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1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808553

RESUMEN

Infections associated with the emergence of multidrug resistance and mosquito-borne diseases have resulted in serious crises associated with high mortality and left behind a huge socioeconomic burden. The chemical investigation of Lavandulacoronopifolia aerial parts extract using HPLC-MS/MS led to the tentative identification of 46 compounds belonging to phenolic acids, flavonoids and their glycosides, and biflavonoids. The extract displayed larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae (LC50 = 29.08 µg/mL at 72 h). It significantly inhibited cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase (CYP450), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and carboxylesterase (CarE) enzymes with the comparable pattern to the control group, which could explain the mode of larvae toxification. The extract also inhibited the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 17-38% at different Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) (0.5-0.125 mg/mL) while the activity was doubled when combined with ciprofloxacin (ratio = 1:1 v:v). In conclusion, the wild plant, L.coronopifolia, can be considered a promising natural source against resistant bacteria and infectious carriers.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111458, 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711552

RESUMEN

Acrylamide (Ac) is a carbonyl compound extracted from hydrated acrylonitrile with a significantly high chemical activity. It is widely existed and used in food processing, industrial manufacturing and laboratory personnel work. However, lycopene (Ly) is a most potent natural antioxidant among various common carotenoids extracted from red plants. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship of Ac-induced neurotoxicity and the ameliorative role of Ly in the regulation of oxidative and antioxidant capacity during Ac exposure. Therefore, this work sought to investigate the neurotoxicity induced by Ac exposure and the potential modulatory role of Ly by reversing the brain dysfunctions during Ac exposure. For this purpose, forty male albino rats were assigned into four equal groups. Control group received distilled water, Ly group was given with a daily dose of 10 mg/kg bw, Ac group was given with a daily dose of 25 mg/kg bw, and Ac-Ly group was gavaged Ac plus Ly at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 21 consecutive days. The concentrations of antioxidants (reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and protein carbonyl) biomarkers, as well as neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining was applied with anti-GFPA antibody to determine the severity of astrocytosis. The in vivo study with rat model demonstrated that Ac exposure significantly decline the hematological parameters, brain neurotransmitters concentrations and AChE activity, as well as levels of antioxidant biomarkers but markedly elevate the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Moreover, marked histological alterations and astrocytosis were observed through the increased number of GFAP immunopositively cells in cerebral, cerebellar and hippocampal tissues compared with the other groups. Interestingly, almost all of the previously mentioned parameters were retrieved in Ac-Ly group compared to Ac group. These findings conclusively indicate that Ly oral administration provides adequate protection against the neurotoxic effects of Ac on rat brain tissue function and structure through modulations of oxidative and antioxidant activities.

3.
J Food Biochem ; : e13562, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184842

RESUMEN

Phycocyanin isolated from Anabaena biomass was in-vitro assayed for its antioxidant activity against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] free radical, revealing maximum activities amounting to 77 and 80% at 1,000 µg/ml and SC50 values about 96 and 111 µg/ml, respectively. A biological experiment was conducted, involving 40 male Wistar Albino rats, divided into five groups. Group I received only the basal diet as a normal control, while groups II, III, IV, and V were administrated intraperitoneal (IP) injection of a single dose of CCl4 (50% in corn oil) at 0.5 ml/kg body weight. Subsequently, groups II, III, IV, and V received phycocyanin at 0.0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight/day. CCl4 induced considerable increases (p < .05) in the levels of serum ALT, AST, urea and creatinine, total lipid, and triglycerides coupled with significant reductions (p < .05) in serum antioxidant enzymes and some liver histopathological deformations compared to the negative control (group 1). Administration of Anabaena oryzae phycocyanin can counteract these CCl4 -induced changes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Phycocyanin isolated from Anabaena has beneficial effects such as the antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, and hepatoprotective effect. Phycocyanin may play a key role in alleviating oxidative stress, artificially induced by carbon tetrachloride in Albino rats, to ultimately determine its capacity to serve as a natural antioxidant for food and health applications.

