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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 32, 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422080

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains highly endemic in Cameroon. The rapid emergence and spread of drug resistance was responsible for the change from monotherapies to artemisinin-based combinations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance markers within an evolving efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Cameroon from January 1998 to August 2020. METHODS: The PRISMA-P and PRISMA statements were adopted in the inclusion of studies on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of P. falciparum anti-malarial drug resistance genes (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfatp6, Pfcytb and Pfk13). The heterogeneity of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. The random effects model was used as standard in the determination of heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Out of the 902 records screened, 48 studies were included in this aggregated meta-analysis of molecular data. A total of 18,706 SNPs of the anti-malarial drug resistance genes were genotyped from 47,382 samples which yielded a pooled prevalence of 35.4% (95% CI 29.1-42.3%). Between 1998 and 2020, there was significant decline (P < 0.0001 for all) in key mutants including Pfcrt 76 T (79.9%-43.0%), Pfmdr1 86Y (82.7%-30.5%), Pfdhfr 51I (72.2%-66.9%), Pfdhfr 59R (76.5%-67.8%), Pfdhfr 108 N (80.8%-67.6%). The only exception was Pfdhps 437G which increased over time (30.4%-46.9%, P < 0.0001) and Pfdhps 540E that remained largely unchanged (0.0%-0.4%, P = 0.201). Exploring mutant haplotypes, the study observed a significant increase in the prevalence of Pfcrt CVIET mixed quintuple haplotype from 57.1% in 1998 to 57.9% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). In addition, within the same study period, there was no significant change in the triple Pfdhfr IRN mutant haplotype (66.2% to 67.3%, P = 0.427). The Pfk13 amino acid polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This review reported an overall decline in the prevalence of P. falciparum gene mutations conferring resistance to 4-aminoquinolines and amino alcohols for a period over two decades. Resistance to artemisinins measured by the presence of SNPs in the Pfk13 gene does not seem to be a problem in Cameroon. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020162620.

2.
Malar Res Treat ; 2018: 7071383, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854394

RESUMEN

Background: As a result of the spread of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs, Malaria treatment guidelines in Cameroon evolved from nonartemisinin monotherapy to artemisinin-based combination therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of these therapy changes on the prevalence of molecular markers of resistance from 2003 to 2013 in Mutengene, Cameroon. Methodology: Dry blood samples (collected in 2003-2005 and 2009-2013) were used for parasite DNA extraction. Drug resistance genes were amplified by PCR and hybridized with oligonucleotide probes or subjected to restriction digestion. The prevalence of individual marker polymorphisms and haplotypes was compared in these two study periods using the Chi square test. Results: Alleles conferring resistance to 4-aminoquinolines in the Pfcrt 76T and Pfmdr1 86Y, 184F, and 1246Y genotypes showed a significant reduction of 97.0% to 66.9%, 83.6% to 45.2%, 97.3% to 56.0%, and 3.1% to 0.0%, respectively (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in SNPs associated with antifolate drugs resistance 51I, 59R, 108N, or 540E (P > 0.05). Haplotype analysis in the Pfmdr1 gene showed a reduction in the YFD from 75.90% to 42.2%, P < 0.0001, and an increase in the NYD (2.9% to 30.1%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The results indicated a gradual return of the 4-aminoquinoline sensitive genotype while the antifolate resistant genotypes increased to saturation.

