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1.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224291, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747391

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare body composition estimations of field estimation methods: Durnin & Womersley anthropometry (DW-ANT), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and Deborah-Kerr anthropometry (DK-ANT) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a male Chilean sport climbing sample. METHODS: 30 adult male climbers of different performance levels participated in the study. A DXA scan (Lunar Prodigy®) was used to determine fat mass, lean mass and total bone mineral content (BMC). Total muscle mass (MM, kg) was estimated through a validated prediction model. DW-ANT and BIA ("non-athletes" and "athletes" equations) were used to determinate fat mass percentage (FM %), while DK-ANT was utilized to estimate MM and BMC. RESULTS: A significant (p<0.01) inter-method difference was observed for all methods analyzed. When compared to DXA, DW-ANT and BIA underestimated FM% and DK-ANT overestimated MM and BMC (All p<0.01). The inter-method differences was lower for DW-ANT. DISCUSSION: We found that body composition estimation in climbers is highly method dependent. If DXA is not available, DW-ANT for FM% has a lower bias of estimation than BIA in young male Chilean climbers. For MM and BMC, further studies are needed to compare and estimate the DK-ANT bias level. For both methods, correction equations for specific climbing population should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría/métodos , Atletas , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Montañismo/fisiología , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adulto , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Chile , Estudios Transversales , Impedancia Eléctrica , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
2.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 118(9): 2021-2027, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987354

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of performing a self-regulated cognitive dual task on time to failure and neuromuscular force control during submaximal isometric contractions. METHODS: Fifteen young sedentary males performed isometric contractions at 50% of each individual's maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) under single-task (without cognitive load) and dual-task (with self-regulated mathematical task) conditions. Force signal complexity and biceps brachialis muscle activity were determined at the start, middle, and end of each trial. The slope of the linear regression of median frequency determined the rate of muscle fatigue. Force-task error was established as any amplitude percentage greater or less than 50% MVC. RESULTS: The dual-task condition resulted in a 42 s longer time to failure than the single-task condition. EMG amplitude did not differ between conditions. The rate of muscle fatigue was higher in the single-task (- 0.35%/s) than the dual-task (- 0.2%/s) condition. Force signal complexity was, on average, 22% lower in the dual-task condition. The dual-task condition, as compared to the single-task condition, elicited a higher rate of force-task error below (6.37 versus 4.76%) and over (2.11 versus 1.68%) the force threshold. CONCLUSION: The dual-task condition resulted in a longer time to failure and decreased motor output complexity and fatigue rate when performing a submaximal force task. As the dual task also increased the force-task error, we suggest cognitive dual tasks as a possible strategy for delaying fatigue in sedentary young males when exerting submaximal isometric force, contributing to neuromuscular training when error in force control can be ignored.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Contracción Isométrica/fisiología , Contracción Muscular/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Adulto , Codo/fisiología , Electromiografía/métodos , Fatiga/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino , Fatiga Muscular/fisiología , Resistencia Física/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Torque , Adulto Joven
3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(12): 3534-3541, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301444

RESUMEN

Fryer, SM, Giles, D, Garrido Palomino, I, de la O Puerta, A, and España-Romero, V. Hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory predictors of sport rock climbing performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(12): 3543-3550, 2018-Rock climbing performance has been suggested to involve a notable contribution from aerobic metabolism. Previously, it has been shown that forearm oxygenation kinetics can be used to distinguish ability groups and predict red-point sport climbing performance. Currently, it is not known if forearm oxygenation kinetics or a sport-specific assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness best predicts sport rock climbing performance. The aim of the study was to determine whether forearm oxidative capacity index, maximal deoxygenation (Δ score) during a treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak test, treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, or running V[Combining Dot Above]O2max best predicts self-reported sport climbing performance. Twenty-one male sport rock climbers completed a treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, running V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and an assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy-derived oxidative capacity index. Linear regression, adjusted for age and experience (years), revealed that forearm oxidative capacity index, treadwall maximal deoxygenation (Δ), and treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak all significantly predicted self-reported red-point sport climbing ability (Adj R = -0.398, -0.255, and 0.374, respectively), whereas treadmill running V[Combining Dot Above]O2max did not (Adj R = -0.052). Additionally, multiple regression suggested that the combined significant aerobic predictors accounted for 67% of the variance in red-point climbing ability. Findings suggest that training for sport rock climbing performance should look to incorporate modalities that focus on (a) improving local forearm aerobic capacity and (b) improving whole-body aerobic capacity using sport-specific apparatus, such as treadwalls.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Capacidad Cardiovascular , Antebrazo/fisiología , Hemodinámica , Montañismo/fisiología , Adulto , Atletas , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Tolerancia al Ejercicio , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno , Carrera , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta
4.
Int J Cardiol ; 240: 428-432, 2017 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606683