4.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143247

RESUMEN

In this study, the aerial parts of Moricandia sinaica were evaluated for their in vivo analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. The analgesic activities were examined using acetic acid-induced writhing, the hot plate test and the tail flick method. The anti-inflammatory and the antipyretic activities were evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice, respectively. The aqueous fraction of the methanol extract (MS-3) showed to be the most bioactive among the other investigated fractions. At the dose of 500 mg/kg, the fraction (MS-3) showed a significant percentage inhibition of the carrageenan-induced edema by 52.4% (p < 0.05). In addition, MS-3 exhibited a significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhes by 44.4% and 61.5% (p < 0.001) at 250-mg/kg and 500-mg/kg doses, respectively. At 120 min post-treatment, the rat groups treated with MS-3 displayed statistically significant reduction in rectal temperature (p < 0.001) by 1.7 °C and 2.2 °C at 250- and 500-mg/kg doses, respectively. The phytochemical composition of the fraction (MS-3) was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS). Molecular docking studies demonstrated that the polyphenols identified in MS-3 revealed good binding energy upon docking to some target proteins involved in pain response and inflammation, such as the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the cyclooxygenase COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Based on the findings from the present work, it could be concluded that the aerial parts extract of M. sinaica exerts potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects in rats.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 574441, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117167

RESUMEN

Cisplatin (CP) is one of the most active medications in cancer treatment and has some adverse effects such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The present research was planned to determine the protective effects of L-carnitine (LC) against CP-induced hepato-renal oxidative stress in rats, via investigating of some serum biochemical and tissue oxidative/antioxidant parameters, histological alterations, and immunohistochemical expressions of two different intermediate filaments (IFs) proteins; vimentin (VIM) and cytokeratin 18 (CK18). Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups (7 rats each). Groups I and II were orally administered saline and LC (100 mg/kg body weight), respectively, once daily for 30 consecutive days. Group III received saline orally once daily and a single dose of CP on the 27th day of the experiment [7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (IP)]. Group IV received both LC and CP. Injection of CP significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and creatinine and urea levels, while serum total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased. In addition, CP induced a dramatic increase in the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level along with a substantial decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in the hepato-renal tissues. Histologically, both liver and kidney of the CP treated group revealed marked degenerative changes. Moreover, overexpression of both VIM and CK18 in hepato-renal tissues were noted after CP injection. On the other hand, the administration of LC in the CP injected group (Group IV) restored the biochemical parameters, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures toward the normalcy. In conclusion, LC may be supplemented for chemotherapy with CP to ameliorate its oxidative stress and restore the normal organization of IFs, especially VIM and CK18 within the CP intoxicated hepato-renal cells.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964385

RESUMEN

Diazinon (DZN), a common organophosphorus insecticide (OPI), has hazardous effect to human and animals with its ubiquitous use. Considering the implication of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the OPIs toxicity, the present study was aimed to evaluate the ameliorative properties of basil (BO) and sesame (SO) seed oils against the toxic effect of DZN. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 10 rats/group); control, DZN (10 mg/kg b.w/day), DZN + BO (5 ml/kg b.w/day), and DZN + SO (8 ml/kg b.w/day) groups, treated for a period of 4 weeks. DZN-exposed animals showed significant elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) with a significant decline in testosterone level compared with control. On the other hand, DZN + BO and DZN + SO groups revealed significant decreases in ALT, AST, BUN, and Cr with a significant increase in testosterone level when compared with DZN-exposed animals. Oxidative/antioxidant indices revealed significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels along with significant decreases of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), and catalase (CAT) activities among DZN-treated rats compared with control. Distinctly lower levels of MDA and increased activities of SOD, Gpx, and CAT were evident in both DZN + BO and DZN + SO groups when compared with DZN-exposed animals. Inflammatory and immuno-modulatory markers assessment showed a significant increase in TNF-α with a significant decline in IL-10 level in DZN group; meanwhile, both DZN + BO and DZN + SO groups revealed significant declines in levels of TNF-α with significant increases in IL-10. Corresponds immunohistochemistry, the total scores (TS) of TNF-α immunostainings in hepatorenal, testicular, and epididymal tissues of control, DZN + BO and DZN + SO groups were significantly lower than those values of DZN group. Additionally, the examined tissues of DZN + BO group revealed significant lower TS of TNF-α immunostaining compared with DZN + SO group. The overall data suggested that both BO and SO can be efficiently used as preventive herbal compounds against DZN-induced oxidative stress with special reference to their possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and free radical activities. However, BO has more potent protective effect against DZN-induced tissue injury at both immunohistochemical and molecular levels.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888148

