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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(7)2023 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37508210

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Massive fruit losses are caused by microbial pathogens of unknown identities. Therefore, ecofriendly biocontrol measures are well sought after, and biogenic silver nanoparticles are plausible candidates. Here we investigate the antimicrobial effect of three different sized AgNPs samples on those pathogens. METHODOLOGY: Identities of three local pathogenic bacteria were investigated using molecular methods. Three different-sized samples of silver nanoparticles were bio-synthesized in the external solution of a cyanobacterial culture, characterized, and used in antimicrobial bioassay. RESULTS: The pathogens were identified as Erwinia pyrifoliae, Staphylococcus warneri, and Xanthomonas citri. UV-vis. and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the biosynthesis of AgNPs. and their three different sizes were confirmed using Scanning electron microscopy. Growth of bacterial pathogens was inhibited by all three samples of AgNPs, but the largest inhibition zone was for the smallest sized AgNPs against Staphylococcus warneri (1.7 cm). DISCUSSION: The identity of the pathogens infecting different local fruits is reported for the first time. They belong to different bacterial lineages. The fact that biogenic AAgNPs were effective against all of them shows their broad-spectrum of antibacterial effect. Customized biosynthesis was successful in yielding different-sized AgNPs. The smaller the AgNPs, the stronger the antimicrobial impact. CONCLUSION: Local bacterial species infecting fruits are diverse. Customized biogenic AgNPs are effective broad-spectrum biocontrol agents against bacterial pathogens of local fruits and thereby help maintain food security and environmental sustainability.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293886

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. A novel approach needs to be followed to combat these pathogens in an ecofriendly manner. Cyanobacterial extracts were previously proven to be affective as antimicrobial agents. To capitalize on this, laser treatments were used to increase their antimicrobial efficacy. Two cyanobacterial strains isolated from Al-Ahsa were identified using molecular methods. Their aqueous extracts were used in the antimicrobial bioassay for these two bacterial pathogens. The first group of aqueous extracts were exposed directly to laser treatment and used in antibacterial bioassay. In parallel, the cyanobacterial biomass of the two isolates was exposed to the laser, then aqueous extracts were prepared. The third group of extracts were not exposed to the laser and were used as a control. Time and distance were the factors tested as they affected the dose of the laser, both individually and in combination. In addition, accessory pigment estimation in extracts before and after laser exposure of extracts was also determined. The two cyanobacterial strains were identified as Thermoleptolyngbya sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. and the molecular analysis also confirmed the identity of pathogenic bacteria. The untreated cyanobacterial aqueous extracts had little effect against the two bacterial strains. In contrast, the extract directly exposed to the laser was significantly more effective, with an inhibition zone of 22.0 mm in the case of a time of 32 min and distance of 10 cm against S. aureus. Accessory pigment composition increased in extracts directly exposed to the laser. This is the first case report on the effect of lasers on enhancing the antimicrobial profile of cyanobacterial extracts against SA and MRSA bacterial pathogens, as well as enhancing accessory pigment content. The laser dose that was most effective was that of 32 min time and 10 cm distance of Thermoleptolyngbya sp. extract directly exposed to the laser, which highlights the importance of time for increasing the laser dose and consequently increasing its antimicrobial impact.


Asunto(s)
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Humanos , Meticilina/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias
3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 281: 121584, 2022 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944347

