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2.
Neurosurgery ; 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550448

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hemidystonia (HD) is characterized by unilateral involuntary torsion movements and fixed postures of the limbs and face. It often develops after deleterious neuroplastic changes secondary to injuries to the brain. This condition usually responds poorly to medical treatment, and deep brain stimulation often yields unsatisfactory results. We propose this study based on encouraging results from case reports of patients with HD treated by ablative procedures in the subthalamic region. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of stereotactic-guided radiofrequency lesioning of the subthalamic area vs available medical treatment in patients suffering from acquired HD. METHODS: This is an open-label study in patients with secondary HD allocated according to their treatment choice, either surgical or medical treatment; both groups were followed for one year. Patients assigned in the surgical group underwent unilateral campotomy of Forel. The efficacy was assessed using the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale, Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Scale, Arm Dystonia Disability Scale, and SF-36 questionnaire scores. RESULTS: Patients in the surgical group experienced significant improvement in the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale, Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Scale, and Arm Dystonia Disability Scale (39%, 35%, and 15%, respectively) 1 year after the surgery, with positive reflex in quality-of-life measures, such as bodily pain and role-emotional process. Patients kept on medical treatment did not experience significant changes during the follow-up. No infections were recorded, and no neurological adverse events were associated with either intervention. CONCLUSION: The unilateral stereotaxy-guided ablation of Forel H1 and H2 fields significantly improved in patients with HD compared with optimized clinical treatment.

3.
Prog Brain Res ; 270(1): 149-169, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396025

RESUMEN

Psychiatry remains the only medical specialty where diagnoses are still based on clinical syndromes rather than measurable biological abnormalities. As imaging technology and analytical methods evolve, it is becoming clear that subtle but measurable radiological characteristics exist and can be used to experimentally classify psychiatric disorders, predict response to treatment and, hopefully, develop new, more effective therapies. This review highlights advances in neuroimaging modalities that are now allowing assessment of brain structure, connectivity and neural network function, describes technical aspects of the most promising methods, and summarizes observations made in some frequent psychiatric disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico por imagen , Neuroimagen/métodos
4.
Brain Stimul ; 15(3): 683-694, 2022 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447378

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for certain movement disorders and has additionally shown promise for various psychiatric, cognitive, and seizure disorders. However, the mechanisms through which stimulation exerts therapeutic effects are incompletely understood. A technique that may help to address this knowledge gap is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This is a non-invasive imaging tool which permits the observation of DBS effects in vivo. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of studies in which fMRI during active DBS was performed, including studied disorders, stimulated brain regions, experimental designs, and the insights gleaned from stimulation-evoked fMRI responses. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of published human studies in which fMRI was performed during active stimulation in DBS patients. The search was conducted using PubMED and MEDLINE. RESULTS: The rate of fMRI DBS studies is increasing over time, with 37 studies identified overall. The median number of DBS patients per study was 10 (range = 1-67, interquartile range = 11). Studies examined fMRI responses in various disease cohorts, including Parkinson's disease (24 studies), essential tremor (3 studies), epilepsy (3 studies), obsessive-compulsive disorder (2 studies), pain (2 studies), Tourette syndrome (1 study), major depressive disorder, anorexia, and bipolar disorder (1 study), and dementia with Lewy bodies (1 study). The most commonly stimulated brain region was the subthalamic nucleus (24 studies). Studies showed that DBS modulates large-scale brain networks, and that stimulation-evoked fMRI responses are related to the site of stimulation, stimulation parameters, patient characteristics, and therapeutic outcomes. Finally, a number of studies proposed fMRI-based biomarkers for DBS treatment, highlighting ways in which fMRI could be used to confirm circuit engagement and refine DBS therapy. CONCLUSION: A review of the literature reflects an exciting and expanding field, showing that the combination of DBS and fMRI represents a uniquely powerful tool for simultaneously manipulating and observing neural circuitry. Future work should focus on relatively understudied disease cohorts and stimulated regions, while focusing on the prospective validation of putative fMRI-based biomarkers.

