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1.
Pathogens ; 9(10)2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076564

RESUMEN

Renibacterium salmoninarum is one of the oldest known bacterial pathogens of fish. This Gram-positive bacterium is the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease, a chronic infection that is mostly known to infect salmonid fish at low temperatures. Externally, infected fish can display exophthalmia as well as blebs on the skin and ulcerations alongside haemorrhages at the base of the fins and alongside the lateral line. Internally, the kidney, heart, spleen and liver can show signs of swelling. Granulomas can be seen on various internal organs, as can haemorrhages, and the organs can be covered with a false membrane. Ascites can also accumulate in the abdominal cavity. The bacterium is generally cultivated on specialized media such as kidney disease medium-1 (KDM-1), KDM-2 and selective kidney disease medium (SKDM), and a diagnostic is performed using molecular tools such as PCRs or real-time quantitative PCRs (RT-qPCRs). Several virulence mechanisms have been identified in R. salmoninarum, in particular the protein p57 that is known to play a role in both agglutination and immunosuppression of the host's defense mechanisms. Control of the disease is difficult; the presence of asymptomatic carriers complicates the eradication of the disease, as does the ability of the bacterium to gain entrance inside the eggs. Bacterin-killed vaccines have proven to be of doubtful efficacy in controlling the disease, and even more recent application of a virulent environmental relative of R. salmoninarum is of limited efficacy. Treatment by antibiotics such as erythromycin, azithromycin and enrofloxacin can be effective but it is slow and requires prolonged treatment. Moreover, antibiotic-resistant strains have been reported. Despite being known for a long time, there is still much to be discovered about R. salmoninarum, notably regarding its virulence mechanisms and its vaccine potential. Consequently, these gaps in knowledge continue to hinder control of this bacterial disease in aquaculture settings.

2.
Mol Cell Probes ; 54: 101668, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059011

RESUMEN

Cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV-1) is the causative agent of carp pox characterized by epidermal papillomas in common carp and other cyprinids. In this study, we identified CyHV-1 in koi (Cyprinus carpio) from Iran in 2017 and 2019, showing clinical signs of the carp pox disease. Histopathology showed severe epidermal hyperplasia and the absence of club and goblet cells. Degenerative changes, including spongiosis and single-cell necrosis, were also observed. Keratinocyte dysplasia and a moderate lymphocytic infiltration were observed within the epidermis. PCR of the extracted DNA from skin lesions of affected koi from both outbreaks showed CyHV-1 specific TK amplicons, with high sequence identity (above 99%) among themselves and with other CyHV-1 isolates belong to Cluster I, as well as show 97% similarity to Cluster II isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Carp pox disease (CyHV-1) of koi in Iran and the Middle East.

3.
Pathogens ; 9(10)2020 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050471

RESUMEN

Recirculating aquaculture relies on the treatment of ammonia compounds from the water by a bacterial flora growing inside biofilters. Another increasingly common practice in aquaculture is the supplementation of feed with live probiotic bacteria to boost the immune system of the farmed animals and hinder the implantation of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the bacterial flora within the biofilters of recirculating farming units in which African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were being farmed. Our results suggested that these two farming systems could be compatible as feeding of the probiotic feed had no detectable effect on the composition of the microbiome within the biofilters and none of the bacteria from the feed could be detected in the biofilters. These findings suggest that supplementation of the fish feed with probiotic supplements did not interfere with the microbiome residing inside the biofilter and that it is a safe practice in recirculating aquaculture systems.

4.
Microorganisms ; 8(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867056

RESUMEN

Nontuberculous mycobacteria constitute a subgroup among the Mycobacterium genus, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that includes numerous pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, Mycobacterium spp. were detected in natural water samples from two Austrian rivers (Kamp and Wulka) using three different primers and PCR procedures for the identification of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Water samples were collected from the Kamp (45 samples) and Wulka (25 samples) in the summer and winter of 2018 and 2019. Molecular evidence showed a high prevalence of Mycobacterium sp. in these rivers with prevalence rates estimated at approximately 94.3% across all rivers. The present study represents the first survey into the prevalence of Mycobacterium sp. in natural water in Austria. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria have known pathogenic potential, including zoonotic, these findings may have implications for health management and public health.