RESUMEN

There is a need for simple spectrofluorimetric method for detection of glycogen molecule based on binding to nanogold. Here we propose such a quantification method for glycogen using cyanobacteria as a biological model. Biologically, two strains of cyanobacteria were selected based on their previously tested nanogold biosynthetic abilities. Chemically, spherical gold nanoparticles were prepared and tested for binding to the glycogen molecule. Experimental analyses were conducted to determine the morphological and optical properties of the Au-glycogen hydrocolloids. Results: The plasmon band of biosynthesized AuNPs-glycogen was centered at 520-540 nm with size diameter was 41.7 ± 0.2 nm. The vibrational bands of glycogen were observed at 1,000 to 1,200 cm-1. The Au3+/Au0 redox coupling cycle was observed. The luminescence of AuNPs showed more stability by the addition of gradual concentrations of glycogen molecules. The detection (LOD) and quantitation limits (LOQ) were observed to be 0.89 and 2.95 µmol L-1 respectively (R2 = 0.99). The good chemical stability of this colloidal system and the glycogen molecule studied via density functional theory (DFT). The HOMO level of glycogen unit was closed near to LUMO level of Au3+. Conclusion: The associations formed between the gold nanoparticles and glycogen resulted in good chemical stability. This indicates that the quantification method proposed can be stably applied.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias , Nanopartículas del Metal , Glucógeno , Oro/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Modelos Biológicos , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35892392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria are considered as green nano-factories. Manipulation of the size of biogenic silver nanoparticles is needed to produce particles that suit the different applications such as the use as antibacterial agents. The present study attempts to manipulate the size of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles produced by cyanobacteria and to test the different-sized nanoparticles against pathogenic clinical bacteria. METHODS: Cyanothece-like. coccoid unicellular cyanobacterium was tested for its ability to biosynthesize nanosilver particles of different sizes. A stock solution of silver nitrate was prepared from which three different concentrations were added to cyanobacterial culture. UV-visible spectroscopy and FTIR were conducted to characterize the silver nanoparticles produced in the cell free filtrate. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) was performed to determine the size of the nanoparticles produced at each concentration. The antimicrobial bioassays were conducted on broad host methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Streptococcus sp., was conducted to detect the nanoparticle size that was most efficient as an antimicrobial agent. RESULTS: The UV-Visible spectra showed excellent congruence of the plasmon peak characteristic of nanosilver at 450 nm for all three different concentrations, varying peak heights were recorded according to the concentration used. The FTIR of the three solutions revealed the absence of characteristic functional groups in the solution. All three concentrations showed spectra at 1636 and 2050-2290 nm indicating uniformity of composition. Moreover, DLS analysis revealed that the silver nanoparticles produced with lowest concentration of precursor AgNO3 had smallest size followed by those resulting from the higher precursor concentration. The nanoparticles resulting from highest concentration of precursor AgNO3 were the biggest in size and tending to agglomerate when their size was above 100 nm. The three types of differently-sized silver nanoparticles were used against two bacterial pathogenic strains with broad host range; MRSA-(Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and Streptococcus sp. The three types of nanoparticles showed antimicrobial effects with the smallest nanoparticles being the most efficient in inhibiting bacterial growth. DISCUSSION: Nanosilver particles biosynthesized by Cyanothece-like cyanobacterium can serve as antibacterial agent against pathogens including multi-drug resistant strains. The most appropriate nanoparticle size for efficient antimicrobial activity had to be identified. Hence, size-manipulation experiment was conducted to find the most effective size of nanosilver particles. This size manipulation was achieved by controlling the amount of starting precursor. Excessive precursor material resulted in the agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles to a size greater than 100 nm. Thereby decreasing their ability to penetrate into the inner vicinity of microbial cells and consequently decreasing their antibacterial potency. CONCLUSION: Antibacterial nanosilver particles can be biosynthesized and their size manipulated by green synthesis. The use of biogenic nanosilver particles as small as possible is recommended to obtain effective antibacterial agents.

5.
Life (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35207426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous cyanobacteria have the potential to reduce metallic ions to form pure metal nanoparticles in a green biosynthesis process. AIM: To investigate the production capacity of silver nanoparticles by the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. and to examine the effect of five different phytohormones, indole acetic acid, kinetin; gibberellic acid; abscisic acid; and methyl jasmonate, on this capacity. METHODS: The cyanobacterial strain was grown for 60 days and the harvested cyanobacterium biomass was incubated with 0.1 mM of AgNO3. Percentage conversion of Ag+ to Ag0 was calculated to indicate the AgNPs' production capacity. Different concentrations of the five phytohormones were added to cultures and the AgNP production was monitored throughout different time intervals. RESULTS: Cyanothece sp. biosynthesized spherical AgNPs (diameter range 70 to 140 nm, average diameter 84.37 nm). The addition of indole acetic acid and kinetin provoked the maximum conversion (87.29% and 55.16%, respectively) of Ag+ to Ag0, exceeding or slightly below that of the control (56%). Gibberellic and abscisic acids failed to elevate the Ag+ to Ag0 conversion rate (45.23% and 47.95%, respectively) above that of the control. Methyl jasmonate increased the Ag+ to Ag0 conversion rate to 90.29%, although nearly all the cyanobacterial cultures died at the end. CONCLUSION: Phytohormones could be used to induce or inhibit the green production of AgNPs with the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. This novel manipulation technique may have several applications in agriculture or biomedicine.

