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1.
Biosci Rep ; 40(6)2020 06 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432315

RESUMEN

In the present study, a total of 50 raw camel meat samples were analyzed for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. The isolates were characterized via morphological and culture analyses; identification of isolates was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the listeriolysin O gene. The API Listeria system was used for further chemical identification and verification of the strains. L. monocytogenes was identified in eight raw camel meat samples, which was the highest incidence (16%) of contamination, followed by L. seeligeri 3(6%), L. innocua and L. welshimeri 2 (2% each), and L. grayi 1 (1%). According to Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis, isolated strains that were positive for the listeriolysin O gene were >99% similar to the published database sequences for L. monocytogenes strain LM850658 (sequence ID: CP009242.1). We studied the antibiotic resistance profile of the L. monocytogenes strains with common antibiotics used to treat human listeriosis and demonstrated that almost all strains tested were susceptible to the antibiotics.

2.
Biosci Rep ; 40(4)2020 04 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202302

RESUMEN

Antibiotic- and heat-resistant bacteria in camel milk is a potential public health problem. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, dairy cattle and camels. We characterized the phenotype and genotype of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains recovered from pasteurized and raw camel milk (as control) distributed in the retail markets of Saudi Arabia. Of the 100 samples assessed between March and May 2016, 20 S. aureus isolates were recovered from pasteurized milk, 10 of which were resistant to cefoxitin, and as such, were methicillin-resistant. However, raw camel milk did not contain methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the resistance ratio for other antibiotics was 60%. We performed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers for the methicillin-resistant gene mecA and nucleotide sequencing to detect and verify the methicillin-resistant strains. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis of the gene sequences showed a 96-100% similarity between the resistant isolates and the S. aureus CS100 strain's mecA gene. Ten of the methicillin-resistant isolates were heat-resistant and were stable at temperatures up to 85°C for 60 s, and three of these were resistant at 90°C for 60 or 90 s. The mean decimal reduction time (D85-value) was 111 s for the ten isolates. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) showed that there was no difference in the total protein profiles for the ten methicillin heat-resistant S. aureus (MHRSA) isolates and for S. aureus ATCC 29737. In conclusion, a relatively high percentage of the tested pasteurized camel milk samples contained S. aureus (20%) and MHRSA (10%).

3.
Biosci Rep ; 39(5)2019 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028133

RESUMEN

Eugenol was investigated for the treatment of Haemoproteus columbae (H. columbae) infected squabs (young domestic pigeons, Columba domestica). Thirty naturally-infected squabs were divided into three groups of 10 each. One group was treated with Eugenol, while the positive and negative control groups were administered buparvaquone (Butalex®) and distilled water, respectively. The number of infected red blood cells (RBCs) was calculated in all groups before and after treatment at 4-day intervals for 16 days. The results showed a significant therapeutic effect of Eugenol, with a progressive decrease in the number of infected RBCs from 89.20 ± 2.11 before treatment to 0.90 ± 0.31 at the end of treatment (P≤0.05). Butalex® was able to suppress the number of infected RBCs from 93.70 ± 1.72 before treatment to 0.90 ± 0.35 at the end of the experiment (P≤0.05). Eugenol showed therapeutic effects against H. columbae and may be regarded as a candidate for further studies to develop new drugs against blood parasites, in both animals and humans.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves , Columbidae/parasitología , Eugenol/farmacología , Haemosporida/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/parasitología , Arabia Saudita
4.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 25(3): 17-24, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646810