5.
Pathogens ; 9(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987803

RESUMEN

Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), first described as acute viral catarrhal enteritis, is a highly contagious disease with variable pathogenicity that has been linked to genetic variation in the viral VP2 gene encoding the capsid protein. In this study, the IPN virus (IPNV) is isolated from the moribund fish from five of fourteen Iranian trout farms from 2015 to 2017. The affected fish showed mortality rates ranging from 20% to 60%, with the main clinical signs of exophthalmia, darkened skin, and mild abdominal distension, as well as yellow mucoid fluid in the intestine. Histopathological examination of intestinal sections confirmed acute catarrhal enteritis in all samples. RT-PCR assay of the kidney tissue and cell culture (CHSE-214) samples consistently confirmed the presence of the virus. The phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP2 sequence revealed that the detected isolates belong to genogroup 5, and are closely related to the Sp serotype strains of European origin. Characterization of VP2 of all isolates revealed the P217T221 motif that previously was associated with avirulence or low virulence, while all IPNV-positive fish in this study were clinically affected with moderate mortality. The IPNV isolates from Iran are associated with two lineages that appear to have originated from Europe, possibly via imported eggs.

6.
Microorganisms ; 8(9)2020 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906655

RESUMEN

The Mycobacteriaceae constitute a family of varied Gram-positive organisms that include a large number of pathogenic bacteria. Among these, non-tuberculous mycobacteria are endemic worldwide and have been associated with infections in a large number of organisms, including humans and other mammals and reptiles, as well as fish. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings regarding this group of pathogens in fish. There, four species are most commonly associated with disease outbreaks: Mycobacterium marinum, the most common of these fish mycobacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium gordonae, and Mycobacterium chelonae. These bacteria have a broad host range: they are zoonotic, and infections have been reported in a large number of fish species. The main route of entry of the bacterium into the fish is through the gastrointestinal route, and the disease is associated with ulcerative dermatitis as well as organomegaly and the development of granulomatous lesions in the internal organs. Mycobacteriaceae are slow-growing and fastidious and isolation is difficult and time consuming and diagnostic is mostly performed using serological and molecular tools. Control of the disease is also difficult: there is currently no effective vaccine and infections react poorly to antibiotherapy. For this reason, more research is needed on the subject of these vexing pathogens.

7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 106: 844-851, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891791

RESUMEN

Myxobolus cerebralis, the etiological agent of Whirling Disease (WD), is a freshwater myxozoan parasite with considerable economic and ecological relevance for salmonids. There are differences in disease susceptibility between species and strains of salmonids. Recently, we have reported that the suppressor of cytokine signaling SOCS1 and SOCS3 are key in modulating rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune responses and that resistant fish apparently exhibit effective Th17 cell response after exposure to M. cerebralis. It is unclear whether such molecules and pathways are also involved in the immune response of M. cerebralis infected brown trout (Salmo trutta). Hence, this study aimed to explore their role during immune modulation in infected brown trout, which is considered resistant to this parasite. Fish were exposed to the triactinomyxon (TAM) stages of M. cerebralis and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was carried out to examine local (caudal fin) and systemic (head kidney, spleen) immune transcriptional changes associated with WD over time in infected and control fish. All of the immune genes in the three tissues studied were differentially expressed in infected fish at multiple time points. Brown trout reduced the parasite load and demonstrated effective immune responses, likely by keeping pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in balance whilst stimulating efficient Th17-mediated immunity. This study increases knowledge on the brown trout immune response to M. cerebralis and helps us to understand the underlying mechanisms of WD resistance.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824626