5.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2022 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating disease with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3%. Neuromodulatory treatments have been successfully used in severe cases. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the inferior thalamic peduncle (ITP) has been shown to successfully alleviate symptoms in OCD patients; however, the brain circuits implicated remain unclear. Here, we investigate the efficacious neural substrates following ITP-DBS for OCD. METHODS: High-quality normative structural and functional connectomics and voxel-wise probabilistic mapping techniques were applied to assess the neural substrates of OCD symptom alleviation in a cohort of 5 ITP-DBS patients. RESULTS: The region of most efficacious stimulation was located in the regions of the ITP and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Both functional and structural connectomics analyses demonstrated that successful symptom alleviation involved a brain network encompassing the bilateral amygdala and prefrontal regions. LIMITATIONS: The main limitation is the small size of the ITP-DBS cohort. While the findings are highly consistent and significant, these should be validated in larger studies. CONCLUSIONS: These results identify a tripartite brain network - composed of the bilateral amygdala and prefrontal regions 24 and 46 - whose engagement is associated with greater symptom improvement. They also provide information for optimizing targeting and identifying network components critically involved in ITP-DBS treatment response. Amygdala engagement in particular seems to be a key component for clinical benefits and could constitute a biomarker for treatment optimization.

7.
Mov Disord ; 2022 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156734

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease might develop treatment-resistant axial dysfunction after bilateral subthalamic stimulation. OBJECTIVES: To study whether lateralized stimulation (unilateral 50% amplitude reduction) for ≥21 days results in ≥0.13 m/s faster gait velocity in the dopaminergic ON state in these patients, and its effects on motor and axial function, quantitative gait and speech measures, quality of life, and selected cognitive tasks. METHODS: Randomized, double-blinded, double-crossover trial. RESULTS: In 22 participants (51-79 years old, 15 women), there were no significant changes in gait velocity, quality of life, cognitive, and speech measures. Reducing left-sided amplitude resulted in a 2.5-point improvement in axial motor Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) (P = 0.005, uncorrected) and a 1.9-point improvement in the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (P = 0.024, uncorrected). CONCLUSIONS: Lateralized subthalamic stimulation does not result in meaningful improvement in gait velocity in patients with Parkinson's disease who develop treatment-resistant axial dysfunction after bilateral subthalamic stimulation. Left subthalamic overstimulation may contribute to axial deterioration in these patients. © 2022 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 810777, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35185654

RESUMEN

The habenula (Hb) is a small, evolutionarily conserved epithalamic structure implicated in functions such as reward and mood regulation. Prior imaging work suggests that Hb's structural and functional properties may relate to treatment response in depression and other mood disorders. We used multimodal MRI techniques to investigate the potential involvement of Hb in response to subcallosal cingulate area deep brain stimulation (SCC-DBS) for treatment-resistant mood disorders. Using an automated segmentation technique, we compared Hb volume at baseline and at a subsequent post-operative timepoint (4.4 ± 3.0 years after surgery) in a cohort of 32 patients who received SCC-DBS. Clinical response to treatment (≥50% decrease in HAMD-17 from baseline to 12 months post-operation) was significantly associated with longitudinal Hb volume change: responders tended to have increased Hb volume over time, while non-responders showed decreased Hb volume (t = 2.4, p = 0.021). We additionally used functional MRI (fMRI) in a subcohort of SCC-DBS patients (n = 12) to investigate immediate within-patient changes in Hb functional connectivity associated with SCC-DBS stimulation. Active DBS was significantly associated with increased Hb connectivity to several prefrontal and corticolimbic regions (TFCE-adjusted p Bonferroni < 0.0001), many of which have been previously implicated in the neurocircuitry of depression. Taken together, our results suggest that Hb may play an important role in the antidepressant effect of SCC-DBS.