6.
Microorganisms ; 10(1)2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056594

RESUMEN

Chlorella vulgaris from Al-Ahsa, KSA was proved to be an active silver and gold nanoparticle producer. Nanogold and nanosilver particles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electronmicroscopy. Both nanoparticles were used in the antimicrobial bioassay. The two nanoparticles showed antibacterial activities, with the silver nanoparticles being the most effective. To investigate the argumentative nature of their biosynthesis (i.e., whether it is a biotic or abiotic process), we isolated total ribonucleic acid RNA as an indicator of vitality. RNA was completely absent in samples taken after one week of incubation with silver nitrate and even after one or two days. However, successful extraction was only achievable in samples taken after incubation for one and four hours with silver nitrate. Most importantly, the gel image showed recognizable shearing of the nucleic acid after 4 h as compared to the control. An assumption can be drawn that the synthesis of nanoparticles may start biotically by the action of enzyme(s) and abiotically by action of reducing entities. Nonetheless, with prolonged incubation, excessive nanoparticle accumulation can be deadly. Hence, their synthesis continues abiotically. From the RNA banding profile, we suggest that nanosilver production starts both biotically and abiotically in the first few hours of incubation and then continues abiotically. Nanosilver particles proved to have more of an antimicrobial impact than nanogold and hence are recommended for different applications as antibacterial agents.

7.
Mar Drugs ; 20(1)2022 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35049911

RESUMEN

Green nanotechnology is now accepted as an environmentally friendly and cost-effective advance with various biomedical applications. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. is a unicellular spherical cyanobacterium with photo- and hetero-trophic capabilities. This study investigates the ability of this cyanobacterial species to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the wound-healing properties of the produced nanoparticles in diabetic animals. METHODS: UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and and electron microscopy techniques investigated AgNPs' producibility by Synechocystis sp. when supplemented with silver ion source. The produced AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and diabetic wound healing along with their angiogenesis potential. RESULTS: The cyanobacterium biosynthesized spherical AgNPs with a diameter range of 10 to 35 nm. The produced AgNPs exhibited wound-healing properties verified with increased contraction percentage, tensile strength and hydroxyproline level in incision diabetic wounded animals. AgNPs treatment decreased epithelialization period, amplified the wound closure percentage, and elevated collagen, hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents, which improved angiogenesis factors' contents (HIF-1α, TGF-ß1 and VEGF) in excision wound models. AgNPs intensified catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide content and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level. IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB (the inflammatory mediators) were decreased with AgNPs' topical application. CONCLUSION: Biosynthesized AgNPs via Synechocystis sp. exhibited antimicrobial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and angiogenesis promoting effects in diabetic wounded animals.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Plata/administración & dosificación , Úlcera Cutánea/tratamiento farmacológico , Synechocystis , Administración Cutánea , Animales , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Organismos Acuáticos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Tecnología Química Verde , Masculino , Nanopartículas del Metal , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Plata/química , Plata/farmacología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos
8.
Mar Drugs ; 17(7)2019 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288394

