BACKGROUND: Viral suppression remains the most desired outcome in the management of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and this can be achieved by an effective Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). However, some patients who achieve viral suppression may experience viral rebound with dire consequence. We evaluated viral suppression and rebound and their associated factors among adult patients on ART in Kumasi, Ghana. METHODS: This hospital-based retrospective study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana. We reviewed the medical records of 720 HIV patients on ART. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Version 26.0 and GraphPad prism version 8.0. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Proportions of patients with viral suppression and viral rebound were 76.1% and 21.0% respectively. Being diagnosed at WHO stage I [aOR = 11.40, 95% CI (3.54-36.74), p < 0.0001], having good adherence to ART [aOR = 5.09, 95% CI (2.67-9.73), p < 0.0001], taking Nevirapine-based regimen [aOR = 4.66, 95% CI (1.20-18.04), p = 0.0260] and increasing duration of treatment (p < 0.0001) were independently associated with higher odds of viral suppression. However, being diagnosed at WHO stage II (aOR = 7.39, 95% CI 2.67-20.51; p < 0.0001) and stage III (aOR = 8.62, 95% CI 3.16-23.50; p < 0.0001), having poor adherence (aOR = 175.48, 95% CI 44.30-695.07; p < 0.0001), recording baseline suppression value of 20-49 copies/mL (aOR = 6.43, 95% CI 2.72-15.17; p < 0.0001) and being treated with Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (aOR = 6.49, 95% CI 1.85-22.79; p = 0.004) and Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine (aOR = 18.68, 95% CI 1.58-220.90; p = 0.02) were independently associated with higher odds of viral rebound. CONCLUSION: Approximately 76% viral suppression rate among HIV patients on ART in Kumasi falls below the WHO 95% target by the year 2030. Choice of ART combination, drug adherence, WHO clinical staging and baseline viral load are factors associated with suppression or rebound. These clinical characteristics of HIV patients must be monitored concurrently with the viral load.