9.
Epilepsia ; 63(3): 513-524, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981509

RESUMEN

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neuromodulatory treatment used in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). The primary goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to describe recent advancements in the field of DBS for epilepsy, to compare the results of published trials, and to clarify the clinical utility of DBS in DRE. A systematic literature search was performed by two independent authors. Forty-four articles were included in the meta-analysis (23 for anterior thalamic nucleus [ANT], 8 for centromedian thalamic nucleus [CMT], and 13 for hippocampus) with a total of 527 patients. The mean seizure reduction after stimulation of the ANT, CMT, and hippocampus in our meta-analysis was 60.8%, 73.4%, and 67.8%, respectively. DBS is an effective and safe therapy in patients with DRE. Based on the results of randomized controlled trials and larger clinical series, the best evidence exists for DBS of the anterior thalamic nucleus. Further randomized trials are required to clarify the role of CMT and hippocampal stimulation. Our analysis suggests more efficient deep brain stimulation of ANT for focal seizures, wider use of CMT for generalized seizures, and hippocampal DBS for temporal lobe seizures. Factors associated with clinical outcome after DBS for epilepsy are electrode location, stimulation parameters, type of epilepsy, and longer time of stimulation. Recent advancements in anatomical targeting, functional neuroimaging, responsive neurostimulation, and sensing of local field potentials could potentially lead to improved outcomes after DBS for epilepsy and reduced sudden, unexpected death of patients with epilepsy. Biomarkers are needed for successful patient selection, targeting of electrodes and optimization of stimulation parameters.


Asunto(s)
Núcleos Talámicos Anteriores , Estimulación Encefálica Profunda , Epilepsia Refractaria , Epilepsia , Núcleos Talámicos Intralaminares , Muerte Súbita , Estimulación Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Epilepsia Refractaria/terapia , Epilepsia/terapia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Convulsiones/terapia
10.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061980

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may display extreme behaviors such as self-injury or aggression that often become refractory to psychopharmacology or behavioral intervention. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical alternative that modulates brain circuits that have yet to be clearly elucidated. In the current study the authors performed a connectomic analysis to identify brain circuitry engaged by DBS for extreme behaviors associated with ASD. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify prior reports of DBS as a treatment for extreme behaviors in patients with ASD. Individual patients' perioperative imaging was collected from corresponding authors. DBS electrode localization and volume of tissue activated modeling were performed. Volumes of tissue activated were used as seed points in high-resolution normative functional and structural imaging templates. The resulting individual functional and structural connectivity maps were pooled to identify networks and pathways that are commonly engaged by all targets. RESULTS: Nine patients with ASD who were receiving DBS for symptoms of aggression or self-injurious behavior were identified. All patients had some clinical improvement with DBS. Connectomic analysis of 8 patients (from the systematic review and unpublished clinical data) demonstrated a common anatomical area of shared circuitry within the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Functional analysis of 4 patients identified a common network of distant brain areas including the amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate engaged by DBS. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a comprehensive synopsis of the evidence for DBS in the treatment of extreme behaviors associated with ASD. Using network mapping, the authors identified key circuitry common to DBS targets.

11.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 12(1): 117-128, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Postoperative outcome following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is variable, particularly with respect to axial motor improvement. We hypothesized a genetic underpinning to the response to surgical intervention, termed "surgicogenomics". OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with clinical heterogeneity in DBS outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients that could then be applied clinically to target selection leading to improved surgical outcome. METHODS: Retrospective clinical data was extracted from 150 patient's charts. Each individual was genotyped using the genome-wide NeuroX array tailored to study neurologic diseases. Genetic data were clustered based on surgical outcome assessed by comparing pre- and post-operative scores of levodopa equivalent daily dose and axial impairment at one and five years post-surgery. Allele frequencies were compared between patients with excellent vs. moderate/poor outcomes grouped using a priori defined cut-offs. We analyzed common variants, burden of rare coding variants, and PD polygenic risk score. RESULTS: NeuroX identified 2,917 polymorphic markers at 113 genes mapped to known PD loci. The gene-burden analyses of 202 rare nonsynonymous variants suggested a nominal association of axial impairment with 14 genes (most consistent with CRHR1, IP6K2, and PRSS3). The strongest association with surgical outcome was detected between a reduction in levodopa equivalent daily dose and common variations tagging two linkage disequilibrium blocks with SH3GL2. CONCLUSION: Once validated in independent populations, our findings may be implemented to improve patient selection for DBS in PD.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Encefálica Profunda , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Estimulación Encefálica Profunda/efectos adversos , Estimulación Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Humanos , Levodopa , Enfermedad de Parkinson/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Parkinson/genética , Enfermedad de Parkinson/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tripsina
12.
Mov Disord ; 37(3): 635-640, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806782

