet around 50% always or often provided education on the importance of screening for nephropathy (n = 59/112) and retinopathy (n = 58/109). In addition, 41% always or often provided education about the importance of immunization (n = 45/111) and 45% always or often provided therapy recommendations to physicians (n = 49/111). Using Diabetes Attitude Scale-3, most respondents had positive attitudes toward the need for special training, psychosocial impact of diabetes, and patient autonomy. Around 25% (n = 32/126) scored less than 6 out of 10 on the diabetes related knowledge test. The top three barriers for providing diabetes services were lack of time (53%, n = 67/126) shortage of personnel (42%, n = 53/126) and lack of private counseling area (42%, n = 53/126). Conclusion Qatar pharmacists mainly provide basic services for diabetic patients. They have an average diabetes related knowledge. Yet overall, they have positive attitudes toward diabetes, which is a vital component of any successful diabetes care service.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Diabetes Mellitus/psicología , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Atención al Paciente/psicología , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención al Paciente/métodos , Qatar/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 14(10): 863-882, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132909

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pharmacists are key professionals in the collaborative working process and are integral members of the healthcare team. However, there is paucity of information regarding their perspectives towards interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice. AIMS: The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise, summarise and evaluate the quality of the quantitative and qualitative literature related to the perspectives of pharmacy students, pharmacy faculty and practising pharmacists toward IPE and collaborative practice. The perspectives included their views, experiences and attitudes with a special focus on their perceived benefits and challenges in relation to IPE and collaborative practice. METHODS: An integrated mixed method systematic review was conducted. Four electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2015. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to assess the quality of the studies. RESULTS: Twenty-nine articles were identified meeting the selection criteria from the first initial search of 8512 articles. Seventeen articles (59%) targeted pharmacy students, 11 articles (38%) focused on practising pharmacists and 1 study (3%) was related to pharmacy faculty. The majority of studies were conducted in the United States (n = 13), were published in the last five years (83%, n = 24) and employed quantitative methods (52%, n = 15). The two commonly used survey instruments to measure the perspectives were: different versions of the RIPLS (35%, n = 6) and the IEPS scale (35%, n = 6). Fourteen of the 29 studies were rated as low quality (MMAT = 25%), eight studies were rated as average quality (MMAT = 50%), four were rated as high quality (MMAT 75%) and three were rated as very poor quality (MMAT 0%). No studies were rated with 100% MMAT quality. Overall, the findings suggest that pharmacy students, practicing pharmacists and faculty valued interprofessional education and collaborative practice and had positive attitudes towards it. Five main findings have been identified from this review: heterogeneity in reporting IPE research, traditional professional image of the pharmacist, lack of longitudinal follow-up, lack of IPE research on faculty and paucity in mixed method studies in terms of quality and numbers. CONCLUSIONS: These findings will provide an opportunity to stakeholders and policy makers to develop and implement IPE activities that are meaningful, comprehensive and unique. Sustained efforts are required not just in undergraduate curricula but also in healthcare settings to improve and promote an interprofessional culture at individual and organisational level.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Conducta Cooperativa , Docentes , Humanos , Farmacias , Estudiantes de Farmacia
14.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 81(5): 91, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720919

RESUMEN

Objective. To explore the attitudes of pharmacy, pharmacy technician, medical, and public health students before and after an IPE activity that focused on smoking cessation in the Middle East. Methods. A pre-post intervention research design using the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) was used for this study. The tool contained 20 items, categorized under the following subscales: teamwork and collaboration, professional identity, and patient-centeredness. Results. A total of 47 out of 50 students from four different health disciplines in Qatar (medicine, pharmacy, pharmacy technician, and public health) who participated in the activity completed a pre- and post-intervention pre-validated questionnaire (94% response rate). Total attitude scores were calculated for all the 20 items along with attitudinal scores of the three domains. Most of the students reported having a positive attitude toward IPE; the number of students having a positive attitude toward IPE increased after the IPE session. The overall median (IQR) score increased from 82 (16) before the session to 84 (15) after the session. Students from different disciplines did not vary in their attitude scores. Conclusion. Health care professional students in Qatar perceived IPE positively, believing that it enhanced their communication skills, collaboration and appreciation of professional roles. This study has implication on developing effective methods to implement IPE in various health professional education curricula.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Técnicos de Farmacia/psicología , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Estudiantes de Salud Pública/psicología , Cese del Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medio Oriente , Qatar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 215, 2017 02 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28219367