RESUMEN

Cyanothece sp., a coccoid, unicellular, nitrogen-fixing and hydrogen-producing cyanobacterium, has been used in this study to biosynthesize customized gold nanoparticles under certain chemical conditions. The produced gold nanoparticles had a characteristic absorption band at 525-535 nm. Two types of gold nanoparticle, the purple and blue, were formed according to the chemical environment in which the cyanobacterium was grown. Dynamic light scattering was implemented to estimate the size of the purple and blue nanoparticles, which ranged from 80 ± 30 nm and 129 ± 40 nm in diameter, respectively. The highest scattering of laser light was recorded for the blue gold nanoparticles, which was possibly due to their larger size and higher concentration. The appearance of anodic and cathodic peaks in cyclic voltammetric scans of the blue gold nanoparticles reflected the oxidation into gold oxide, followed by the subsequent reduction into the nano metal state. The two produced forms of gold nanoparticles were used to treat isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in experimental rats. Both forms of nanoparticles ameliorated myocardial infarction injury, with a slight difference in their curative activity with the purple being more effective. Mechanisms that might explain the curative effect of these nanoparticles on the myocardial infarction were proposed. The morphological, physiological, and biochemical attributes of the Cyanothece sp. cyanobacterium were fundamental for the successful production of "tailored" nanoparticles, and complemented the chemical conditions for the differential biosynthesis process. The present research represents a novel approach to manipulate cyanobacterial cells towards the production of different-sized gold nanoparticles whose curative impacts vary accordingly. This is the first report on that type of manipulated gold nanoparticles biosynthesis which will hopefully open doors for further investigations and biotechnological applications.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias/química , Cyanothece/química , Oro/química , Oro/farmacología , Nanopartículas del Metal/administración & dosificación , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Infarto del Miocardio/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Isoproterenol/química , Luz , Masculino , Miocardio/química , Nitrógeno/química , Fijación del Nitrógeno/efectos de los fármacos , Oxidación-Reducción/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
9.
Mar Drugs ; 16(6)2018 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925786

RESUMEN

To the best of our knowledge, cyanobacterial strains from the Arabian Gulf have never been investigated with respect to their potential for nanoparticle production. Lyngbya majuscula was isolated from the AlOqair area, Al-Ahsa Government, Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The cyanobacterium was initially incubated with 1500 mg/mL of HAuCl4 for two days. The blue-green strain turned purple, which indicated the intracellular formation of gold nanoparticles. Prolonged incubation for over two months triggered the extracellular production of nanogold particles. UV-visible spectroscopy measurements indicated the presence of a resonance plasmon band at ~535 nm, whereas electron microscopy scanning indicated the presence of gold nanoparticles with an average diameter of 41.7 ± 0.2 nm. The antioxidant and anti-myocardial infarction activities of the cyanobacterial extract, the gold nanoparticle solution, and a combination of both were investigated in animal models. Isoproterenol (100 mg/kg, SC (sub cutaneous)) was injected into experimental rats for three days to induce a state of myocardial infarction; then the animals were given cyanobacterial extract (200 mg/kg/day, IP (intra peritoneal)), gold nanoparticles (200 mg/kg/day, IP), ora mixture of both for 14 days. Cardiac biomarkers, electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and antioxidant enzymes were determined as indicators of myocardial infarction. The results showed that isoproterenol elevates ST and QT segments and increases heart rate and serum activities of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CP-MB), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT). It also reduces heart tissue content of glutathione peroxidase (GRx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the arterial pressure indices of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Gold nanoparticles alone or in combination with cyanobacterial extract produced an inhibitory effect on isoproterenol-induced changes in serum cardiac injury markers, ECG, arterial pressure indices, and antioxidant capabilities of the heart.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Organismos Acuáticos/metabolismo , Cardiotónicos/farmacología , Cianobacterias/metabolismo , Infarto del Miocardio/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores/sangre , Biotecnología/métodos , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Cardiotónicos/química , Cardiotónicos/uso terapéutico , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Oro/química , Oro/uso terapéutico , Corazón/efectos de los fármacos , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Isoproterenol/toxicidad , Masculino , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/uso terapéutico , Infarto del Miocardio/sangre , Infarto del Miocardio/inducido químicamente , Miocardio/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Arabia Saudita , Agua de Mar/microbiología
10.
Microsc Res Tech ; 76(3): 249-57, 2013 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23280713