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) is an emerging target to potentially treat cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to achieve feasibility and safety of globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) and NBM DBS in advanced PD with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We performed a phase-II double-blind crossover pilot trial in six participants to assess safety and cognitive measures, the acute effect of NBM stimulation on attention, motor and neuropsychological data at one year, and neuroimaging biomarkers of NBM stimulation. RESULTS: NBM DBS was well tolerated but did not improve cognition. GPi DBS improved dyskinesia and motor fluctuations (P = 0.04) at one year. NBM stimulation was associated with reduced right frontal and parietal glucose metabolism (P < 0.01) and increased low- and high-frequency power and functional connectivity. Volume of tissue activated in the left NBM was associated with stable cognition (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous GPi and NBM stimulation is safe and improves motor complications. NBM stimulation altered neuroimaging biomarkers but without lasting cognitive improvement. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Encefálica Profunda , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Núcleo Basal de Meynert , Cognición , Estimulación Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Globo Pálido , Humanos , Enfermedad de Parkinson/complicaciones
13.
Brain ; 145(1): 362-377, 2022 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324658

RESUMEN

Subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation produces long-term clinical improvement in approximately half of patients with severe treatment-resistant depression. We hypothesized that both structural and functional brain attributes may be important in determining responsiveness to this therapy. In a treatment-resistant depression subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation cohort, we retrospectively examined baseline and longitudinal differences in MRI-derived brain volume (n = 65) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET glucose metabolism (n = 21) between responders and non-responders. Support vector machines were subsequently trained to classify patients' response status based on extracted baseline imaging features. A machine learning model incorporating preoperative frontopolar, precentral/frontal opercular and orbitofrontal local volume values classified binary response status (12 months) with 83% accuracy [leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV): 80% accuracy] and explained 32% of the variance in continuous clinical improvement. It was also predictive in an out-of-sample subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation cohort (n = 21) with differing primary indications (bipolar disorder/anorexia nervosa; 76% accuracy). Adding preoperative glucose metabolism information from rostral anterior cingulate cortex and temporal pole improved model performance, enabling it to predict response status in the treatment-resistant depression cohort with 86% accuracy (LOOCV: 81% accuracy) and explain 67% of clinical variance. Response-related patterns of metabolic and structural post-deep brain stimulation change were also observed, especially in anterior cingulate cortex and neighbouring white matter. Areas where responders differed from non-responders-both at baseline and longitudinally-largely overlapped with depression-implicated white matter tracts, namely uncinate fasciculus, cingulum bundle and forceps minor/rostrum of corpus callosum. The extent of patient-specific engagement of these same tracts (according to electrode location and stimulation parameters) also served as an independent predictor of treatment-resistant depression response status (72% accuracy; LOOCV: 70% accuracy) and augmented performance of the volume-based (88% accuracy; LOOCV: 82% accuracy) and combined volume/metabolism-based support vector machines (100% accuracy; LOOCV: 94% accuracy). Taken together, these results indicate that responders and non-responders to subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation exhibit differences in brain volume and metabolism, both pre- and post-surgery. Moreover, baseline imaging features predict response to treatment (particularly when combined with information about local tract engagement) and could inform future patient selection and other clinical decisions.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Encefálica Profunda , Trastorno Depresivo Resistente al Tratamiento , Estimulación Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Depresión , Trastorno Depresivo Resistente al Tratamiento/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastorno Depresivo Resistente al Tratamiento/terapia , Giro del Cíngulo , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; 100(1): 14-25, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380132

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that imposes a tremendous burden on health-care systems around the world. While frontline treatments for chronic pain involve pharmacological and psychological approaches, neuromodulation can be considered for treatment-resistant cases. Neuromodulatory approaches for pain are diverse in both modality and target and their mechanism of action is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (i) understand the current landscape of pain neuromodulation research through a comprehensive survey of past and current registered clinical trials (ii) investigate the network underpinnings of these neuromodulatory treatments by performing a connectomic mapping analysis of cortical and subcortical brain targets that have been stimulated for pain relief. METHODS: A search for clinical trials involving pain neuromodulation was conducted using 2 major trial databases (ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform). Trials were categorized by variables and analyzed to gain an overview of the contemporary research landscape. Additionally, a connectomic mapping analysis was performed to investigate the network connectivity patterns of analgesic brain stimulation targets using a normative connectome based on a functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset. RESULTS: In total, 487 relevant clinical trials were identified. Noninvasive cortical stimulation and spinal cord stimulation trials represented 49.3 and 43.7% of this count, respectively, while deep brain stimulation trials accounted for <3%. The mapping analysis revealed that superficial target connectomics overlapped with deep target connectomics, suggesting a common pain network across the targets. CONCLUSIONS: Research for pain neuromodulation is a rapidly growing field. Our connectomic network analysis reinforced existing knowledge of the pain matrix, identifying both well-described hubs and more obscure structures. Further studies are needed to decode the circuits underlying pain relief and determine the most effective targets for neuromodulatory treatment.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico , Conectoma , Estimulación de la Médula Espinal , Encéfalo , Dolor Crónico/terapia , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Conectoma/métodos , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
15.
J Neurosurg ; 136(1): 215-220, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144526