RESUMEN

Bryozoans are sessile, filter-feeding, and colony-building invertebrate organisms. Fredericella sultana is a well known primary host of the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. There have been no attempts to identify the cellular responses induced in F. sultana during the T. bryosalmonae development. We therefore performed transcriptome analysis with the aim of identifying candidate genes and biological pathways of F. sultana involved in the response to T. bryosalmonae. A total of 1166 differentially up- and downregulated genes were identified in the infected F. sultana. Gene ontology of biological processes of upregulated genes pointed to the involvement of the innate immune response, establishment of protein localization, and ribosome biogenesis, while the downregulated genes were involved in mitotic spindle assembly, viral entry into the host cell, and response to nitric oxide. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 signaling was identified as a top canonical pathway and MYCN as a top upstream regulator in the differentially expressed genes. Our study provides the first transcriptional profiling data on the F. sultana zooid's response to T. bryosalmonae. Pathways and upstream regulators help us to understand the complex interplay in the infected F. sultana. The results will facilitate the elucidation of innate immune mechanisms of bryozoan and will lay a foundation for further analyses on bryozoan-responsive candidate genes, which will be an important resource for the comparative analysis of gene expression in bryozoans.

9.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Aug 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842613

RESUMEN

This study was undertaken to screen levels of xenosteroids (estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals/E-EDCs) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish farms subjected to water fill from the drain at three sites S1 (highly polluted), S2 (moderately polluted), and a putative reference site (RS). Biometric, hormonal, gene expression, and histopathological analysis were investigated. Testosterone, progesterone, and zeranol residues were detected at (0.12-3.44 µg/L) in water samples of different sites. Bisphenol-A (BPA) exhibited a very high concentration (6.5 µg/mL) in water samples from S1. Testosterone, 17ß-estradiol residues were detected in fish tissues from all sites at (0.16-3.8 µg/Kg) and (1.05-5.01 µg/Kg), respectively. BPA residues were detected at a very high concentration in the liver and muscle of fish collected from S1 at higher levels of 25.9 and 48.07 µg/Kg, respectively. The detected E-EDCs, at different sites, particularly BPA, reduced the somatic and testicular growth among sites and oversampling time points. Meanwhile, hepatosomatic index (HSI) was significantly increased in S1 compared to S2. All analyzed genes estrogen receptor-type I (er-I, er-ɑ) and II (er-II, er-ß1), polypeptide 1a (cyp19a1), SRY-box containing gene 9 (sox9), and vitellogenin (vtg) and gonadotropin hormones (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)), testosterone, 17ß-estradiol, and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) were significantly expressed at S1 compared to other sites. Histopathology was more evident in S1 than other sites. These findings warrant immediate strategies development to control aquatic pollution and maintain fish welfare and aquaculture sustainability.

10.
J Fish Dis ; 43(9): 1049-1063, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632933

RESUMEN

Nanotechnology is an emerging avenue employed in disease prevention and treatment. This study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) against major bacterial and oomycete fish pathogens in comparison with chitosan suspension. Initially, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, MIC90 ) were determined and the per cent inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. Subsequently, the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined. The time-dependent disruptions of CSNP-treated pathogens were observed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the effect of CSNPs on the viability of two fish cell lines was assessed. No antimicrobial effect was observed with chitosan, while CSNPs (105 nm) exhibited a dose-dependent and species-specific antimicrobial properties. They were bactericidal against seven bacterial isolates recording MBC values from 1 to 7 mg/ml, bacteriostatic against four further isolates recording MIC values from 0.125 to 5 mg/ml and fungistatic against oomycetes recording MIC90 values of 3 and 4 mg/ml. TEM micrographs showed the attachment of CSNPs to the pathogenic cell membranes disrupting their integrity. No significant cytotoxicity was observed using 1 mg/ml CSNPs, while low dose-dependent cytotoxicity was elicited by the higher doses. Therefore, it is anticipated that CSNPs are able to compete and reduce using antibiotics in aquaculture.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11840, 2020 07 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678312