RESUMEN

Context: Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer fatalities among women worldwide. Of the more than 80% of patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy, approximately 40% relapse. The majority of these patients die of disseminated metastatic disease, which emphasizes the need for new therapeutic strategies. Objective: The study intended to investigate the anticancer effects of oleuropein (OL) and doxorubicin (DOX) individually and in combination on breast tumor xenografts and also to evaluate the molecular pathways involved. Design: The research team designed in vivo (animal) and in vitro (cell culture) studies. Setting: The study was performed in the College of Science of King Saud University in the University Center for Women Students (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). Animals: The study involved 40 female, nude mice (BALB/c OlaHsd-foxn1). Intervention: The mice were injected subcutaneously with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. After the growth of tumors, the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups to receive intraperitoneal injections: (1) group 1 (control group)-dimethyl sulfoxide, (2) group 2 (intervention group)-50 mg/kg of OL, (3) group 3 (intervention group)-2.5 mg/kg of DOX, and (4) group 4 (intervention group)-1.5 mg/kg of DOX, immediately followed by 50 mg/kg of OL. The OL was extracted from Manzanillo olive trees (Olea europaea) grown in Tabouk, Saudi Arabia. Outcome Measures: The measures included the isolation and primary culture of the tumor xenografts, apoptosis analysis by annexin V, cellular lysate preparation, and immunoblotting. Results: The volume of the tumor increased aggressively, reaching 173 mm3 in the control animals in a time-dependent manner. On the other hand, a sharp drop, to 48.7 mm3, in the volume of the tumor was observed with the 2 drugs combined, a more than 3-fold decrease. The effect was mediated through the induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. The combined treatment downregulated the antiapoptosis and proproliferation protein, nuclear factor-kappa Β, and its main oncogenic target cyclin D1. Furthermore, it inhibited the expression of BCL-2 and survivin. This inhibition could explain the cooperative suppression of the proliferation of breast tumor xenografts and the induction of apoptosis by the combined effect of the compounds used. Conclusions: The key findings clearly indicate the synergistic efficacy of DOX with natural and nontoxic OL against breast tumor xenografts.


Asunto(s)
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapéutico , Iridoides/uso terapéutico , Animales , Apoptosis , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Femenino , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Desnudos , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia
5.
Biosci Rep ; 38(6)2018 12 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291211

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental toxicant that has harmful effects on plants, animals, and humans. The present study evaluated the protective effects of Fragaria ananassa methanolic extract (SME) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neuronal toxicity in rats. Male albino rats were intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg) for 5 days with or without the SME (250 mg/kg). We measured the levels of Cd, lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide, glutathione (GSH), and oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase (GR) in the whole brain homogenate. Compared with the control group, the Cd-intoxicated group showed a marked increase in the brain levels of Cd, LPO, and nitric oxide and a decrease in the levels of GSH and all tested antioxidant enzymes. Compared with Cd-intoxicated rats, the rats pretreated with SME showed restoration of oxidative balance in the brain tissue. While the expression of brain SOD2, CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1, and GR was down-regulated in the Cd-treated group, the expression of these enzymes was up-regulated in rats pretreated with SME. In addition, administration of SME before CdCl2 increased the Bcl-2 expression, but significantly decreased the expression of Bax. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that compared with Cd-intoxicated rats, rats pretreated with SME showed a decrease in the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Our findings indicate that SME protects the brain tissue from Cd-induced neuronal toxicity by improving the antioxidant system and increasing antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities.


Asunto(s)
Cloruro de Cadmio/toxicidad , Fragaria/química , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Animales , Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/patología , Oxidación-Reducción/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/química , Ratas , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética
6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 181(2): 378-387, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28567583

RESUMEN

For experiments of cadmium toxicity in animal models, cadmium (II) chloride is often used due to its solubility in water and its ability to produce high concentrations of cadmium at the target site. The present study was designed to investigate the potential inhibitory effect of the Fragaria ananassa fruit extract on cadmium (II) chloride-induced renal toxicity in rats. Tested animals were pretreated with the extract of F. ananassa and injected with cadmium (II) chloride (6.5-mg/kg body weight) for 5 days. Cadmium (II) chloride significantly increased kidney cadmium concentration, kidney weight, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide production. Plasma uric acid, urea, and creatinine levels also increased significantly, indicative of kidney dysfunction. These effects were accompanied by significantly decreased levels of nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant molecules (i.e., glutathione content and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). Moreover, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and the antioxidant proteins, superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione reductase, were downregulated markedly, whereas mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α was upregulated significantly in kidney tissues of cadmium-treated rats. Histology of kidney tissue demonstrated severe, adverse changes that reflected cadmium-induced tissue damage. Pretreatment of rats with the extract of F. ananassa ameliorated all aforementioned cadmium (II) chloride-induced changes. In conclusion, the present study showed acute renal toxicity in rats treated with cadmium (II) chloride. The study also revealed that pretreatment with the extract of F. ananassa could protect the kidney against cadmium (II) chloride-induced acute renal toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Cloruro de Cadmio/antagonistas & inhibidores , Fragaria/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Insuficiencia Renal/prevención & control , Animales , Cloruro de Cadmio/toxicidad , Inmunohistoquímica , Masculino , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Sustancias Protectoras/química , Sustancias Protectoras/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas , Insuficiencia Renal/inducido químicamente , Insuficiencia Renal/patología
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(5)2017 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475120