RESUMEN

Dysgeusia, or distorted taste, has recently been acknowledged as a complication of thalamic ablation or thalamic deep brain stimulation as a treatment of tremor. In a unique patient, left-sided MR-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy improved right-sided essential tremor but also induced severe dysgeusia. Although dysgeusia persisted and caused substantial weight loss, tremor slowly relapsed. Therefore, 19 months after the first procedure, the patient underwent a second focused ultrasound thalamotomy procedure, which again improved tremor but also completely resolved the dysgeusia. On the basis of normative and patient-specific whole-brain tractography, the authors determined the relationship between the thalamotomy lesions and the medial border of the medial lemniscus-a surrogate for the solitariothalamic gustatory fibers-after the first and second focused ultrasound thalamotomy procedures. Both tractography methods suggested partial and complete disruption of the solitariothalamic gustatory fibers after the first and second thalamotomy procedures, respectively. The tractography findings in this unique patient demonstrate that incomplete and complete disruption of a neural pathway can induce and resolve symptoms, respectively, and serve as the rationale for ablative procedures for neurological and psychiatric disorders.


Asunto(s)
Disgeusia/etiología , Ultrasonido Enfocado de Alta Intensidad de Ablación/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/efectos adversos , Tálamo/cirugía , Anciano , Imagen de Difusión Tensora , Temblor Esencial/etiología , Temblor Esencial/cirugía , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/diagnóstico por imagen , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Gusto , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagen , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Brain ; 2021 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919630

RESUMEN

Deep brain stimulation targeting the subcallosal cingulate area (SCC-DBS), a hub with multiple axonal projections, has shown therapeutic potential for treatment-resistant mood disorders. While SCC-DBS drives long-term metabolic changes in corticolimbic circuits, the brain areas that are directly modulated by electrical stimulation of this region are not known. We used 3.0 Tesla functional MRI to map the topography of acute brain changes produced by stimulation in an initial cohort of twelve patients with fully implanted SCC-DBS devices. Four additional SCC-DBS patients were also scanned and employed as a validation cohort. Participants underwent resting state scans (n=78 acquisitions overall) during i) inactive DBS; ii) clinically optimal active DBS; iii) suboptimal active DBS. All scans were acquired within a single MRI session, each separated by a 5-minute washout period. Analysis of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in each sequence indicated that clinically optimal SCC-DBS reduced spontaneous brain activity in several areas, including bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, and left inferior parietal lobule (pBonferroni<0.0001). Stimulation-induced dACC signal reduction correlated with immediate within-session mood fluctuations, was greater at optimal versus suboptimal settings, and related to local cingulum bundle engagement. Moreover, linear modelling showed that immediate changes in dACC, PCC, and precuneus activity could predict individual long-term antidepressant improvement. A model derived from the primary cohort that incorporated ALFF changes in these three areas (along with pre-operative symptom severity) explained 55% of the variance in clinical improvement in that cohort. The same model also explained 93% of the variance in the out-of-sample validation cohort. Additionally all three brain areas exhibited significant changes in functional connectivity between active and inactive DBS states (pBonferroni<0.01). These results provide insight into the network-level mechanisms of SCC-DBS and point towards potential acute biomarkers of clinical response that could help to optimize and personalize this therapy.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 730931, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484011