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ideal cardiovascular health (iCVH) construct consists of 4 health behaviours and 3 health factors and is strongly related to later cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence of iCVH in European adolescents is currently unknown. METHODS: The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study is a cross-sectional, multicentre study conducted in 9 European countries during 2006-2007 and included 3528 adolescents (1683 boys and 1845 girls) between 12.5 and 17.5years of age. Status (ideal vs. non-ideal) for the health behaviours (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) and health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting glucose) were determined. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of ideal health behaviours was low; non-smoking (60.9% ideal), body mass index (76.8%), physical activity (62.1%), and diet (1.7%). The prevalence of ideal health factors was; total cholesterol (65.8%), blood pressure (62.0%) and plasma glucose (88.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence of iCVH behaviours, especially diet and physical activity, identified in European adolescents is likely to influence later cardiovascular health which strongly motivates efforts to increase ideal health behaviours in this population.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/fisiología , Estilo de Vida Saludable/fisiología , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Adolescente , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Distribución Aleatoria
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 91(7): 849-57, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27378037

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a large US adult population and to study the effects of hypertension, obesity, and health status on the relation of CRF with SCD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 55,456 individuals (mean age, 44.2 years; 13,507 women) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, a prospective observational investigation (from January 2, 1974, through December 31, 2002), were included. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a maximal treadmill test, and baseline assessment included an extensive set of measurements. RESULTS: There were 109 SCDs. An inverse risk of SCD was found across incremental CRF levels after adjusting for potential confounders. Participants with moderate and high CRF levels had 44% (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.90) and 48% (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.92) significantly lower risk of SCD, respectively, than did those with low CRF levels (P<.001). The risk of SCD decreased by 14% (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96) per 1-metabolic equivalent increase in the fully adjusted model. Hypertensive, overweight, or unhealthy individuals with moderate to high CRF levels had lower risks of SCD (ranging from 58% to 72% of lower risk) than did those with the same medical conditions and low CRF levels. CONCLUSION: The risk of SCD in US men and women could be partially reduced by ensuring moderate to high levels of CRF independently of other risk factors and especially in those who are hypertensive, overweight, or unhealthy.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Muerte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Causas de Muerte , Comorbilidad , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Modelos Lineales , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Equivalente Metabólico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Texas/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 116(8): 1479-84, 2016 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27255506

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: Rock-climbing performance is largely dependent on the endurance of the forearm flexors. Recently, it was reported that forearm flexor endurance in elite climbers is independent of the ability to regulate conduit artery (brachial) blood flow, suggesting that endurance is not primarily dependent on the ability of the brachial artery to deliver oxygen, but rather the ability of the muscle to perfuse and use oxygen, i.e., skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine whether an index of oxidative capacity in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) predicts the best sport climbing red-point grade within the last 6 months. Participants consisted of 46 sport climbers with a range of abilities. METHODS: Using near-infrared spectroscopy, the oxidative capacity index of the FDP was assessed by calculating the half-time for tissue oxygen resaturation (O2HTR) following 3-5 min of ischemia. RESULTS: Linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and training experience, revealed a 1-s decrease in O2HTR was associated with an increase in red-point grade by 0.65 (95 % CI 0.35-0.94, Adj R (2)  = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: Considering a grade of 0.4 separated the top four competitors in the 2015 International Federation Sport Climbing World Cup, this finding suggests that forearm flexor oxidative capacity index is an important determinant of rock-climbing performance.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Tolerancia al Ejercicio/fisiología , Antebrazo/fisiología , Montañismo/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Adulto , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Antebrazo/irrigación sanguínea , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculación/fisiología , Modelos Biológicos , Oxidación-Reducción , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Distribución Tisular
7.
Am J Occup Ther ; 70(4): 7004300010, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27294996