RESUMEN

Cadmium is a deleterious environmental pollutant that threats both animals and human health. Oxidative stress and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been reported to be the main cause of cellular damage as a result of cadmium exposure. We investigate, here, the protective effect of strawberry crude extracts on cadmium-induced oxidative damage of testes in rats. Four groups (n = 8) of 32 adult male Wistar rats weighing 160-180 g were used. The control group received 0.9% saline solution all over the experimental period (5 days). Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg CdCl2. Group 3 was provided only with an oral administration of strawberry methanolic extract (SME) at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Group 4 was treated with SME before cadmium injection with the same mentioned doses. It was shown that cadmium exposure results in a significant decrease in both relative testicular weight and serum testosterone level. Analyzing the oxidative damaging effect of cadmium on the testicular tissue revealed the induction of oxidative stress markers represented in the elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and a decrease in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Considering cadmium toxicity, the level of the antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and glutathione reductase (GR) were markedly decreased. Moreover, gene expression analysis indicated significant upregulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins, bcl-2-associated-X-protein (BAX), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA) in response to cadmium intoxication, while significant downregulation of the anti-apoptotic, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene was detected. Immunohistochemistry of the testicular tissue possessed positive immunostaining for the increased level of TNF-α, but decreased number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) stained cells. Administration of SME debilitated the deleterious effect of cadmium via reduction of both LPO and NO levels followed by a significant enhancement in the gene expression level of CAT, SOD2, GPX1, GR, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), Bcl-2, and PCNA. In addition, the SME treated group revealed a significant increase in the level of testosterone and GSH accompanied by a marked decrease in the gene expression level of Bax and TNF-α. In terms of the summarized results, the SME of Fragaria ananassa has a protective effect against cadmium-induced oxidative damage of testes.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Apoptosis , Cadmio/toxicidad , Fragaria/química , Peroxidación de Lípido , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Catalasa/metabolismo , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Hemo Oxigenasa (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Masculino , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
8.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 27(5): 335-345, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110594

RESUMEN

This study investigated the protective effect of Fragaria ananassa methanolic extract on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. CdCl2 was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 6.5 mg/kg of body weight for 5 d with or without methanol extract of Fragaria ananassa (250 mg/kg). The hepatic cadmium concentration, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, glutathione (GSH) content, and antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), GSH peroxidase, and GSH reductase, were estimated. CdCl2 injection induced a significant elevation in cadmium concentration, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide and caused a significant depletion in GSH content compared to controls, along with a remarkable decrease in antioxidant enzymes. Oxidative stress induction and cadmium accumulation in the liver were successfully ameliorated by F. ananassa (strawberry) pre-administration. In addition, the pre-administration of strawberry decreased the elevated gene expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax gene as well as the protein expression of caspases-3 in the liver of CdCl2-injected rats. In addition, the reduced gene expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was increased. Our results show an increase in the expression of tumor necrosis factor α in the liver of rats treated with cadmium. In sum, our results suggested that F. ananassa successfully prevented deleterious effects on liver function by reinforcing the antioxidant defense system, inhibiting oxidative stress and reducing apoptosis.


Asunto(s)
Cloruro de Cadmio/toxicidad , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/prevención & control , Fragaria/química , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Sustancias Protectoras/uso terapéutico , Animales , Cloruro de Cadmio/farmacocinética , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Frutas/química , Inmunohistoquímica , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/enzimología , Hígado/patología , Pruebas de Función Hepática , Masculino , Metanol/química , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas Wistar
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