RESUMEN

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), common flavor enhancer and feed additive, causes male reproductive dysfunction. However, Roselle tea, popular Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) beverage, has a controversial effectiveness on male fertility. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate either the adverse effect of aqueous HS extract (HSE) on the testicle or its potential ameliorative role including some stress markers, biochemical and immunohistochemical expressions in rats subjected to MSG. Here, the animals were divided into four groups that were given distilled water, HSE, MSG, and HSE + MSG respectively via gavage. After 6 weeks from the beginning of experiment, blood samples were collected for hormonal analysis. Additionally, testicular specimens were excised and processed for oxidative/antioxidant parameters determination, histological examination, and immunohistochemical evaluation of Bax and PCNA positive spermatogenic cells. Preliminary phytochemical analyses as well as antioxidant capacity of the HSE were tested. Our results revealed a strong inhibitory activity of the HSE phytochemical constituents against DPPH radical. MSG group revealed a significant decrease of testosterone, LH, FSH, and antioxidant parameters with elevated MDA compared with control and HSE groups. Additionally, an alteration of the testicular histo-architecture was observed among MSG group along with increased Bax and decreased PCNA positive cells. Meanwhile, the HSE showed a potent protective effect against testicular damage as well as oxidative stress induced by MSG. On the whole, our findings provide evidence that HSE can ameliorate MSG-induced testicular toxicity via induction of cell proliferation along with reduction of oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis in adult rat that attributed to the antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of its phytochemical constituents.

8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 207: 112741, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871343

RESUMEN

Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen which infects a wide range of marine organisms and results in severe loss. Antibiotics have been used for prophylaxis and treatment of V. harveyi infection. However, antibiotic resistance is a major public health threat to both human and animals. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel antimicrobial agents with new modes of action. In V. harveyi, many virulence factors production and bioluminescence formation depend on its quorum sensing (QS) network. Therefore, the QS system has been widely investigated as an effective potential target for the treatment of V. harveyi infection. This perspective focuses on the quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) of V. harveyi QS systems (LuxM/N, LuxS/PQ, and CqsA/S) and evaluates medicinal chemistry strategies.

9.
Mar Drugs ; 18(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867339

RESUMEN

Marine microorganisms have drawn great attention as novel bioactive natural product sources, particularly in the drug discovery area. Using different strategies, marine microbes have the ability to produce a wide variety of molecules. One of these strategies is the co-culturing of marine microbes; if two or more microorganisms are aseptically cultured together in a solid or liquid medium in a certain environment, their competition or synergetic relationship can activate the silent biosynthetic genes to produce cryptic natural products which do not exist in monocultures of the partner microbes. In recent years, the co-cultivation strategy of marine microbes has made more novel natural products with various biological activities. This review focuses on the significant and excellent examples covering sources, types, structures and bioactivities of secondary metabolites based on co-cultures of marine-derived microorganisms from 2009 to 2019. A detailed discussion on future prospects and current challenges in the field of co-culture is also provided on behalf of the authors' own views of development tendencies.

