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1.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 21(81): 86-93, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37800433

RESUMEN

Monkeypox virus, now known as Mpox virus is a large, enveloped, double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus belonging to the Orthopox viridae genus of the Poxviridae family. Though, Mpox, have earlier been endemic to only African countries, the 2022 outbreak has shown its rapid spread throughout the world. The May 2022 outbreak have shown primarily human to human transmission in contrast to animal to human transmission that had been seen previously. Recent data also suggest a possibility of a pre symptomatic spread. After an incubation period of 9 days, patients with Mpox can present with a prodrome of symptoms followed by a rash. If untreated, severe complications develop in the high-risk groups especially children and pregnant woman. Such groups of people will benefit from antiviral treatments. The current approach to prevent against it is pre-exposure and post exposure prophylaxis with vaccines. The vaccines that have been approved by Food and Drug Administration to date is ACAM2000 and JYNNEOS. Several diagnostic methods exist, among which polymerase chain reaction has proven to be the most specific and sensitive. In this review, we will discuss its epidemiology, the clinical manifestations, diagnostic modalities, complications, treatment approaches and preventive measures.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Viruela de los Monos , Estados Unidos , Animales , Niño , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , /epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades
2.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 44(11): 5221-5233, 2022 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36354667

RESUMEN

The superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the principal antioxidant defense system in the body that is activated by a reactive oxygen species. Some variants of the SOD2 gene have been associated with cancer. The rs4880 variant was determined by PCR real-time and the rs5746136 variant by PCR-RFLP in healthy subjects and in breast cancer (BC) patients. The rs4880 and rs5746136 variants were associated with BC susceptibility when BC patients and the control group were compared for the CT, TT, CTCC, and the T alleles (p < 0.05). The CT genotype of the rs4880 variant showed significant statistical differences in patients and controls aged ≤ 45 years old, and with hormonal consumption (p < 0.05). The rs4880 variant was associated with BC patients with CTTT genotype and obesity, the presence of DM2-SAH, and a non-chemotherapy response (p < 0.05). Additionally, the rs5746136 variant was associated with susceptibility to BC with Ki-67 (≥20%), luminal A type BC, and a chemotherapy partial response (p < 0.05) in BC patients who carry TT, TC, and CTTT genotypes, respectively. The haplotype T/T (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.20−3.26, p = 0.005) was observed to be a risk factor for BC. The rs4880 and rs5746136 variants in the SOD2 gene were associated with BC susceptibility.

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