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the major preventable causes of death and diseases in Qatar. The study objective was to test the effect of a structured smoking cessation program delivered by trained pharmacists on smoking cessation rates in Qatar. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in eight ambulatory pharmacies in Qatar. Eligible participants were smokers 18 years and older who smoked one or more cigarettes daily for 7 days, were motivated to quit, able to communicate in Arabic or English, and attend the program sessions. Intervention group participants met with the pharmacists four times at 2 to 4 week intervals. Participants in the control group received unstructured brief smoking cessation counseling. The primary study outcome was self-reported continuous abstinence at 12 months. Analysis was made utilizing data from only those who responded and also using intent-to-treat principle. A multinomial logistic regression model was fitted to assess the predictors of smoking at 12 months. Analysis was conducted using IBM-SPSS® version 23 and STATA® version 12. RESULTS: A total of 314 smokers were randomized into two groups: intervention (n = 167) and control (n = 147). Smoking cessation rates were higher in the intervention group at 12 months; however this difference was not statistically significant (23.9% vs. 16.9% p = 0.257). Similar results were observed but with smaller differences in the intent to treat analysis (12.6% vs. 9.5%, p = 0.391). Nevertheless, the daily number of cigarettes smoked for those who relapsed was significantly lower (by 4.7 and 5.6 cigarettes at 3 and 6 months respectively) in the intervention group as compared to the control group (p = 0.041 and p = 0.018 respectively). At 12 months, the difference was 3.2 cigarettes in favor of the intervention group but was not statistically significant (p = 0.246). Years of smoking and daily number of cigarettes were the only predictors of smoking as opposed to quitting at 12 months (p = 0.005; p = 0.027 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference in the smoking cessation rate at 12 months between the groups. However, the smoking cessation program led to higher (albeit non-significant) smoking cessation rates compared with usual care. More research should be conducted to identify factors that might improve abstinence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT02123329 . Registration date 20 April 2014.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/métodos , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Qatar , Autoinforme , Tabaquismo/terapia
16.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 39(1): 26-32, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28058593

RESUMEN

Background Ceftaroline is a parentally administered cephalosporin that has an in vitro expanded spectrum of activity compared with other cephalosporins yet data is conflicting regarding its place in therapy. Aim of the Review To compare the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline against standard antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Method The databases of MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Embase were searched up to June 2016. Manual review of references was completed and experts in the field were contacted for unpublished data. Randomized controlled trials of ceftaroline in CAP or cSSSI populations were included. Outcomes included clinical cure, mortality, adverse events, serious adverse events, and discontinuation due to adverse events. Meta-analysis was used to pool results for these outcomes. We performed subgroup analyses for gram positive infections in CAP and infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in cSSSIs. Risk of bias was assessed for all studies. Results Six trials (three for each indication) were included, each of which had an unclear or high risk of bias in at least one domain. For CAP, ceftaroline was significantly more efficacious in achieving clinical cure than ceftriaxone [risk ratio (RR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.19; I2 = 47%]. For cSSSIs, there was no significant difference in clinical cure between ceftaroline and vancomycin plus aztreonam (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.05; I2 = 0%). No differences were found for overall mortality, serious adverse events, discontinuation due to adverse events, and overall adverse events. Conclusion Ceftaroline is a viable therapeutic alternative for patients with CAP and cSSSIs, yet identified risks of bias and poor external validity preclude it from being recommended as a first-line agent.