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We examined the reliability and validity of the analog and digital models of TKK handgrip dynamometers using calibrated known weights. METHOD: A total of 6 dynamometers (3 digital and 3 analog; 2 new and 1 old for each model) were used in this study. RESULTS: Intrainstrument reliability was very high; systematic error for test-retest reliability was ≤|0.3 kg|. The systematic error among different instruments (same model) and between different models (digital vs. analog) ranged between |0.4 kg| and |0.6 kg|. The systematic error between new and old dynamometers ranged from |0.8 kg| to |1 kg|. All dynamometers provided lower values for the same known weights than a SECA scale, with a systematic error ranging from -0.94 to -2.64 kg. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that clinicians and investigators who provide treatment to address handgrip strength should use the same instrument and model for repeated measures. Distinguishing meaningful change from dynamometer variability is discussed.

8.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(3): 988-995, Sept. 2015. ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-762575

RESUMEN

Los cambios culturales y demográficos en la etnia Mapuche chilena, han generado modificaciones en estilos de vida y la estructura morfofuncional de su población, incentivando de esta forma el estudio del estado de salud en jóvenes chilenos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las diferencias en composición corporal y somatotipo entre niños Mapuche y no-Mapuche de la Comuna de Temuco en Chile. Participaron 122 niños Mapuche y 146 niños no-Mapuche entre 10 y 13 años. Se recogieron medidas de peso, talla; pliegues cutáneos y diámetros óseos; siguiendo el protocolo de la Sociedad Internacional para el desarrollo de la cineantropometría (ISAK). Se determinó el índice de masa corporal (IMC), estado nutricional, grasa corporal total y somatotipo (endomorfía, mesomorfía y ectomorfía). Los resultados indican que los niños Mapuche de 10 años presentaron valores menores de IMC (p0,01), grasa corporal total (p 0,001), así como de endomorfia y mesomorfia (p0,01) respecto a los no-Mapuche. Los niños Mapuche de 11-12 años presentaron valores menores de grasa corporal total (p0,01) y de endomorfia y ectomorfia (p0,05), comparados con los no-Mapuche. Los niños Mapuches de 13 años presentaron valores menores de grasa corporal total (p0,001) y de endomorfia y ectomorfía (p0,01) que el no-Mapuche. Los escolares Mapuches tienen menor grasa corporal que los niños no-Mapuche, el somatotipo predominante en la etnia Mapuche es el mesomórfico, observándose un componente endomórfico menor cuanto mayor es la edad. Son necesarias políticas de salud pública en los jóvenes, fundamentalmente educativa, para garantizar niveles adecuados de calidad de vida en ambas poblaciones Mapuches y no-Mapuche.