RESUMEN

Yersinia ruckeri is an important bacterial pathogen of fish, in particular salmonids, it has been associated with systemic infections worldwide and, like many enteric bacteria, it is a facultative intracellular pathogen. However, the effect of Y. ruckeri's interactions with the host at the cellular level have received little investigation. In the present study, a culture of Chinook Salmon Embryo (CHSE) cell line was exposed to Y. ruckeri. Afterwards, the proteins were investigated and identified by mass spectrometry and compared to the content of unexposed cultures. The results of this comparison showed that 4.7% of the identified proteins were found at significantly altered concentrations following infection. Interestingly, infection with Y. ruckeri was associated with significant changes in the concentration of surface adhesion proteins, including a significantly decreased presence of ß-integrins. These surface adhesion molecules are known to be the target for several adhesion molecules of Yersiniaceae. The concentration of several anti-apoptotic regulators (HSP90 and two DNAj molecules) appeared similarly downregulated. Taken together, these findings suggest that Y. ruckeri affects the proteome of infected cells in a notable manner and our results shed some light on the interaction between this important bacterial pathogen and its host.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110776, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474243

RESUMEN

Over the past decades, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO2) have been extensively used in several industrial applications and the manufacture of novel consumer products. Although strict regulations have been put in place to limit their release into the aquatic environment, these nanoparticles can still be found at elevated levels within the environment, which can result in toxic effects on exposed organisms and has possible implications in term of public health. Bivalve mollusks are a unique and ideal group of shellfish for the study and monitoring the aquatic pollution by n-TiO2 because of their filter-feeding behaviour and ability to accumulate toxicants in their tissues. In these animals, exposure to n-TiO2 leads to oxidative stress, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and genotoxicity, as well as behavioral and physiological changes. This review summarizes the uptake, accumulation, and fate of n-TiO2 in aquatic environments and the possible interactions between n-TiO2 and other contaminants such as heavy metals and organic pollutants. Moreover, the toxicological impacts and mechanisms of action are discussed for a wide range of bivalve mollusks. This data underlines the pressing need for additional knowledge and future research plans for the development of control strategies to mitigate the release of n-TiO2 to the aquatic environment to prevent the toxicological impacts on bivalves and protect public health.


Asunto(s)
Bivalvos/efectos de los fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidad , Titanio/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Bioacumulación , Bivalvos/genética , Bivalvos/metabolismo , Daño del ADN , Ecotoxicología , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Mariscos , Titanio/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
13.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104321, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534183

RESUMEN

This study shows the presence of Cyprinid Herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Iranian carp farms with cumulative mortality up to 80% during 2015-2016. Pathological signs of disease such as gill necrosis, sunken eyes, and increased slime secretion on the skin and fins were observed in affected fish. The extensive fusion of secondary lamellae with necrotic cells, margination of chromatin, and formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies in gill tissues were also observed by histopathological examination. Most tubular epithelial cells and some hematopoietic cells showed intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidney. The Iranian CyHV-3 isolates showed identity with Asian strains, and displayed the I++ II+ allele of the Asian lineage, as revealed by sequence analysis of the TK gene, Marker I, and Marker II. The detected isolates were also similar to those detected from koi in the same region of Iran, suggesting the probable transmission of CyHV-3 from ornamental to farmed cyprinids. This represents the first report of CyHV-3 from Iranian farmed common carp to the best of our knowledge.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234479, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542025