10.
Acta Histochem ; 122(6): 151597, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778249

RESUMEN

The retina possesses few types of neurons so; it is considered an excellent model for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying basic neural information processing in the brain. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system and retina. The present study was carried out to characterize the expression pattern of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) and 3 (Vglut3) and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) and 2 (GluR2) mRNAs in the retina of adult laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization histochemistry. The cerebellum of adult laughing dove was used as a positive control in this study. Vglut2 mRNA was highly expressed only in the granular layer of the cerebellum while Vglut3 mRNA was weakly expressed only in the Purkinje cells layer. In the retina, Vglut2 mRNA was highly expressed in the ganglion cell layer and moderately expressed in the inner nuclear layer while Vglut3 mRNA was moderately expressed only in the inner nuclear layer. GluR1 mRNA was intensely expressed in the Purkinje cells layer while GluR2 mRNA signals were highly detectable in both granular and Purkinje cells layers of the cerebellum. In the retina, moderate expression of GluR1 and intense expression of GluR2 was found in both ganglion cell layer and the internal half of inner nuclear layer mostly amacrine cells. These results suggest that some retinal neuronal cells in the adult laughing dove are glutamatergic. Therefore, GluR1 and 2 are suggested as useful markers for glutamatergic retinal neuronal cells in the adult laughing doves.

11.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 1372-1378, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571102

RESUMEN

Gut microbial ß-glucuronidase (GUS) is a potential therapeutic target to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity caused by irinotecan. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 17 natural cinnamic acid derivatives on Escherichia coli GUS (EcGUS) were characterised. Seven compounds, including caffeic acid ethyl ester (CAEE), had a stronger inhibitory effect (IC50 = 3.2-22.2 µM) on EcGUS than the positive control, D-glucaric acid-1,4-lactone. Inhibition kinetic analysis revealed that CAEE acted as a competitive inhibitor. The results of molecular docking analysis suggested that CAEE bound to the active site of EcGUS through interactions with Asp163, Tyr468, and Glu504. In addition, structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the presence of a hydrogen atom at R1 and bulky groups at R9 in cinnamic acid derivatives was essential for EcGUS inhibition. These data are useful to design more potent cinnamic acid-type inhibitors of EcGUS.

12.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(5)2020 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456266

RESUMEN

Lichens have recently received great attention due to their pharmacological potentials. The antigenotoxic potential of C. vitellina extract (25 and 50 µg/mL) was assessed in normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) against Mitomycin C (MMC) co-treatments. Flow cytometric analyses of cell cycle distribution, as well as apoptosis (Annexin V/PI), revealed that the extract had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) ameliorated the MMC toxicity by reducing the apoptotic cells and normalized the cell cycle phases. C. vitellina exhibited antigenotoxicity by ameliorating the diminished mitotic index and DNA single-strand breaks caused by MMC. Herein, the hydromethanolic extract (80%) of Candelariella vitellina (Japan) lichen, exhibited very low cytotoxicity towards normal human peripheral lymphocytes (HPBL) with IC50 >1000 µg/mL. In order to explore the antihelminthic effect, Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were used in vitro. Eosin staining revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) dose and time-dependent scolicidal effects of the extract confirmed by degenerative alterations as observed by electron scan microscopy. Furthermore, primary and secondary metabolites were investigated using GC-MS and qualitative HPLC, revealing the presence of sugars, alcohols, different phenolic acids and light flavonoids. Significant antioxidant capacities were also demonstrated by DPPH radical-scavenging assay. In conclusion, the promising antigenotoxic, antihelminthic and antioxidant potentials of C. vitellina extract encourage further studies to evaluate its possible therapeutic potency.