The cultural and demographic development of modern society has also affected the Mapuche ethnia and has influenced changes in lifestyles and in the morphofunctional structure of the population, particularly in young people. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in body composition and somatotype between Mapuche and non-Mapuche children from Temuco, Chile. A total of 122 Mapuche and 146 non-Mapuche children between 10 and 13 years old participated in the study. The measurements included were weight, height, skinfold thickness of triceps, subscapularis, supraspinatus and calf; perimeters of contracted and relaxed arm, waist and calf circumference; and humeral and femoral diameters, all following the procedures reference manual (ISAK). Several indexes were calculated: Body Mass Index (BMI), weight status (underweight, normoweight, overweight, obesity), total body fat (fat mass, percentage of fat mass and percentage of fat mass >20% of obesity) and finally, somatotype (endomorph, ectomorph, mesomorph). Ten year-old Mapuche children had lower values for BMI (p 0,01), total body fat (p0.001), and endomorphic and mesomorphic values (p0.01), compared to non Mapuche children. Mapuche children of 11-12 years of age had lower values for total body fat (p0.01), and endomorphic and ectomorphic values (p0.05), compared to non-Mapuche children. Thirteen year-old Mapuche children had lower values for total body fat (p0.001), and endomorphic and ectomorphic values (p0.01), compared to non-Mapuche children. Mapuche children had lower fat mass than non-Mapuche children, and the main somatotype among Mapuche children is mesomorphic with a reduction of the endomorphic component with increasing age. Public policy for youth is required, mainly educational, to guarantee appropriate levels of quality of life for both Mapuche and non-Mapuche populations.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Niño , Adolescente , Composición Corporal , Indios Sudamericanos , Somatotipos , Antropometría , Chile , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Estado Nutricional/etnología , Estudiantes
9.
Int J Cardiol ; 186: 186-95, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25828110

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Increased physical activity (PA) and decreased sedentary behaviors (SBs) may have beneficial effects on cardio-metabolic risk in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between independent/combined effects of PA and SB with individual/clustered cardio-metabolic risk factors. METHODS: A sample of 769 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA cross-sectional study (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) and with valid data on metabolic risk factors were included. RESULTS: Concerning moderate-to-vigorous-PA (MVPA) and vigorous-PA (VPA), measured with accelerometers, girls tended to do more MVPA (36%) and VPA (114%) than boys. Unadjusted analyses show a positive association between "PA ≥ 60 min/d; SB ≥ 2 h" and the ratio TC/HDL-c (ß = 0.27; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.52; p < 0.05), and a negative association between "MVPA ≥ 60 min/d; SB < 2h" with the ∑ 4Skinfolds (ß = -0.32; 95%CI -0.61 to -0.02; p<0.05). Moreover, "SB ≥ 2 h/d" was associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk (PR 1.59; 95%CI 1.05 to 2.39; p < 0.05), while "PA ≥ 60 min/d; SB < 2h" had a protective effect against cardio-metabolic risk (PR 0.48; 95%CI 0.25 to 0.91; p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, a positive association between SB and ∑ 4Skinfolds was shown (ß = 0.28; 95%CI 0.04 to 0.53; p < 0.05). Furthermore, VO2max (mL/kg/min) tends to increase in those participants who do higher VPA and less SB (p = 0.042), and there was a protective effect of "VPA ≥ 30 min/d; SB < 2h" against cardio-metabolic risk (PR 0.24; 95%CI 0.07 to 0.85; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that adolescents should be encouraged to decrease sedentary lifestyle and increase physical activity, especially vigorous physical activity, in order to reduce cardio-metabolic risk.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Enfermedades Metabólicas/metabolismo , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Antropometría/métodos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades Metabólicas/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Matern Child Nutr ; 11(4): 1036-40, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24720543

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to examine whether breastfeeding may reduce the programming effect of birthweight on abdominal adiposity. Abdominal (in three regions: R1, R2 and R3) adiposity was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 314 adolescents. Breastfeeding duration, birthweight, duration of gestation and maternal educational level were obtained from questionnaire. Physical activity was objectively measured. We detected significant interactions between breastfeeding and birthweight on abdominal adiposity (Ps = 0.02-0.07). We observed that birthweight was associated with abdominal adiposity in the group who had never been breastfed (ß = -0.19 to -0.23; Ps < 0.05), while no association was found in adolescents who had breastfeeding for ≥3 months (ß = -0.03 to -0.07). The results were independent of duration of gestation, age, sex, maternal educational level and physical activity. Breastfeeding may reduce the adverse influence conferred by low birthweight on abdominal adiposity in adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Grasa Abdominal/anatomía & histología , Adiposidad , Lactancia Materna , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Atención Posnatal , Atención Prenatal , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Eur J Pediatr ; 174(2): 271-8, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25070467