RESUMEN

There are differences in disease susceptibility to whirling disease (WD) among strains of rainbow trout. The North American strain Trout Lodge (TL) is highly susceptible, whereas the German Hofer (HO) strain is more resistant. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are key in inhibiting cytokine signaling. Their role in modulating the immune response against whirling disease is not completely clear. This study aimed at investigating the transcriptional response of SOCS1 and SOCS3 genes to Myxobolus cerebralis along with that of several upstream regulators and immune response genes. M. cerebralis induced the expression of SOCS1, the IL-6-dependent SOCS3, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the Treg associated transcription factor FOXP3 in TL fish at multiple time points, which likely caused a restricted STAT1 and STAT3 activity affecting the Th17/Treg17 balance. The expression of SOCS1 and the IL-6-dependent SOCS3 was induced constraining the activation of STAT1 and STAT3 in TL fish, thereby causing Th17/Treg17 imbalance and leaving the fish unable to establish a protective immune response against M. cerebralis or control inflammatory reactions increasing susceptibility to WD. Conversely, in HO fish, the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 was restrained, whereas the expression of STAT1 and IL-23-mediated STAT3 was induced potentially enabling more controlled immune responses, accelerating parasite clearance and elevating resistance. The induced expression of STAT1 and IL-23-mediated STAT3 likely maintained a successful Th17/Treg17 balance and enabled fish to promote effective immune responses favouring resistance against WD. The results provide insights into the role of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in regulating the activation and magnitude of host immunity in rainbow trout, which may help us understand the mechanisms that underlie the variation in resistance to WD.


Asunto(s)
Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Peces/inmunología , Myxobolus/inmunología , Oncorhynchus mykiss/inmunología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/inmunología , Factor de Transcripción STAT3/inmunología , Proteína 3 Supresora de la Señalización de Citocinas/inmunología , Animales , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitología , Factor de Transcripción STAT1/inmunología , Proteína 1 Supresora de la Señalización de Citocinas/inmunología , Linfocitos T Reguladores/citología , Linfocitos T Reguladores/inmunología , Células Th17/citología , Células Th17/inmunología
15.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(4): 1549-1560, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424629

RESUMEN

This study highlighted the effects of chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the benefits of using dietary Chlorella vulgaris (Ch) to ameliorate CPF-induced toxicity. Genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and stress-responsive proteins in the liver as well as cytokine expression in the spleen and head kidney were evaluated in O. niloticus fed with a basal diet or diets containing 1, 2, and 3% of supplementary Ch against 15 mg/L CPF at 4 and 8 weeks. CPF-exposed groups displayed a notable induction in the hepatic expression of heat shock protein 70/hsp70, glutathione peroxidase/GPx, and glutathione synthase/GSS, while glutathione reductase/GSR was markedly decreased. The mRNA levels of interleukin 1ß/IL-1ß, TNF-α, transforming growth factor ß1/TGFß1, and interleukin 8/ IL-8 in the spleen and head kidney increased significantly after CPF exposure. Interestingly, Ch supplementation, particularly at levels 2 and 3%, was able to modulate the stress and immune-related genes of Nile tilapia sub-chronically exposed to CPF. These outcomes provide valuable insights regarding the toxic impact of chronic exposure to CPF in fish at the molecular level and a better understanding of the Ch dietary vital roles. Besides, our findings encourage adequate monitoring of pesticide levels owing to its impacts on fish health and human as a final consumer.

16.
PeerJ ; 8: e9027, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377451

RESUMEN

Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrate moss animals that are found worldwide. Fredericella sultana is a freshwater bryozoan and is the most common primary host of myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. However, limited genomic resources are available for this bryozoan, which hampers investigations into the molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interactions. To better understand these interactions, there is a need to build a transcriptome dataset of F. sultana, for functional genomics analysis by large-scale RNA sequencing. Total RNA was extracted from zooids of F. sultana cultivated under controlled laboratory conditions. cDNA libraries were prepared and were analyzed by the Illumina paired-ends sequencing. The sequencing data were used for de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation. Approximately 118 million clean reads were obtained, and assembled into 85,544 contigs with an average length of 852 bp, an N50 of 1,085 bp, and an average GC content 51.4%. A total of 23,978 (28%) contigs were annotated using BLASTX analysis. Of these transcripts, 4,400 contigs had highest similarity to brachiopod species Lingula anatina. Based on Gene ontology (GO) annotation, the most highly scored categories of biological process were categorized into cellular process (27%), metabolic process (24%), and biological regulation (8%) in the transcriptome of F. sultana. This study gives first insights into the transcriptome of F. sultana and provides comprehensive genetic resources for the species. We believe that the transcriptome of F. sultana will serve as a useful genomic dataset to accelerate research of functional genomics and will help facilitate whole genome sequencing and annotation. Candidate genes potentially involved in growth, proteolysis, and stress/immunity-response were identified, and are worthy of further investigation.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466538

RESUMEN

Proliferative kidney disease is an emerging disease among salmonids in Europe and North America caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. The decline of endemic brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Alpine streams of Europe is fostered by T. bryosalmonae infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that acts as sentinels of the immune system against the invading pathogens. However, little is known about the TLRs' response in salmonids against the myxozoan infection. In the present study, we identified and evaluated TLR1, TLR19, and TLR13-like genes of brown trout using data-mining and phylogenetic analysis. The expression pattern of TLRs was examined in the posterior kidney of brown trout infected with T. bryosalmonae at various time points. Typical Toll/interleukin-1 receptor protein domain was found in all tested TLRs. However, TLR13-like chr2 had a short amino acid sequence with no LRR domain. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that TLR orthologs are conserved across vertebrates. Similarly, a conserved synteny gene block arrangement was observed in the case of TLR1 and TLR19 across fish species. Interestingly, all tested TLRs showed their maximal relative expression from 6 to 10 weeks post-exposure to the parasite. Our results suggest that these TLRs may play an important role in the innate defense mechanism of brown trout against the invading T. bryosalmonae.

18.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 139: 103-111, 2020 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351241

RESUMEN

Acanthocephalan parasites were collected from the intestinal tracts of 137 predominantly wild fish (1 barbel Barbus barbus, 3 European chub Squalius cephalus, 13 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and 120 brown trout Salmo trutta) from 12 localities. The condition factor, intensity of acanthocephalan infection and pathological lesions, if applicable, were documented. Routine bacteriology and virology were performed, and the brown trout were additionally tested for the presence of the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsolioides bryosalmonae by PCR. In total, 113 acanthocephalans were barcoded by sequencing a section of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Barcoding of the acanthocephalan tissues resulted in 77 sequences, of which 56 were assigned to Echinorhynchus truttae (3 genotypes), 11 to Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (9 genotypes), 9 to Acanthocephalus sp. (5 genotypes) and 1 to Neoechinorhynchida. Most of these genotypes were detected for the first time. Statistically, the acanthocephalan infection did not have an impact on the condition factor of the brown trout. Infection with P. tereticollis caused more severe pathological changes in the digestive tract than E. truttae. The present study provides new data regarding the distribution of acanthocephalan species in Austria and their impact on individual fish. In addition, new barcoding data from acanthocephalan parasites are presented, and the occurrence of P. tereticollis in European chub in Austria and in brown and rainbow trout in general was confirmed for the first time.


Asunto(s)
Acantocéfalos , Enfermedades de los Peces , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animales , Austria , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología
19.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 139: 113-119, 2020 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351242

RESUMEN

In northern Vietnam, a disease called 'red spot disease' has been causing high morbidity and mortality in populations of farmed grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella for about 2 decades. The name 'red spot disease' refers to a condition characterised by haemorrhagic lesions, reddening and ulceration of the skin. Eight different bacterial isolates, namely Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Vibrio alginolyticus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. luteola, Citrobacter freundii and P. putida, were isolated from diseased grass carp and used for experimental infection of the same species. Fish were challenged with the different bacterial isolates both by immersion and intramuscular injection. Different concentrations of bacteria were tested to evaluate their pathogenicity. Injection with 1 × 105 CFU of A. hydrophila and A. sobria resulted in clinical signs identical to those of red spot-diseased grass carp in Vietnam. None of the other bacterial isolates tested caused any morbidity or mortality in fish challenged either intramuscularly (1 × 106 CFU) or by bath immersion (1 × 106 or 1 × 108 CFU ml-1).


Asunto(s)
Aeromonas , Carpas , Animales , Vietnam
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