13.
Open Vet J ; 9(4): 281-286, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042646

RESUMEN

Background: The heart ventricles have thicker walls than atrium as they pump blood through blood vessels into all body organs. Aim: This study aimed to describe the histological changes of the heart ventricles in Egyptian bovine (Bos aegyptiacus) with special reference to Purkinje fibers. Methods: A total of 10 male Egyptian bovines of 1-10 years old were divided into three groups according to age; immature, mature, and adult animals. Results: The histological sections from all examined animals' groups revealed three different layers of the wall of both right and left ventricles; endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium. The endocardium was lined with endothelium and filled with fibrous connective tissue. The endocardium of adult bovine was the thickest. Purkinje fibers appeared of pale cytoplasm with few myofibrils. They were present in the deep layer of the endocardium and in the myocardium. The size of Purkinje fibers and the amount of their myofibrils appeared to be increased with advanced age. Bundles of cardiac muscles were the main constituent of the myocardium. The myocardial bundles were separated by fine connective tissue in immature animals that showed an increased amount in the adult animals. The hypereosinophilic cardiac muscle cells were observed in the ventricles of both mature and adult animals suggesting hypercontraction during rigor mortis. An external layer of the ventricles was the epicardium which consisted of connective tissue and covered with mesothelium. Conclusion: Overall, this study revealed histological changes in the wall of the ventricle and Purkinje fibers of Egyptian bovines (B. aegyptiacus) in relation to age. Additionally, the hypereosinophilia of the cardiac muscle cells was recorded in the ventricles of mature and adult bovines.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/anatomía & histología , Endocardio/anatomía & histología , Ventrículos Cardíacos/anatomía & histología , Pericardio/anatomía & histología , Ramos Subendocárdicos/anatomía & histología , Envejecimiento , Animales , Egipto , Masculino
14.
Community Ment Health J ; 56(4): 581-585, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828578

RESUMEN

Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 15 in Egypt (N = 800) and the United States (U.S., N = 800) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible using the Student Styles Questionnaire (SSQ). Egyptian children generally prefer extroverted over introverted, practical over imaginative, and organized over flexible styles. Their general preference for feeling over thinking styles is gender related; although both males and females generally prefer feeling styles, males are less likely than females to prefer this style. Age differences are found on extroverted-introverted and practical-imaginative styles. Cross-national differences are found on four temperament styles. In contrast to children in the U.S., children in Egypt are more likely to prefer extroverted, practical, feeling, and organized styles.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 407-421, 2019 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129214

RESUMEN

Punica granatum peel (PGP) is widely used in traditional medicinal purposes for chronic wounds owing to containing natural phenolics active components. In current study, active wound dressing hydrogel for chronic wound healing was prepared based on P. granatum peel crude extract (PGPC), ethyl acetate fraction (PGPEA) and their silver nanoforms (Ag-NPs). Methacrylated chitosan was synthesized as precursor to hydrogel and crosslinked by divinyl sulfone (DVS) in mild condition. Hydrogel was fully characterized by spectral morphological, mechanical and physical analyses. The integration of PGPEA silver nanoforms was formed with particle size of 15-56 nm to show minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) equal 63 for Staphylococcus aureus and 125 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The hydrogel-based wound dressing with/without the active ingredients showed acceptable cytotoxicity against fibroblast human cells for PGPC and PGPEA fraction over the silver nanoforms. Rat as animal model was considered to show the impact of the active wound dressing on diabetic wounds which was proved by histopathological examination. In addition, the significant intensity of immunopositivity signals of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the epidermal cells have revealed the efficiency of Ag NPs-PGPEA-chitosan hydrogel for chronic wound curing.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano/química , Quitosano/farmacología , Hidrogeles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Granada (Fruta)/química , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Vendajes/microbiología , Línea Celular , Módulo de Elasticidad , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Ratas
16.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(2): 149-156, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588659

RESUMEN

The moderator band (MB) is a common fibromuscular anatomical structure for the right ventricle of most animals. The histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of the MBs of Egyptian Baladi cattle in relation to age was the aim of this study. Eighteen clinically healthy animals of both sexes were used for this study. The animals were divided into three groups depending on age, group I (N = 4, <1 year), group II (N = 8, 1-2 years) and group III (N = 6, 4-8 years). Cross sections of the MBs from all groups were stained with H&E, Masson's trichrome and anti-connexin43 (Cx43) antibody for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Also, measurements for the thickness of the endocardium of the MB as well as, the wall of its muscular artery were conducted. Bundles of Purkinje fibres (PFs) were identified peripherally in the endocardial layer and among the myocardial fibres in the core of each MB. The infiltration of endocardial adipocytes was the characteristic for MBs of old animals. All morphometric data showed a significant increase with the advancement of age. Immunohistochemical findings revealed the localization and distribution of Cx43 in the PFs and intercalated discs of all examined MBs. However, variation of Cx43 immunoreactivity was found among the groups depending on the age. On the basis of this study, this conclusion of different histomorphometry and Cx43 expression of the MBs in relation to age was drawn. These interesting findings provide further insight into age-related physiological and pathological heart conditions.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Bovinos/anatomía & histología , Corazón/anatomía & histología , Corazón/fisiología , Animales , Bovinos/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 661-669, jun. 2018. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-954169