4.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 36(1): 12, 2017 04 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420445

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the association between the rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene with obesity in a Cameroonian population. METHOD: This was a case-control pilot study including 61 obese and 61 non-obese Cameroonian adults. Anthropometric indices of obesity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids were measured. The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and genotypes were correlated with clinical and biological parameters. RESULTS: The T allele was predominant in the study population with a frequency of 93%. No statistically significant difference was however observed between the genotypic (p = 0.50) and allelic frequencies (p = 0.58) of obese and non-obese subjects. Comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters of C allele carriers (CX = CC + CT) with those of TT genotype showed that there was no significant difference between the lipid profile of these two groups. CONCLUSION: The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene might not be associated with obesity in the Cameroonian population.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Alelos , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteína 2 Similar al Factor de Transcripción 7/genética , Adulto , Camerún , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Proyectos Piloto , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Vía de Señalización Wnt , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Obes ; 3: 26, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27239321

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR-γ2) is a transcription factor with a key role in adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage and glucose homeostasis. The Ala allele of the common Pro12Ala polymorphism in the isoform PPAR-γ2 is at the center of many controversies because in some populations, it has been observed to be associated with T2DM or obesity but, not in others. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-γ2 gene with susceptibility to obesity or T2DM in a Cameroonian population. METHODS: This case-control study included 62 obese, 60 T2DM patients and 120 controls (60 non obese and 60 patients without T2DM), all unrelated and of Cameroonian origin. PPAR-γ2 was examined by genotyping for Pro12Ala using the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism - Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR - RFLP). RESULTS: A portion of the 270 base pair bands of the PPAR-γ2 gene was successfully amplified. The Ala12 variant was totally absent from the study population, all participants being homozygote Pro/Pro. CONCLUSION: PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala gene polymorphism may not be associated with obesity and T2DM. These results suggest that, PPAR-γ2 is unlikely a major gene for obesity or T2DM in the study population.

6.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 717, 2015 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26608632

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is one of the genes that have been identified as possible determinants of diabetes which is associated with obesity. Data on the genetic causes of obesity in sub-Saharan African populations are very scares. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene polymorphism (rs12255372 G/T) and obesity and weight-related traits in a Cameroonian population. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 35 obese and 30 non-obese Cameroonian adults. TCF7L2 rs12255372 genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP and correlated with BMI and weight-related traits. RESULTS: No significant association was observed between the rs12255372 T allele (χ(2) = 0.0684, p = 0.79) or the TT genotype (χ(2) = 0.372, p = 0.54) of the TCF7L2 gene and obesity in the Cameroonian population. However, amongst the weight-related traits, triglycerides were significantly associated with the T risk allele of the TCF7L2 gene (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: This study on Cameroonian subjects replicates the absence of association between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 variant and obesity as observed in European and American populations.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteína 2 Similar al Factor de Transcripción 7/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Camerún , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Fenotipo , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto Joven
7.
Clin Transl Med ; 4: 17, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25995831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To study the relationship between the rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Cameroonian population. METHODS: This case-control study included 60 T2DM patients and 60 healthy normoglycemic controls, all unrelated and of Cameroonian origin, aged above 40 years (range 40-87). The Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used for genotyping. RESULTS: The T allele frequency was significantly higher in the diabetic group (0.44) than in the control group (0.17). This allele was significantly associated to a greater risk of developing T2DM as compared to the G allele (OR = 3.92, 95% CI 2.04 - 7.67, p < 0.0001). The codominant (additive) model explained best the risk of developing the disease, as the TT genotype was significantly associated to T2DM when compared to the GG genotype (OR = 4.45, 95% CI 1.64 - 12.83, p = 0.0014). By logistic regression adjusted for age, this OR was 4.33 (95% CI: 1.57 - 11.92, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene is an important risk factor for T2DM in the Cameroonian population.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25897419