Asunto(s)
Cefalosporinas/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/tratamiento farmacológico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Neumonía/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Cutáneas Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Cefalosporinas/farmacología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/fisiología , Humanos , Neumonía/diagnóstico , Neumonía/epidemiología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/métodos , Infecciones Cutáneas Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Cutáneas Estafilocócicas/epidemiología
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 17(1): 15, 2017 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095829

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interprofessional education (IPE) is an emerging concept in the Middle East with a number of health professional degree programs continually striving to meet international accreditation requirements to enhance the quality of education and ensure high standards are maintained. Using the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University (CPH QU) as a model, this article describes the IPE initiatives coordinated through the College's IPE Committee, with representation from fourteen programs at four Healthcare institutions: Qatar University; Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar; the University of Calgary in Qatar; and the College of North Atlantic in Qatar. These activities are based on the model proposed by the University of British Columbia across the different pharmacy professional years. Learning objectives for these initiatives were selected from the IPE shared competency domains and competency statements developed for Qatar context. METHOD: A meeting with six faculty members, who have been instrumental to designing and executing the IPE activities in the previous 2 years, was convened. Faculty members reflected on IPE activities and collaborations with other participating programs. A structured SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Challenges) framework was used to guide discussion. The discussion was recorded and notes were taken during the meeting. Raised points were categorized into each SWOC category for the final analysis. RESULTS: Implementation of IPE program is a major undertaking with a number of challenges that require invested time to overcome. This article highlights the importance of incorporating IPE into healthcare curricula to graduate students ready for collaborative practice in the workforce. Learning objectives for IPE initiatives need to be based on shared competency domains. When developing and implementing an IPE program it is necessary to align activities under a strong theoretical framework. This should be done under the leadership of an IPE steering group or committee to oversee the integration of IPE into the healthcare curriculum. CONCLUSION: The article presents many lessons learned through IPE implementation that are relevant to other academic institutions keen to incorporate IPE into their programs and also provides a successful model for integrating IPE into healthcare curricula.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Curriculum , Docentes Médicos , Empleos en Salud/educación , Personal de Salud/educación , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Liderazgo , Grupo Paritario , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Desarrollo de Programa , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Qatar , Investigación Cualitativa
18.
BMJ Open ; 6(11): e012141, 2016 11 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864247

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Secondary cardiovascular risk reduction therapy (consisting of an aspirin, a ß-blocker, an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker and a statin) is needed for all patients with ACS. Less than 80% of patients with ACS in Qatar use this combination after discharge. This study is aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical pharmacist-delivered intervention at discharge and tailored follow-up postdischarge on decreasing hospital readmissions, emergency department (ED) visits and mortality among patients with ACS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective, randomised controlled trial will be conducted at the Heart Hospital in Qatar. Patients are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and are discharged from any non-surgical cardiology service with ACS. Participants will be randomised into 1 of 3 arms: (1) 'control' arm which includes patients discharged during weekends or after hours; (2) 'clinical pharmacist delivered usual care at discharge' arm which includes patients receiving the usual care at discharge by clinical pharmacists; and (3) 'clinical pharmacist-delivered structured intervention at discharge and tailored follow-up postdischarge' arm which includes patients receiving intensive structured discharge interventions in addition to 2 follow-up sessions by intervention clinical pharmacists. Outcomes will be measured by blinded research assistants at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge and will include: all-cause hospitalisations and cardiac-related hospital readmissions (primary outcome), all-cause mortality including cardiac-related mortality, ED visits including cardiac-related ED visits, adherence to medications and treatment burden. Percentage of readmissions between the 3 arms will be compared on intent-to-treat basis using χ2 test with Bonferroni's adjusted pairwise comparisons if needed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was ethically approved by the Qatar University and the Hamad Medical Corporation Institutional Review Boards. The results shall be disseminated in international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02648243; pre-results.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Coronario Agudo/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/mortalidad , Alta del Paciente , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacéuticos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Qatar , Proyectos de Investigación , Factores de Riesgo
19.
J Interprof Care ; 30(6): 769-776, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27705033