RESUMEN

Thioacetamide (TAA) is one of the common fungicidal agents that induce liver injury varying from inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis to cirrhosis. Many recent studies reported the beneficial effect of probiotics and silymarin on hepatotoxicity regardless the causative agents. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative role of probiotics and/or silymarin on TAA induced hepatotoxicity in rats via histological, and immunohistochemical methods. Twenty five male albino rats were used for this experiment and were divided into five groups (n=5 rats/group); group I acts as negative control, group II was orally administrated distilled water for six weeks, then injected with TAA (200 mg/kg b.wt./ 5 ml physiological saline/ I.P.) twice a week for another six weeks, group III was treated with probiotics at a dose of 135 mg/ kg b.wt. orally in drinking water daily for six weeks, then injected with TAA (dosage of group II), twice weekly for another six weeks, group IV was treated with silymarin at a dose of 200 mg/ kg b.wt orally 4 times per week for six weeks, then injected with TAA (dosage of group II), twice weekly for another six weeks and group V was treated with combination of both probiotics and silymarin, at the same dosage in groups III and IV respectively then injected with TAA (dosage of group II), twice weekly for another six weeks. Histologically, TAA induced hepatocytes degeneration, inflammatory cells infiltration, and pseudolobular parenchyma as well as, high apoptosis and low proliferation rates that were proved by immunohistochemical staining for caspase 3 and ki-67 respectively. Probiotics and/or silymarin improved the histological feature of hepatocytes, reduced apoptosis and stimulated proliferation. Based on these results, we concluded that the use of probiotics and silymarin combination ameliorates the hepatotoxic effect of TAA in rats more than the use of probiotics or silymarin alone.


La tioacetamida (TAA) es uno de los agentes fungicidas más comunes que inducen lesiones hepáticas que varían desde inflamación, necrosis y fibrosis hasta cirrosis. Muchos estudios recientes informaron el efecto beneficioso de los probióticos y la silimarina sobre la hepatotoxicidad independientemente de los agentes causantes. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el papel paliativo de los probióticos y / o silimarina en la hepatotoxicidad inducida por TAA en ratas a través de métodos histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos. Para este experimento se usaron veinticinco ratas albinas y se dividieron en cinco grupos (n = 5 ratas / grupo); el grupo I se usó como control negativo; en el grupo II se administró por vía oral agua destilada durante seis semanas y luego se inyectó TAA (200 mg / kg b.wt./ 5 ml solución salina fisiológica / IP) dos veces por semana durante otras seis semanas; el grupo III se trató con probióticos, dosis diaria de 135 mg / kg b.wt. por vía oral en agua potable, durante seis semanas y luego fue inyectado con TAA (dosis del grupo II), dos veces por semana durante otras seis semanas; el grupo IV se trató con silimarina, con una dosis de 200 mg / kg b.wt por vía oral 4 veces por semana durante seis semanas, luego se inyectó TAA (dosificación del grupo II), dos veces por semana durante otras seis semanas; y el grupo V, se trató con una combinación de ambos probióticos y silimarina con la misma dosis que en los grupos III y IV, respectivamente, luego fueron inyectados con TAA (dosificación del grupo II), dos veces por semana durante otras seis semanas. Histológicamente, la TAA indujo la degeneración de los hepatocitos, la infiltración de células inflamatorias y el parénquima pseudolobular, así como también una apoptosis alta y tasas de proliferación bajas que se probaron mediante tinción inmunohistoquímica para caspasa 3 y ki-67, respectivamente. Los probióticos y / o la silimarina mejoraron la característica histológica de los hepatocitos, redujeron la apoptosis y estimularon la proliferación. En base a estos resultados, concluimos que el uso de la combinación de probióticos y silimarina mejora el efecto hepatotóxico del TAA en ratas más que el uso de probióticos o silimarina individualmente.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Silimarina/administración & dosificación , Tioacetamida/toxicidad , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/tratamiento farmacológico , Inmunohistoquímica , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos
18.
J Forensic Sci ; 63(1): 102-111, 2018 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251648

RESUMEN

In digital image forensics, copy-move or region duplication forgery detection became a vital research topic recently. Most of the existing keypoint-based forgery detection methods fail to detect the forgery in the smooth regions, rather than its sensitivity to geometric changes. To solve these problems and detect points which cover all the regions, we proposed two steps for keypoint detection. First, we employed the scale-invariant feature operator to detect the spatially distributed keypoints from the textured regions. Second, the keypoints from the missing regions are detected using Harris corner detector with nonmaximal suppression to evenly distribute the detected keypoints. To improve the matching performance, local feature points are described using Multi-support Region Order-based Gradient Histogram descriptor. Based on precision-recall rates and commonly tested dataset, comprehensive performance evaluation is performed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme has better detection and robustness against some geometric transformation attacks compared with state-of-the-art methods.

19.
Molecules ; 24(1)2018 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602714

RESUMEN

A hitherto unknown polyoxygenated flavonol robinobioside (gossypetin-3-O-ß-d-robinobioside) was isolated from the leaves of Caesalpinia gilliesii along with thirteen known phenolic secondary metabolites. The isolated compounds were characterized using spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. The extract reduced the level of liver damage in CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. A decrease of the liver biomarkers-aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and an increase of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels-were observed similar to the liver protecting drug silymarin. In addition, the extract showed promising activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and protected their stomachs against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in a concentration dependent fashion. The observed activities could be attributed to the high content of antioxidant polyphenols. Our results suggest that the C. gilliesii has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress, and liver and stomach injury.


Asunto(s)
Caesalpinia/química , Edema/prevención & control , Flavonoles/administración & dosificación , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoquímicos/administración & dosificación , Úlcera/prevención & control , Alanina Transaminasa/genética , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/genética , Tetracloruro de Carbono/toxicidad , Carragenina/toxicidad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Edema/inducido químicamente , Edema/metabolismo , Flavonoles/química , Flavonoles/farmacología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/enzimología , Masculino , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ratas , Silimarina/administración & dosificación , Silimarina/química , Silimarina/farmacología , Úlcera/inducido químicamente
20.
Exp Ther Med ; 13(3): 976-982, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450929

RESUMEN

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. It affects the locomotor system, leading to a final severe disability through degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Despite several therapeutic approaches used, no treatment has been proven to be effective; however, cell therapy may be a promising therapeutic method. In addition, the use of the intranasal (IN) route has been advocated for delivering various therapies to the brain. In the present study, the IN route was used for administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a mouse model of PD, with the aim to evaluate IN delivery as an alternative route for cell based therapy administration in PD. The PD model was developed in C57BL/6 mice using intraperitoneal rotenone administration for 60 consecutive days. MSCs were isolated from the mononuclear cell fraction of pooled bone marrow from C57BL/6 mice and incubated with micrometer-sized iron oxide (MPIO) particles. For IN administration, we used a 20 µl of 5×105 cell suspension. Neurobehavioral assessment of the mice was performed, and after sacrifice, brain sections were stained with Prussian blue to detect the MPIO-labeled MSCs. In addition, immunohistochemical evaluation was conducted to detect tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibodies in the corpus striatum and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The neurobehavioral assessment revealed progressive deterioration in the locomotor functions of the rotenone group, which was improved following MSC administration. Histopathological evaluation of brain sections in the rotenone+MSC group revealed successful delivery of MSCs, evidenced by positive Prussian blue staining. Furthermore, rotenone treatment led to significant decrease in dopaminergic neuron number in SNpc, as well as similar decrease in the corpus striatum fiber density. By contrast, in animals receiving IN administration of MSCs, the degeneration caused by rotenone treatment was significantly counteracted. In conclusion, the present study validated that IN delivery of MSCs may be a potential safe, easy and cheap alternative route for stem cell treatment in neurodegenerative disorders.

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