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: Early menarche has been associated with adult overweight, cardiovascular risk factors, and other diseases. Little is known about the determinants of menarcheal age (MA). Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine the associations between early life programming factors and menarcheal age in European adolescents. Secondly, the influence of sociodemographical factors on menarcheal age was also studied. A total of 1,069 European girls from the HELENA cross-sectional study, aged 12.5-17.5 years, were included in this study. Using multilevel linear regression models, a possible association between birth weight and length, ponderal index at birth, gestational age, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and menarcheal age was examined. Associations between geographical gradient, number of siblings, physical activity (PA), dietary factors, and menarcheal age were also examined. After adjustment, menarcheal age was positively associated with birth weight and length (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birth weight and length may have a programming effect on menarcheal age. Next to this finding, sociodemographic factors were not associated with menarcheal age.


Asunto(s)
Peso al Nacer/fisiología , Estatura/fisiología , Menarquia/fisiología , Factores Sociológicos , Adolescente , Niño , Demografía , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos
12.
J Phys Act Health ; 11(8): 1503-11, 2014 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24733227

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The importance of physical activity for health is well-established. Questions remain whether outdoor exercise additionally benefits overall mental and physical well-being. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, we examined relationships of physical activity environment (PAE) with reported tension, stress, emotional outlook, and health. RESULTS: 11,649 participants were included. 18% exercised indoors, 54% outdoors, and 28% in both. Participants who exercised partially or entirely outdoors exercised more. In fully adjusted models, for women combined PAE was protective for worse emotional outlook (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.52-0.98). Combined PAE was also protective for reported poor health (OR for women: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44-0.91; OR for men: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61-0.92). Amount of physical activity modified PAE relationships with outcomes. Combined and outdoor PAE were more consistently protective for worse outcomes among high activity participants. Regardless of PAE, better outcomes were observed in active versus inactive participants. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests addition of outdoor PAE may be linked with better stress management, outlook and health perceptions for more active populations, whereas indoor PAE may be more important for low active populations. Further research should examine the order of causation and whether type of outdoor PAE (eg, urban, natural) is important.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Estado de Salud , Percepción , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Características de la Residencia
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 112(2): 132-140, abr. 2014. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-708478

RESUMEN

Introducción. Altos niveles de condición física están relacionados con la salud cardiovascular de niños y adolescentes. Actualmente, en Argentina, no existe la aplicación sistemática de una batería para evaluar la condición física en el ámbito escolar. El propósito principal del estudio fue aplicar la batería ALPHA para determinar la condición física en una muestra de niños y adolescentes argentinos, y establecer la proporción de sujetos con nivel de capacidad aeróbica indicativo de riesgo cardiovascular futuro. Población y métodos. Una muestra de 1867 participantes (967 mujeres) de entre 6 y 19,5 años fueron evaluados con la batería ALPHA. Se midieron cuatro componentes de la condición física: 1) morfológico: estatura, peso corporal y perímetro de cintura; 2) muscular: test salto de longitud; 3) motor: test de velocidad/agilidad (carrera 4 x 10 m); 4) cardiorrespiratorio: test course navette de 20 m y cálculo del consumo máximo de oxígeno. Se calcularon los percentiles 5, 25, 50, 75 y 95 para los principales tests. Resultados. El índice de masa corporal medio fue 20,8 kg/m², y el 7,8% se clasificó en la categoría obesidad. Además, los participantes masculinos, en comparación con los femeninos, obtuvieron un mayor rendimiento en todos los tests de condición física (P < 0,001). En el 31,6% de los participantes se observó un nivel de capacidad aeróbica indicativo de riesgo cardiovascular. Conclusiones. La muestra de niños y adolescentes argentinos de sexo masculino presentó mayores niveles de condición física. Estas diferencias se incrementaron con la edad. Aproximadamente, 1 de cada 3 participantes tuvo un nivel de capacidad aeróbica indicativo de riesgo cardiovascular futuro.