RESUMEN

The current status of interprofessional education (IPE) in Arabic Middle Eastern countries is largely unexamined and there is a need to assess IPE and collaborative practice in these countries. As faculty attitudes towards IPE are believed to be one of the main factors that affect the successful integration of IPE into the different healthcare curricula, this article aims to explore the attitudes and views of pharmacy academics in Arabic-speaking Middle Eastern countries towards IPE and collaborative practice. The findings from this article are part of a larger study investigating pharmacy's perspectives of IPE and collaborative practice in Qatar and the Middle East. An online survey which included three validated scales was used to gather information from pharmacy academics at 89 pharmacy schools in 14 countries. The response rate was 107 out of 334 (32%) and the majority of the respondents were from Jordan, Qatar, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. Statistical analysis was completed descriptively as well as inferentially using a series of independent t-tests. Overall pharmacy academics had positive attitudes towards IPE. The majority of the respondents, 90.8% (n = 99), perceived IPE to be important. Age, likelihood to engage in IPE, and years of IPE experience were the factors that were related to faculty members' attitudes towards IPE. Highly perceived barriers for implementing IPE included cultural challenges for each profession, scheduling common courses, and activities in addition to limited resources. The study findings indicated that pharmacy academics in the Middle East are ready to pursue IPE. These results can serve as impetus for implementing IPE in Middle Eastern countries.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Humanos , Líbano , Qatar , Estudiantes de Farmacia
20.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 14(4): 394-403, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26916397

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Qatar, ACS (Acute Coronary Syndrome) has become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Guidelines recommend that ACS patients should receive indefinite treatment with antiplatelets, ß-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and statins. The study objectives were to assess the use of evidence-based secondary prevention medication at discharge among ACS patients in Qatar and to determine the clinical and demographic characteristics associated with the use of these medications. SETTING AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was conducted at the Heart Hospital in Qatar. A random sample of 1068 ACS patients was selected. Patient characteristics were summarized. Prevalence of medications at discharge were computed for each medication as well as for medication combinations. Multiple logistic regression was used to detect patient variables that were associated with the outcomes. A p≤0.05 was considered significant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: -Percentage of ACS patients discharged on each of the following medications: antiplatelets (aspirin, clopidogrel), ß-blockers, ACEI or ARBs and statins and on the combination of these medications-Association between the use of these medications and patient characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 1064 records were reviewed. The majority were males (85.3%) and about 1 in 5 (18.7%) were Qatari. At discharge, patients were prescribed the following: aspirin (96.0%), clopidogrel (92.0%), ß-blockers (90.6%) and statins (97.7%). ACEI and ARBs were prescribed to 63.5 and 11.3%, respectively. The concurrent 4 medications (aspirin or clopidogrel, statins or other lowering cholesterol medication, ß-blockers and ACEI or ARB) were prescribed to 773 patients (77.8%; 95% confidence interval: 75.2-80.4%). Being overweight or obese, and having PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention) or hypertension were associated with higher prescription of the concurrent medications. Those with diabetes had a 52% increase in the odds of prescribing the 4 medications. Those with kidney disease had a 67% reduction in the odds of prescribing. CONCLUSION: Most ACS patients were prescribed antiplatelets, ß-blockers and statins, but the use of ACEIs or ARBs was suboptimal. Strategies are needed to enhance ACEI or ARB prescribing, especially for high risk patients who would have the greatest therapeutic benefit from these drugs.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Coronario Agudo/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapéutico , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Alta del Paciente , Prevención Secundaria/métodos , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/diagnóstico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapéutico , Bloqueadores del Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Oportunidad Relativa , Inhibidores de Agregación Plaquetaria/uso terapéutico , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Qatar , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA