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J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 70(10): 1022-1029, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720860


Management of dental wastes became a recent challenge facing health care practitioners and is one of the highly-sensitive environmental problems. The main purpose of this study was to assess oral health care provider's knowledge and behavior about dental waste management and evaluate their behavior toward it. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 314 dental health care providers working in four dental colleges, and 20 private dental clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A pretested questionnaire composed of close-ended questions was used. The mean age of the participants was 27 years. About 78% of the participants reported that they were working in the public sector. Only 33.4% of the study sample received professional training on waste management. The mean behavior and knowledge scores were 3.7 ± 1.3 (out of 6) and 1.4 ± 1.3 (out of 8), respectively. Statistically significant association was noted between gender and knowledge scores but not between gender and behavior scores. On the other hand, statistically significant associations were noted between both knowledge and behavior scores and rank of the participant, type of practice, and years of experience. Oral health care providers' knowledge about the effective procedure that should be followed for segregating, collecting, transporting, and treating dental waste was weak and substandard. There is an urgent need to develop policies and regulations for dental waste management in Saudi Arabia. Implications: This study shed light for the first time on the knowledge and behavior of dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in regard to the dental waste management. Participants knowledge and behavior in regard to dental waste segregation, collection, transportation, and treatment were determined to be week and substandard. Currently, different procedures related to dental waste management in health care facilities are not clearly described. The urgent need for the development of policies and regulations for the dental waste management is obvious. This study can be a starting point for future nation-wide surveys to assess knowledge, behavior and practices related to dental waste management among oral health care providers. In addition, more efforts should be directed to incorporate this subject into dental curriculum and continuous education courses.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc ; 91(1): 44-51, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27110860


BACKGROUND: According to the WHO, nearly 24% of the global disease burden is attributable to environmental risk factors (RFs). People living in periurban areas are particularly at risk due to lack of basic sanitation requirements. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible association between environmental RFs and disease prevalence for a community living in a periurban area in Alexandria, Egypt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012. The study sample consisted of 355 families. An interviewing questionnaire and an observation checklist were used for data collection. In addition, 10 drinking water samples were randomly collected for physical, chemical, and bacteriological analyses. The questionnaire included questions on indoor environmental RFs as well as morbidity in the study sample, and the observation checklist covered outdoor environmental RFs. The environmental risk was determined using a risk score whose calculation was based upon the presence/absence of 10 indoor and 12 outdoor environmental RFs. The association between risk scores and 14 morbidities was investigated using unconditional logistic regression analysis, expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: A significant association was found between the total environmental risk score and respiratory diseases (OR=2.298, 95% CI: 1.231-4.291), diarrhea (OR=2.083, 95% CI: 1.102-3.939), liver diseases (OR=2.491, 95% CI: 1.067-5.819), skin diseases (OR=1.821, 95% CI: 1.012-3.310), and bronchial asthma (OR=2.228, 95% CI: 1.066-4.565). Noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and musculoskeletal diseases did not show any significant association with environmental RFs. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Environmental RFs have an adverse impact on health within communities living in periurban areas. It is recommended that sanitation be improved and various outdoor environmental RFs be addressed in these underprivileged areas, as well as health education campaigns be organized aiming at raising the awareness of residents on indoor environmental RFs and ways to prevent them.

Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Urbana , Estudios Transversales , Egipto , Humanos , Análisis de Regresión , Contaminación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
J Egypt Public Health Assoc ; 85(3-4): 169-88, 2010.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21244816


BACKGROUND: Ground water is the only water resource for Siwa Oasis. It is obtained from natural freshwater wells and springs fed by the Nubian aquifer. Water samples collected from Siwa Oasis had relatively higher iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) than the permissible limits specified in WHO Guidelines and Egyptian Standards for drinking water quality. Aeration followed by sand filtration is the most commonly used method for the removal of iron from ground water. AIM: The study aimed at development of low-cost technology for the removal of iron and manganese from ground water in Siwa Oasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out on Laboratory-scale columns experiments sand filters with variable depths of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 cm and three graded types of sand were studied. RESULTS: The graded sand (E.S. =0.205 mm, U.C. =3.366, depth of sand = 60 cm and filtration rate = 1.44 m3/m2/hr) was the best type of filter media. Iron and manganese concentrations measured in ground water with aeration only, decreased with an average removal percentage of 16%, 13% respectively. Iron and manganese concentrations after filtration with aeration came down to 0.1123, 0.05 mg/L respectively in all cases from an initial concentration of 1.14, 0.34 mg/L respectively. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Advantages of such treatment unit included simplicity, low cost design, and no need for chemical addition. In addition, the only maintenance required was periodic washing of the sand filter or replacement of the sand in order to maintain reasonable flow rate through the system.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc ; 85(3-4): 223-45, 2010.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21244819


BACKGROUND: The main activity in Siwa Oasis society is the agriculture, it depends on the groundwater. The agricultural drainage water and the unused saline water of naturally flowing springs are poured into four main salty lakes. This leads to an increase in the surface area of the saltwater lakes, marshes and rise in water table levels. AIM: to investigate some environmental engineering interventions to control the expansion of saltwater surface area in Siwa Oasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Field visits, observation sheets and questionnaire survey with farmers were carried out to find out the main environmental problems in the Oasis. Environmental survey was carried out to collect different rocks and stones samples as natural construction materials from the desert that surrounds Siwa Oasis. Physical analyses, chemical composition and principal mechanical parameters were conducted on the collected samples. RESULTS: After the analysis, the safa rocks were the best natural construction materials in the Siwa Oasis. So, it could be used to build a construction wall around the salty lakes and marshes. Walls could convert the lakes into basins. The water will be evaporated at high rate during summer season by solar energy. After evaporation, the remaining salty rock named "karshef" can be easily collected from the lakes to be used as a low cost construction material for traditional building houses in Siwa Oasis. Therefore, the water level of lakes will be reduced to dryness and land could be reused as agricultural land. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Among different rocks, safa rocks proved to be the best natural construction materials to construct a defense wall around the lakes and marshes. They will save about 80% of the concrete cost. The formed karshef rocks from the lakes will be used in the construction of the traditional building houses which will save about 90% of the concrete buildings. This intervention will save energy as it exchanges fuel consuming man-made material such as cement with naturally made material. This can reduce the green house gases generated from the cement industry. Economical feasibility study should be carried out to estimate the capital cost for the retaining wall.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc ; 84(3-4): 345-69, 2009.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19889360


Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum.