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1.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060094

RESUMEN

RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is a highly efficient enzyme specialized in synthesizing most ribosomal RNAs. After nucleosome deposition at each round of rDNA replication, the Pol I transcription machinery has to deal with nucleosomal barriers. It has been suggested that Pol I-associated factors facilitate chromatin transcription, but it is unknown whether Pol I has an intrinsic capacity to transcribe through nucleosomes. Here, we used in vitro transcription assays to study purified wildtype and mutant Pol I variants from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compare their abilities to pass a nucleosomal barrier with those of yeast Pol II and Pol III. Under identical conditions, purified Pol I and Pol III, but not Pol II, could transcribe nucleosomal templates. Pol I mutants lacking either the heterodimeric subunit Rpa34.5/Rpa49 or the C-terminal part of the specific subunit Rpa12.2 showed a lower processivity on naked DNA templates, which was even more reduced in the presence of a nucleosome. Our findings suggest that the lobe-binding subunits Rpa34.5/Rpa49 and Rpa12.2 facilitate passage through nucleosomes, suggesting possible cooperation among these subunits. We discuss the contribution of Pol I-specific subunit domains to efficient Pol I passage through nucleosomes in the context of transcription rate and processivity.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974565

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Common genetic susceptibility may underlie the frequently observed co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in families. Given the role of HLA class II genes in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes, the aim of the present study was to test the association of high density imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Three cohorts (Ntotal = 10 413) from Leipzig, Germany were included in this study: LIFE-Adult (N = 4649), LIFE-Heart (N = 4815) and the Sorbs (N = 949) cohort. Detailed metabolic phenotyping and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were available for all subjects. Using 1000 Genome imputation data, HLA genotypes were imputed on 4-digit level and association tests for type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic traits were conducted. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis including all 3 cohorts, the absence of HLA-DRB5 was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001). In contrast, HLA-DQB*06:02 and HLA-DQA*01:02 had a protective effect on type 2 diabetes (P = 0.005 and 0.003, respectively). Both alleles are part of the well-established type 1 diabetes protective haplotype DRB1*15:01~DQA1*01:02~DQB1*06:02, which was also associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.84; P = 0.005). On the contrary, the DRB1*07:01~DQA1*02:01~DQB1*03:03 was identified as a risk haplotype in non-insulin-treated diabetes (OR 1.37; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in the HLA class II locus exerts risk and protective effects on non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Our data suggest that the genetic architecture of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes might share common components on the HLA class II locus.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926173

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lynch syndrome is caused by variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In patients with Lynch syndrome, CRCs can develop via different pathways. We studied associations between Lynch syndrome-associated variants in MMR genes and risks of adenoma and CRC and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in tumors in an international cohort of patients. METHODS: We combined clinical and molecular data from 3 studies. We obtained clinical data from 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome associated with variants in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 from Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland who received at least 2 surveillance colonoscopies and were followed for a median time of 7.8 years for development of adenomas or CRC. We performed DNA sequence analyses of 48 colorectal tumors (from 16 patients with mutations in MLH1, 29 patients with mutations in MSH2, and 3 with mutations in MSH6) for somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1. RESULTS: Risk of advanced adenoma in 10 y was 17.8% in patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 7.7% in MLH1 (P<.001). Higher proportions of patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 or MSH2 developed CRC in 10 y (11.3% and 11.4%) than patients with pathogenic variants in MSH6 (4.7%) (P=.001 and P=.003 for MLH1 and MSH2 vs MSH6, respectively). Somatic mutations in APC were found in 75% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 11% in MLH1 (P=.015). Somatic mutations in CTNNB1 were found in 50% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 vs 7% in MSH2 (P=.002). None of the 3 tumors with pathogenic variants in MSH6 had a mutation in CTNNB1, but all had mutations in APC. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of clinical and DNA sequence data from patients with Lynch syndrome from 3 countries, we associated pathogenic variants in MMR genes with risk of adenoma and CRC, and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in colorectal tumors. If these findings are confirmed, surveillance guidelines might be adjusted based on MMR gene variants.

5.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 999-1009, 2020 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081934

RESUMEN

Comparably little is known about breast cancer (BC) risks in women from families tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutations despite an indicative family history, as opposed to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We determined the age-dependent risks of first and contralateral breast cancer (FBC, CBC) both in noncarriers and carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, who participated in an intensified breast imaging surveillance program. The study was conducted between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2017, at 12 university centers of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Two cohorts were prospectively followed up for incident FBC (n = 4,380; 16,398 person-years [PY], median baseline age: 39 years) and CBC (n = 2,993; 10,090 PY, median baseline age: 42 years). Cumulative FBC risk at age 60 was 61.8% (95% CI 52.8-70.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 43.2% (95% CI 32.1-56.3%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 15.7% (95% CI 11.9-20.4%) for noncarriers. FBC risks were significantly higher than in the general population, with incidence rate ratios of 23.9 (95% CI 18.9-29.8) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 13.5 (95% CI 9.2-19.1) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 4.9 (95% CI 3.8-6.3) for BRCA1/2 noncarriers. Cumulative CBC risk 10 years after FBC was 25.1% (95% CI 19.6-31.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 6.6% (95% CI 3.4-12.5%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 3.6% (95% CI 2.2-5.7%) for noncarriers. CBC risk in noncarriers was similar to women with unilateral BC from the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm whether less intensified surveillance is justified in women from BRCA1/2 negative families with elevated risk.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1901907, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

9.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735538

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence-based concepts to prevent breast cancer in women with BRCA1/2 mutations are limited. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedD) has been associated with a lower risk for breast cancer, possibly due to a favorable fatty acid (FA) intake. Here, we studied in an at-risk population the effect of a lifestyle intervention that included the MedD on FA composition in red blood cell membranes (RBCM). METHODS: Data derived from the German multicenter trial LIBRE, from which 68 women were randomized into an intervention group (IG) trained for MedD and increased physical activity for 12 months, and a usual care control group (CG). Adherence to the diet was assessed after 3 and 12 months using the validated Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and a food frequency questionnaire. RBCM FA were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The MEDAS was increased in both groups after 3 months (IG: P < 0.001; CG: P = 0.004), and remained increased only in the IG after 12 months (P < 0.001). The food frequency questionnaire revealed an increased intake of omega-3 (n-3) FA at month 3 and month 12 in the IG (both P < 0.01), but not in the CG, in which intake of energy, protein and saturated FA decreased. In both groups n-6 FA in the RBCM decreased (P < 0.001), while n-9 FA increased (P < 0.001) and n-3 FA were unchanged. Women with higher consumption of fish had higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids in the RBCM. The MEDAS was inversely correlated with n-6 fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: The RBCM FA composition was associated with dietetic parameters related to the MedD. Adherence to the MedD resulted in an altered, likely favorable FA composition. Our data suggest selected FA as biomarkers to monitor compliance to a dietetic intervention such as the MedD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (reference: NCT02087592).

10.
Ophthalmology ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732228

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of sex on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at 768 circumpapillary locations based on OCT findings. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We investigated 5646 eyes of 5646 healthy participants from the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE)-Adult Study of a predominantly white population. METHODS: All participants underwent standardized systemic assessments and ocular imaging. Circumpapillary RNFL (cRNFL) thickness was measured at 768 points equidistant from the optic nerve head using spectral-domain OCT (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). To control ocular magnification effects, the true scanning radius was estimated by scanning focus. Student t test was used to evaluate sex differences in cRNFL thickness globally and at each of the 768 locations. Multivariable linear regression and analysis of variance were used to evaluate individual contributions of various factors to cRNFL thickness variance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Difference in cRNFL thickness between males and females. RESULTS: Our population consisted of 54.8% females. The global cRNFL thickness was 1 µm thicker in females (P < 0.001). However, detailed analysis at each of the 768 locations revealed substantial location specificity of the sex effects, with RNFL thickness difference ranging from -9.98 to +8.00 µm. Females showed significantly thicker RNFLs in the temporal, superotemporal, nasal, inferonasal, and inferotemporal regions (43.6% of 768 locations), whereas males showed significantly thicker RNFLs in the superior region (13.2%). The results were similar after adjusting for age, body height, and scanning radius. The superotemporal and inferotemporal RNFL peaks shifted temporally in females by 2.4° and 1.9°, respectively. On regions with significant sex effects, sex explained more RNFL thickness variance than age, whereas the major peak locations and interpeak angle explained most of the RNFL thickness variance unexplained by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial sex effects on cRNFL thickness were found at 56.8% of all 768 circumpapillary locations, with specific patterns for different sectors. Over large regions, sex was at least as important in explaining the cRNFL thickness variance as was age, which is well established to have a substantial impact on cRNFL thickness. Including sex in the cRNFL thickness norm could therefore improve glaucoma diagnosis and monitoring.

11.
Z Gastroenterol ; 57(11): 1309-1320, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739377

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome and accounts for ~3 % of all CRCs. This autosomal dominant disorder is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM). One in 300 individuals of the general population are considered to be mutation carriers (300 000 individuals/Germany). Mutation carriers are at a high CRC risk of 15-46 % till the age of 75 years. LS also includes a variety of extracolonic malignancies such as endometrial, small bowel, gastric, urothelial, and other cancers. METHODS: The German Consortium for Familial Intestinal Cancer consists of 14 university centers in Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and evaluate surveillance programs and to further translate the results in clinical care. We have revisited and updated the clinical management guidelines for LS patients in Germany. RESULTS: A surveillance colonoscopy should be performed every 12-24 months starting at the age of 25 years. At diagnosis of first colorectal cancer, an oncological resection is advised, an extended resection (colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis) has to be discussed with the patient. The lifetime risk for gastric cancer is 0.2-13 %. Gastric cancers detected during surveillance have a lower tumor stage compared to symptom-driven detection. The lifetime risk for small bowel cancer is 4-8 %. About half of small bowel cancer is located in the duodenum and occurs before the age of 35 years in 10 % of all cases. Accordingly, patients are advised to undergo an esophagogastroduodenoscopy every 12-36 months starting by the age of 25 years. CONCLUSION: LS colonic and extracolonic clinical management, surveillance and therapy are complex and several aspects remain unclear. In the future, surveillance and clinical management need to be more tailored to gene and gender. Future prospective trials are needed.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales Hereditarias sin Poliposis/patología , Reparación de la Incompatibilidad de ADN , Endoscopía del Sistema Digestivo/métodos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Neoplasias Colorrectales Hereditarias sin Poliposis/genética , Alemania , Humanos , Vigilancia de la Población , Factores de Tiempo
12.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 35(12): 2103-2110, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394049

RESUMEN

Objectives: Potential opportunities and challenges of predictive genetic risk classification of healthy persons are currently discussed. However, the budgetary impact of rising demand is uncertain. This project aims to evaluate budgetary consequences of predictive genetic risk classification for statutory health insurance in Germany.Methods: A Markov model was developed in the form of a cohort simulation. It analyzes a population of female relatives of hereditary breast cancer patients. Mutation carriers are offered intensified screening, women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation can decide on prophylactic mastectomy and/or ovarectomy. The model considers the following scenarios: (a) steady demand for predictive genetic testing, and (b) rising demand. Most input parameters are based on data of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. The model contains 49 health states, starts in 2015, and runs for 10 years. Prices were evaluated from the perspective of statutory health insurance.Results: Steady demand leads to an expenditure of €49.8 million during the 10-year period. Rising demands lead to additional expenses of €125.5 million. The model reveals the genetic analysis to be the main cost driver while cost savings in treatment costs of breast and ovarian cancer are indicated.Conclusions: The results contribute to close the knowledge gap concerning the budgetary consequences due to genetic risk classification. A rising demand leads to additional costs especially due to costs for genetic analysis. The model indicates budget shifts with cost savings due to breast and ovarian cancer treatment in the scenario of rising demands.

13.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 787, 2019 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395037

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inherited pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most common causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). The risk of developing breast cancer by age 80 in women carrying a BRCA1 pathogenic variant is 72%. The lifetime risk varies between families and even within affected individuals of the same family. The cause of this variability is largely unknown, but it is hypothesized that additional genetic factors contribute to differences in age at onset (AAO). Here we investigated whether truncating and rare missense variants in genes of different DNA-repair pathways contribute to this phenomenon. METHODS: We used extreme phenotype sampling to recruit 133 BRCA1-positive patients with either early breast cancer onset, below 35 (early AAO cohort) or cancer-free by age 60 (controls). Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) was used to screen for variants in 311 genes involved in different DNA-repair pathways. RESULTS: Patients with an early AAO (73 women) had developed breast cancer at a median age of 27 years (interquartile range (IQR); 25.00-27.00 years). A total of 3703 variants were detected in all patients and 43 of those (1.2%) were truncating variants. The truncating variants were found in 26 women of the early AAO group (35.6%; 95%-CI 24.7 - 47.7%) compared to 16 women of controls (26.7%; 95%-CI 16.1 to 39.7%). When adjusted for environmental factors and family history, the odds ratio indicated an increased breast cancer risk for those carrying an additional truncating DNA-repair variant to BRCA1 mutation (OR: 3.1; 95%-CI 0.92 to 11.5; p-value = 0.07), although it did not reach the conventionally acceptable significance level of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first time that the combined effect of truncating variants in DNA-repair genes on AAO in patients with hereditary breast cancer is investigated. Our results indicate that co-occurring truncating variants might be associated with an earlier onset of breast cancer in BRCA1-positive patients. Larger cohorts are needed to confirm these results.


Asunto(s)
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Biomarcadores de Tumor , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Reparación del ADN , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Eliminación de Secuencia , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Sitios Genéticos , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Vigilancia de la Población , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 479, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333520

RESUMEN

Background: Several studies have shown a positive association between anxiety and obesity, particularly in women. We aimed to study whether sex hormone alterations related to obesity might play a role in this association. Patients and methods: Data for this study were obtained from a population-based cohort study (the LIFE-Adult-Study). A total of 3,124 adult women (970 premenopausal and 2,154 postmenopausal) were included into the analyses. The anxiety symptomatology was assessed using the GAD-7 questionnaire (cut-off ≥ 10 points). Sex hormones were measured from fasting serum samples. Results: We did not find significant differences in anxiety prevalence in premenopausal obese women compared with normal-weight controls (4.8% vs. 5.5%). Both obesity and anxiety symptomatology were separately associated with the same sex hormone alteration in premenopausal women: higher total testosterone level (0.97 ± 0.50 in obese vs. 0.86 ± 0.49 nmol/L in normal-weight women, p = 0.026 and 1.04 ± 0.59 in women with vs. 0.88 ± 0.49 nmol/L in women without anxiety symptomatology, p = 0.023). However, women with anxiety symptomatology had non-significantly higher estradiol levels than women without anxiety symptomatology (548.0 ± 507.6 vs. 426.2 ± 474.0 pmol/L), whereas obesity was associated with lower estradiol levels compared with those in normal-weight group (332.7 ± 386.5 vs. 470.8 ± 616.0 pmol/L). Women with anxiety symptomatology had also significantly higher testosterone and estradiol composition (p = 0.006). No associations of sex hormone levels and BMI with anxiety symptomatology in postmenopausal women were found. Conclusions: Although both obesity and anxiety symptomatology were separately associated with higher testosterone level, there was an opposite impact of anxiety and obesity on estradiol levels in premenopausal women. We did not find an evidence that the sex hormone alterations related to obesity are playing a significant role in anxiety symptomatology in premenopausal women. This could be the explanation why we did not find an association between obesity and anxiety. In postmenopausal women, other mechanisms seem to work than in the premenopausal group.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 160, 2019 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175272

RESUMEN

Accumulating evidence supports a link between depression and being overweight in women. Given previously reported sex differences in fat accumulation and depression prevalence, as well as the likely role of sex hormones in both overweight and mood disorders, we hypothesised that the depression-overweight association may be mediated by sex hormones. To this end, we investigated the association of being overweight with depression, and then considered the role of sex hormones in relation to being overweight and depression in a large population-based cohort. We included a total of 3124 women, 970 premenopausal and 2154 postmenopausal from the LIFE-Adult cohort study in our analyses. We evaluated associations between being overweight (BMI >25 kg/m2), sex hormone levels, and depressive symptomatology according to Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scores, and explored mediation of depression in a mediation model. Being overweight was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in premenopausal but not postmenopausal women. Both premenopausal and postmenopausal overweight women had higher free testosterone levels compared with normal weight women. Premenopausal women with depressive symptomatology had higher free testosterone levels compared to women without. We found a significant mediation effect of depressive symptomatology in overweight premenopausal women through free testosterone level. These findings highlight the association between being overweight and depressed, and suggest that high free testosterone levels may play a significant role in depression of overweight premenopausal women. Based on this, pharmacological approaches targeting androgen levels in overweight depressed females, in particular when standard anti-depressive treatments fail, could be of specific clinical relevance.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212819

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leukocytes in peripheral blood (PB) are prognostic biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cancer patients (HNSCC-CPs), but differences between HNSCC-CPs and healthy adults (HAs) are insufficiently described. METHODS: 10-color flow cytometry (FCM) was used for in-depth immunophenotyping of PB samples of 963 HAs and 101 therapy-naïve HNSCC-CPs. Absolute (AbsCC) and relative cell counts (RelCC) of leukocyte subsets were determined. A training cohort (TC) of 43 HNSCC-CPs and 43 HAs, propensity score (PS)-matched according to age, sex, alcohol, and smoking, was used to develop a score consecutively approved in a validation cohort (VC). RESULTS: Differences in AbsCC were detected in leukocyte subsets (p < 0.001), but had low power in discriminating HNSCC-CPs and HAs. Consequently, RelCC of nine leukocyte subsets in the TC were used to calculate 36 ratios; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves defined optimum cut-off values. Binary classified data were combined in a score based on four ratios: monocytes-to-granulocytes (MGR), classical monocytes-to-monocytes (clMMR), monocytes-to-lymphocytes (MLR), and monocytes-to-T-lymphocytes (MTLR); ≥3 points accurately discriminate HNSCC-CPs and HAs in the PS-matched TC (p = 2.97 × 10-17), the VC (p = 4.404 × 10-178), and both combined (p = 7.74 × 10-199). CONCLUSIONS: RelCC of leukocyte subsets in PB of HNSCC-CPs differ significantly from those of HAs. A score based on MGR, clMMR, MLR, and MTLR allows for accurate discrimination.

18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 55, 2019 04 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036035

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of the BARD1 gene in breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition remains elusive, as published case-control investigations have revealed controversial results. We aimed to assess the role of deleterious BARD1 germline variants in BC/OC predisposition in a sample of 4920 BRCA1/2-negative female BC/OC index patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). METHODS: A total of 4469 female index patients with BC, 451 index patients with OC, and 2767 geographically matched female control individuals were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging rare missense variants in BARD1. All patients met the inclusion criteria of the GC-HBOC for germline testing and reported at least one relative with BC or OC. Additional control datasets (Exome Aggregation Consortium, ExAC; Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy, FLOSSIES) were included for the calculation of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified LoF variants in 23 of 4469 BC index patients (0.51%) and in 36 of 37,265 control individuals (0.10%), resulting in an OR of 5.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.17-9.04; P < 0.00001). BARD1-mutated BC index patients showed a significantly younger mean age at first diagnosis (AAD; 42.3 years, range 24-60 years) compared with the overall study sample (48.6 years, range 17-92 years; P = 0.00347). In the subgroup of BC index patients with an AAD < 40 years, an OR of 12.04 (95% CI = 5.78-25.08; P < 0.00001) was observed. An OR of 7.43 (95% CI = 4.26-12.98; P < 0.00001) was observed when stratified for an AAD < 50 years. LoF variants in BARD1 were not significantly associated with BC in the subgroup of index patients with an AAD ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.82-6.45; P = 0.11217). Overall, rare and predicted damaging BARD1 missense variants were significantly more prevalent in BC index patients compared with control individuals (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26-3.67; P = 0.00723). Neither LoF variants nor predicted damaging rare missense variants in BARD1 were identified in 451 familial index patients with OC. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the significant association of germline LoF variants in BARD1 with early-onset BC, we suggest that intensified BC surveillance programs should be offered to women carrying pathogenic BARD1 gene variants.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Mutación de Línea Germinal , Mutación con Pérdida de Función , Proteínas Supresoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Neoplasias Ováricas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Ováricas/genética , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
19.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 43, 2019 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077241

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies in older adults or those with cognitive impairment have shown associations between cognitive and olfactory performance, but there are few population-based studies especially in younger adults. We therefore cross-sectionally analyzed this association using data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study. METHODS: Cognitive assessments comprised tests from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD): verbal fluency (VF), word list learning and recall (WLL, WLR), and the Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B. The "Sniffin' Sticks Screening 12" test was used to measure olfactory performance. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between the number of correctly identified odors (0 to 12) and the five cognitive test scores, adjusted for sex, age, education, and the presence of depressive symptoms. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to determine the discriminative performance of the number of correctly identified odors regarding identification of cognition impairment. RESULTS: A total of 6783 participants (51.3% female) completed the olfaction test and the VF test and TMT. A subgroup of 2227 participants (46.9% female) also completed the WLL and WLR tests. Based on age-, sex-, and education-specific norms from CERAD, the following numbers of participants were considered cognitively impaired: VF 759 (11.2%), WLL 242 (10.9%), WLR: 132 (5.9%), TMT-A 415 (6.1%), and TMT-B/A ratio 677 (10.0%). On average, score values for VF were higher by 0.42 points (p < 0.001), for WLL higher by 0.32 points (p = 0.001), for WLR higher by 0.31 points (p = 0.002), for TMT-A lower by 0.25 points (p < 0.001), and for TMT-B/A ratio lower by 0.01 points (p < 0.001) per number of correctly identified odors. ROC analysis revealed area under the curve values from 0.55 to 0.62 for the five cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Better olfactory performance was associated with better cognitive performance in all five tests in adults - adjusted for age, sex, education, and the presence of depressive symptoms. However, the ability of the smell test to discriminate between individuals with and without cognitive impairment was limited. The value of olfactory testing in early screening for cognitive impairment should be investigated in longitudinal studies.

20.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2019 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129995

RESUMEN

Objectives: Mental demands at the workplace can be preventive against cognitive decline. However, personality shapes the way information is processed and we therefore assume that Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, would moderate the beneficial effects of workplace stimulation on cognitive outcomes. Methods: We analyzed data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study (n = 6529). Cognitive outcomes were assessed via the Trail-Making Test (TMTA, TMTB) and the Verbal Fluency Test. Personality was assessed via the Personality Adjective List (16 AM). Mental demands were classified with the indices Verbal and Executive based on the O*NET database. Results: Multivariate regression analyses showed only two significant moderation effects of personality, i.e. in individuals with low scores on Conscientiousness/Openness, index Verbal was connected to better TMTB performance, while this effect disappeared for individuals with high values on the personality trait. However, the additional explained variance remained marginal. Conclusion: The findings suggest that personality does not modify associations between high mental demands at work and better cognitive functioning in old age; however, there is a tendency that high levels of Openness and Conscientiousness may offset effects of mental demands.

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