Introduction. A high level of physical fitness is associated with cardiovascular health in children and adolescents. At present, there is no systematic implementation of a test battery to assess physical fitness at schools in Argentina. The main objective of this study was to implement the ALPHA test battery to determine the physical fitness of a sample made up of Argentine children and adolescents and to establish the proportion of subjects whose aerobic capacity is indicative of future cardiovascular risk. Population and methods. A sample of 1867 participants (967 girls) aged 6 to 19.5 years old assessed using the ALPHA test battery. Four components of physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, body weight, and waist circumference; 2) musculoskeletal component: standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) cardiorespiratory component: course-navette 20 m, shuttle run test and estimation of maximal oxygen consumption. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles were estimated for the main tests. Results. The mean body mass index was 20.8 kg/m2, and 7.8% of participants were classified as obese. In addition, male participants had a better performance in all physical fitness tests when compared to girls (p< 0.001). An aerobic capacity indicative of cardiovascular risk was observed in 31.6% of all participants. Conclusions. Argentine male children and adolescents included in the sample showed higher levels of physical fitness. Such differences increase with age. Approximately one every three participants had an aerobic capacity indicative of future cardiovascular risk.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Aptitud Física , Argentina , Examen Físico , Medición de Riesgo
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 112(2): 132-140, abr. 2014. tab
Artículo en Español | BINACIS | ID: bin-132005

RESUMEN

Introducción. Altos niveles de condición física están relacionados con la salud cardiovascular de niños y adolescentes. Actualmente, en Argentina, no existe la aplicación sistemática de una batería para evaluar la condición física en el ámbito escolar. El propósito principal del estudio fue aplicar la batería ALPHA para determinar la condición física en una muestra de niños y adolescentes argentinos, y establecer la proporción de sujetos con nivel de capacidad aeróbica indicativo de riesgo cardiovascular futuro. Población y métodos. Una muestra de 1867 participantes (967 mujeres) de entre 6 y 19,5 años fueron evaluados con la batería ALPHA. Se midieron cuatro componentes de la condición física: 1) morfológico: estatura, peso corporal y perímetro de cintura; 2) muscular: test salto de longitud; 3) motor: test de velocidad/agilidad (carrera 4 x 10 m); 4) cardiorrespiratorio: test course navette de 20 m y cálculo del consumo máximo de oxígeno. Se calcularon los percentiles 5, 25, 50, 75 y 95 para los principales tests. Resultados. El índice de masa corporal medio fue 20,8 kg/m², y el 7,8% se clasificó en la categoría obesidad. Además, los participantes masculinos, en comparación con los femeninos, obtuvieron un mayor rendimiento en todos los tests de condición física (P < 0,001). En el 31,6% de los participantes se observó un nivel de capacidad aeróbica indicativo de riesgo cardiovascular. Conclusiones. La muestra de niños y adolescentes argentinos de sexo masculino presentó mayores niveles de condición física. Estas diferencias se incrementaron con la edad. Aproximadamente, 1 de cada 3 participantes tuvo un nivel de capacidad aeróbica indicativo de riesgo cardiovascular futuro.(AU)


Introduction. A high level of physical fitness is associated with cardiovascular health in children and adolescents. At present, there is no systematic implementation of a test battery to assess physical fitness at schools in Argentina. The main objective of this study was to implement the ALPHA test battery to determine the physical fitness of a sample made up of Argentine children and adolescents and to establish the proportion of subjects whose aerobic capacity is indicative of future cardiovascular risk. Population and methods. A sample of 1867 participants (967 girls) aged 6 to 19.5 years old assessed using the ALPHA test battery. Four components of physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, body weight, and waist circumference; 2) musculoskeletal component: standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) cardiorespiratory component: course-navette 20 m, shuttle run test and estimation of maximal oxygen consumption. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles were estimated for the main tests. Results. The mean body mass index was 20.8 kg/m2, and 7.8% of participants were classified as obese. In addition, male participants had a better performance in all physical fitness tests when compared to girls (p< 0.001). An aerobic capacity indicative of cardiovascular risk was observed in 31.6% of all participants. Conclusions. Argentine male children and adolescents included in the sample showed higher levels of physical fitness. Such differences increase with age. Approximately one every three participants had an aerobic capacity indicative of future cardiovascular risk.(AU)