RESUMEN

The habenula is a small bilateral epithalamic structure that plays a key role in the regulation of the main monoaminergic systems. It is implicated in many aspects of behavior such as reward processing, motivational behavior, behavioral adaptation, and sensory integration. A role of the habenula has been indicated in the pathophysiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and bipolar disorder. Neuromodulation of the habenula using deep brain stimulation (DBS) as potential treatment has been proposed and a first successful case of habenula DBS was reported a decade ago. To provide an overview of the current state of habenula DBS in human subjects for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders we conducted a systematic review of both the published literature using PUBMED and current and past registered clinical trials using ClinicalTrials.gov as well as the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Using PRISMA guidelines five articles and five registered clinical trials were identified. The published articles detailed the results of habenula DBS for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and bipolar disorder. Four are single case studies; one reports findings in two patients and positive clinical outcome is described in five of the six patients. Of the five registered clinical trials identified, four investigate habenula DBS for the treatment of depression and one for obsessive-compulsive disorder. One trial is listed as terminated, one is recruiting, two are not yet recruiting and the status of the fifth is unknown. The planned enrollment varies between 2 to 13 subjects and four of the five are open label trials. While the published studies suggest a potential role of habenula DBS for a number of indications, future trials and studies are necessary. The outcomes of the ongoing clinical trials will provide further valuable insights. Establishing habenula DBS, however, will depend on successful randomized clinical trials to confirm application and clinical benefit of this promising intervention.

18.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 11(4): e497-e503, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484947

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Focused ultrasound thalamotomy is an effective treatment for tremor; however, side effects may occur. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the spatial relationship between thalamotomies and specific sensory side effects and their functional connectivity with somatosensory cortex and relationship to the medial lemniscus (ML). METHODS: Sensory adverse effects were categorized into 4 groups based on the location of the disturbance: face/mouth/tongue numbness/paresthesia, hand-only paresthesia, hemibody/limb paresthesia, and dysgeusia. Then, areas of significant risk (ASRs) for each category were defined using voxel-wise mass univariate analysis and overlaid on corresponding odds ratio maps. The ASR associated with the maximum risk was used as a region of interest in a normative functional connectome to determine side effect-specific functional connectivity. Finally, each ASR was overlaid on the ML derived from normative template. RESULTS: Of 103 patients, 17 developed sensory side effects after thalamotomy persisting 3 months after the procedures. Lesions producing sensory side effects extended posteriorly into the principle sensory nucleus of the thalamus or below the thalamus in the ML. The topography of sensory adverse effects followed the known somatotopy of the ML and the sensory nucleus. Functional connectivity patterns between each sensory-specific thalamic seed and the primary somatosensory areas supported the role of the middle insula in processing of gustatory information and in multisensory integration. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct regions in the sensory thalamus and its afferent connections rise to specific sensory disturbances. These findings demonstrate the relationship between the sensory thalamus, ML, and bilateral sensory cortical areas.

19.
Brain Stimul ; 14(5): 1393-1403, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461326

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous neuromodulatory therapies are currently under investigation or in clinical use for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to catalogue past and present human research studies on psychiatric neuromodulation and identify relevant trends in this field. METHODS: ClinicalTrials.gov (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (https://www.who.int/ictrp/en/) were queried in March 2020 for trials assessing the outcome of neuromodulation for psychiatric disorders. Relevant trials were categorized by variables such as neuromodulation modality, country, brain target, publication status, design, and funding source. RESULTS: From 72,086 initial search results, 1252 unique trials were identified. The number of trials registered annually has consistently increased. Half of all trials were active and a quarter have translated to publications. The largest proportion of trials involved depression (45%), schizophrenia (18%), and substance use disorders (14%). Trials spanned 37 countries; China, the second largest contributor (13%) after the United States (28%), has increased its output substantially in recent years. Over 75% of trials involved non-convulsive non-invasive modalities (e.g., transcranial magnetic stimulation), while convulsive (e.g., electroconvulsive therapy) and invasive modalities (e.g., deep brain stimulation) were less represented. 72% of trials featured approved or cleared interventions. Characteristic inter-modality differences were observed with respect to enrollment size, trial design/phase, and funding. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex accounted for over half of focal neuromodulation trial targets. The proportion of trials examining biological correlates of neuromodulation has increased. CONCLUSION(S): These results provide a comprehensive overview of the state of psychiatric neuromodulation research, revealing the growing scope and internationalism of this field.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Encefálica Profunda , Terapia Electroconvulsiva , Trastornos Mentales , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal
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