RESUMEN

Microscopic, molecular, and biochemical investigations were conducted to describe a benthic mat-forming Leptolyngbya isolate collected from wastewater canal in Helwan area, Egypt. Microscopic examination revealed that the isolate was filamentous, nonheterocystous, with obvious granular surface ornamentation. Electron microscopy was used to reveal the isolate's ultrastructure. Cross walls were thick with uneven deposition. Thylakoids were convoluted and irregularly distributed. Granular content differed from one cell to the other probably due to their physiological stages/position within the filaments and/or their age. Nycridial cells were present. Highly refractile gas vesicle-like structures were detected and their identity as gas vesicles was confirmed by amplifying the gene coding for the gas vesicle protein GvpA. The presence of gas vesicles in benthic microorganisms is intriguing, and it is possible that those vesicles serve as a floating and dispersal mechanism as they increase in filaments that are about to break and release vacuolated hormogonia. To further confirm the isolate's identity, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene was performed. The sequence showed only 94% similarity to Leptolyngbya badia and less than 92% to other leptolyngbya. The phylogenetic analyses showed the coclustering of this strain with other Leptolyngbya strain. The fatty acid composition, used as a chemotaxonomic marker, revealed the presence of a considerable amount of polyunsaturated acids. Nevertheless, saturated fatty acids represented the highest proportion of the total fatty. Surprisingly, fatty acids of relatively limited occurrence within oscillatorian cyanobacteria such as saturated myristic fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid C16:3 were found.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias/clasificación , Cianobacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Aguas Residuales/microbiología , Pared Celular/ultraestructura , Análisis por Conglomerados , Cianobacterias/citología , Cianobacterias/genética , Citoplasma/ultraestructura , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/ultraestructura , ADN Bacteriano/química , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Ribosómico/química , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Egipto , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Microscopía , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 28(2): 585-93, 2012 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22806854

RESUMEN

The antimicrobial activity of lipophilic extracts of mat-forming Phormidium-like cyanobacterium isolated from Egypt was investigated under different phosphate concentrations. The antimicrobial profile changed with different phosphate levels indicating metabolic changes under stressful conditions. The fractions that resulted in highest antimicrobial activity from the three different phosphate concentrations were chosen for further analyses. The bioactive compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques including UV, FTIR, GC-MS and proton-NMR. The chemical analyses indicated that the compound at standard phosphate concentration was eugenol whereas the bioactive compound at half phosphate concentration was 4-tert-butylcyclohexanol. The third bioactive compound at quarter phosphate concentration was octadecanoic acid. The eugenol is known for its antimicrobial as well as pain relief properties and can be used in many pharmaceutical preparations whereas the octadecanoic acid and cyclohexanol derivative are used in some antimicrobial pharmaceuticals. The study highlights the change in antimicrobial profile of bioactive compounds derived from cyanobacteria through manipulating the concentration of a key nutrient in growth medium. This strategy can be employed for mass production of these compounds and others for future biotechnological applications.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/metabolismo , Cianobacterias/química , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Antiinfecciosos/síntesis química , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacillus subtilis/efectos de los fármacos , Ciclohexanoles/química , Ciclohexanoles/metabolismo , Ciclohexanoles/farmacología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/metabolismo , Eugenol/farmacología , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella typhi/efectos de los fármacos , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Ácidos Esteáricos/metabolismo , Ácidos Esteáricos/farmacología
12.
Front Biosci ; 12: 2020-8, 2007 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17127440

RESUMEN

Prokaryotic organisms of the genus Mycoplasma are characterized by their small body and genome size containing a 0.6-1.35 M bp genome. The genome is noted for its low G+C frequency ranging from 8-40 mol%. The Mycoplasma genus stems from the class Mollicutes (for soft skin), which lacks the cell walls and external motility appendages often present in other bacteria. To date, there are more than 100 known species of Mycoplasma. 34 species have been partially or completely sequenced. Widely known pathogenic species of Mycoplasma include: M. pneumoniae, causing pneumonia and other respiratory disorders, and M. genitalium, which are involved in pelvic inflammatory disease. Because of their small genome size, Mycoplasmas provide researchers a unique model of the minimal genomic requirements to maintain life. As the number of complete Mycoplasma genomes increase, these organisms become more established, thus laying the foundation for mapping evolutionary development. This manuscript provides an overview and update on Mycoplasma research, with particular focus on current genomics.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Mycoplasma/genética , Biología Computacional , Genómica , Modelos Genéticos
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