15.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 112(2): 132-40, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24584787

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A high level of physical fitness is associated with cardiovascular health in children and adolescents. At present, there is no systematic implementation of a test battery to assess physical fitness at schools in Argentina. The main objective of this study was to implement the ALPHA test battery to determine the physical fitness of a sample made up of Argentine children and adolescents and to establish the proportion of subjects whose aerobic capacity is indicative of future cardiovascular risk. POPULATION AND METHODS: A sample of 1867 participants (967 girls) aged 6 to 19.5 years old assessed using the ALPHA test battery. Four components of physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, body weight, and waist circumference; 2) musculoskeletal component: standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) cardiorespiratory component: course-navette 20 m, shuttle run test and estimation of maximal oxygen consumption. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles were estimated for the main tests. RESULTS: The mean body mass index was 20.8 kg/m2, and 7.8% of participants were classified as obese. In ddition, male participants had a better performance in all physical fitness tests when compared to girls (p< 0.001). An aerobic capacity indicative of cardiovascular risk was observed in 31.6% of all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Argentine male children and adolescents included in the sample showed higher levels of physical fitness. Such differences increase with age. Approximately one every three participants had an aerobic capacity indicative of future cardiovascular risk.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Aptitud Física , Adolescente , Argentina , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Examen Físico , Medición de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e87085, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24516543

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare physical activity (PA) subcomponents from EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ2) and combined heart rate and movement sensing in older adults. METHODS: Participants aged 60-64y from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in Great Britain completed EPAQ2, which assesses self-report PA in 4 domains (leisure time, occupation, transportation and domestic life) during the past year and wore a combined sensor for 5 consecutive days. Estimates of PA energy expenditure (PAEE), sedentary behaviour, light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were obtained from EPAQ2 and combined sensing and compared. Complete data were available in 1689 participants (52% women). RESULTS: EPAQ2 estimates of PAEE and MVPA were higher than objective estimates and sedentary time and LPA estimates were lower [bias (95% limits of agreement) in men and women were 32.3 (-61.5 to 122.6) and 29.0 (-39.2 to 94.6) kJ/kg/day for PAEE; -4.6 (-10.6 to 1.3) and -6.0 (-10.9 to -1.0) h/day for sedentary time; -171.8 (-454.5 to 110.8) and -60.4 (-367.5 to 246.6) min/day for LPA; 91.1 (-159.5 to 341.8) and 55.4 (-117.2 to 228.0) min/day for MVPA]. There were significant positive correlations between all self-reported and objectively assessed PA subcomponents (rho= 0.12 to 0.36); the strongest were observed for MVPA (rho = 0.30 men; rho = 0.36 women) and PAEE (rho = 0.26 men; rho = 0.25 women). CONCLUSION: EPAQ2 produces higher estimates of PAEE and MVPA and lower estimates of sedentary and LPA than objective assessment. However, both methodologies rank individuals similarly, suggesting that EPAQ2 may be used in etiological studies in this population.


Asunto(s)
Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Cinestesia/fisiología , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Conducta Sedentaria , Factores de Tiempo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 112(2): 132-40, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Español | BINACIS | ID: bin-133631

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A high level of physical fitness is associated with cardiovascular health in children and adolescents. At present, there is no systematic implementation of a test battery to assess physical fitness at schools in Argentina. The main objective of this study was to implement the ALPHA test battery to determine the physical fitness of a sample made up of Argentine children and adolescents and to establish the proportion of subjects whose aerobic capacity is indicative of future cardiovascular risk. POPULATION AND METHODS: A sample of 1867 participants (967 girls) aged 6 to 19.5 years old assessed using the ALPHA test battery. Four components of physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, body weight, and waist circumference; 2) musculoskeletal component: standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) cardiorespiratory component: course-navette 20 m, shuttle run test and estimation of maximal oxygen consumption. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles were estimated for the main tests. RESULTS: The mean body mass index was 20.8 kg/m2, and 7.8


of participants were classified as obese. In ddition, male participants had a better performance in all physical fitness tests when compared to girls (p< 0.001). An aerobic capacity indicative of cardiovascular risk was observed in 31.6


of all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Argentine male children and adolescents included in the sample showed higher levels of physical fitness. Such differences increase with age. Approximately one every three participants had an aerobic capacity indicative of future cardiovascular risk.

18.
Psychosomatics ; 54(6): 525-35, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24012292

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ideal cardiovascular health is a new construct defined by the American Heart Association as part of its 2020 Impact Goal. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the simultaneous presence of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors could reduce the odds of developing depressive symptoms. METHODS: Participants from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, who did not have any mental disorder/condition at baseline, were examined between 1987 and 1998, and they were followed up for a mean period of 6.1 years. Ideal cardiovascular health behaviors (never smoking, body mass index <25kg/m(2), physical activity at goal, and appropriate diet consistent with guideline recommendations) and factors (total cholesterol <200mg/dL, blood pressure <120/80mm Hg, and fasting blood glucose <100mg/dL) were measured at baseline. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in 1990, 1995, or 1999. RESULTS: Of the 5110 participants, 641 reported depressive symptoms. Participants meeting 3-4 or 5-7 ideal cardiovascular health components had 28% (odds ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.87) and 36% (odds ratio = 0.64; confidence interval 0.50-0.82) decreased odds of depressive symptoms, respectively, when compared with those meeting 0-2 ideal components. Ideal behaviors were associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms in participants meeting 2 or 3-4 ideal behaviors, compared with those meeting 0-1 (odds ratio = 0.81; confidence interval 0.67-0.98 and odds ratio = 0.72; confidence interval 0.57-0.91). Ideal factors were not associated with depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Ideal cardiovascular health components, especially health behaviors, present an inverse relationship with depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Depresión/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Fumar
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 21(9): 1870-6, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23512375

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body adiposity index (BAI) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: The current analysis comprised 19,756 adult men who enrolled in the Aerobics Centre Longitudinal Study and completed a baseline examination during 1988-2002. All-cause and CVD mortality was registered till December 31, 2003. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 8.3 years (163,844 man-years), 353 deaths occurred (101 CVD deaths). Age- and examination year-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality risk were higher for men with high values of BMI (HR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.19-2.23), waist circumference (1.55, 1.22-1.96), and percentage of body fat (%BF) (1.36, 1.04-1.31), but not for men with high values of BAI (1.28, 0.98-1.66). The HRs for CVD mortality risks were higher for men with high values in all adiposity measures (HRs ranged from 1.73 to 2.06). Most of these associations, however, became nonsignificant after adjusting for multiple confounders including cardiorespiratory fitness. CONCLUSION: BAI is not a better predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality risk than BMI, waist circumference, or %BF.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo , Adiposidad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Causas de Muerte , Obesidad/complicaciones , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Adulto , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/mortalidad , Aptitud Física
20.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; 25(1): 154-63, 2013 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23406703

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sedentary behavior and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured by accelerometry, with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 357 preschool children. Linear mixed models were used adjusting for race/ethnicity, parental education, and preschool. Follow-up analyses were performed using quantile regression. Among boys, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score (b = 0.080, p = .04) but not with waist circumference; quantile regression showed that MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score at the 50th percentile (b = 0.097, p < .05). Among girls, no associations were observed between sedentary behavior and MVPA in relation to mean BMI z-score and mean waist circumference. Quantile regression indicated that, among girls at the 90th waist circumference percentile, a positive association was found with sedentary behavior (b = 0.441, p < .05), and a negative association was observed with MVPA (b = -0.599, p < .05); no associations were found with BMI z-score. In conclusion, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score among boys, and MVPA was negatively associated and sedentary behavior was positively associated with waist circumference among girls at the 90th percentile.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Actividad Motora , Obesidad/epidemiología , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Acelerometría , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Prevalencia , Conducta Sedentaria , Factores Sexuales , South Carolina/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo
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