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on the genetic variants for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in sub-Saharan African populations are very scarce. This study aimed to investigate the association of transcription factor 7-like (TCF7L2) with T2DM in a Cameroonian population and explore possible genotype-phenotype correlation. METHODS: This is a case-control study involving 37 T2DM patients and 37 non-diabetic volunteers of Cameroonian ethnicity aged 40 years old and above. We collected clinical and biological data to determine phenotypic traits. TCF7L2 was analyzed by genotyping for rs7903146 (C/T) using PCR-RFLP. Biochemical analyses were performed using a spectrophotometer with Chronolab kits. Statistical analyses were carried out using IBM SPSS, PS and Quanto. RESULTS: TCF7L2 was associated with T2DM in this Cameroonian population (p = 0.013 for alleles, and p = 0.013 for genotypes). The risk allele was C (9.5% patients vs. 0% healthy controls, OR = 16.56) and the protective allele was T (90.5% patients vs. 100.0% healthy controls, OR = 0.06). The risk genotype was C/T (18.9% patients vs. 0% healthy controls, OR = 18.44), while the protective genotype was T/T (81.1% patients vs. 100.0% healthy controls, OR = 0.054). The statistical power was 99.99%. TCF7L2 was not preferentially associated with a specific disease phenotype. CONCLUSION: TCF7L2 is associated with T2DM in this Cameroonian population. The association is not dependent on a specific T2DM phenotype. Clinical genetic testing for TCF7L2 can help to predict the occurrence of T2DM in Cameroon.

9.
Pathog Glob Health ; 108(7): 323-33, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25388906

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In this post-hoc analysis, we determined the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in host candidate immune genes on the outcome of drug resistant malaria in Cameroon. METHODS: Human DNA from 760 patients from a previous clinical trial was subjected to mass spectrometry-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Allele frequencies of candidate immune genes were calculated for 62 SNPs on 17 human chromosomes for their possible involvement in clearance of drug-resistant parasites with the triple mutations of pfcrt76T, pfmdr86Y, and pfmdr1246Y (TY) and pfdhfr51I, pfdhfr59R, pfdhfr108N, and pfdhps437G (IRNG) which were determined by dotblot or PCR-restriction analysis. Differences in SNP frequencies and association analysis were carried out by comparing Chi-square odds ratios (ORs) and stratified by Mantel-Haenzel statistics. An adjusted P value (OR) <0·0008 was considered significant. RESULTS: Post-treatment drug failure rates were amodiaquine (36·4%); sulpadoxine/pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination (15·4%); and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (18·1%). SNPs in IL22, IL-4R1, and CD36 appeared to have been associated with clearance of resistant parasites [p  =  0·017, OR (C allele):1·44, 95% CI (OR): 1·06-1·95]; [P  =  0·014, OR  =  1·31, 95% CI (OR): 1·07-1·83]; [P  =  5·78×10(-5), OR  =  0·27, 95%CI (OR): 0·13-0·54], respectively, with high fever (>39°C for 48 hours) [IL-22, P  =  0·01, OR  =  1·5, 95% CI (OR): 1·8-2·1] and also in high frequency among the Fulani participants [P  =  0·006, OR  =  1·83, 95% CI (OR): 1·11-3·08)]. The CD36-1264 null allele was completely absent in the northern population. CONCLUSION: Independent association of SNPs in IL22 and IL-4 with clearance of amodiaquine- and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine-resistant parasites did not reach statistical significance, but may suggest that not all drug-resistant mutants are adversely affected by the same immune-mediated mechanisms of clearance.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Malaria Falciparum/genética , Malaria Falciparum/inmunología , Plasmodium falciparum/inmunología , Amodiaquina/farmacología , Antimaláricos/farmacología , Camerún , Preescolar , Combinación de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/efectos de los fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Pirimetamina/farmacología , Sulfadoxina/farmacología
10.
Malar J ; 10: 250, 2011 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21867552

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarial drugs is a widespread problem for control programmes for this devastating disease. Molecular tests are available for many anti-malarial drugs and are useful tools for the surveillance of drug resistance. However, the correlation of treatment outcome and molecular tests with particular parasite markers is not perfect, due in part to individuals who are able to clear genotypically drug-resistant parasites. This study aimed to identify molecular markers in the human genome that correlate with the clearance of malaria parasites after drug treatment, despite the drug resistance profile of the protozoan as predicted by molecular approaches. METHODS: 3721 samples from five African countries, which were known to contain genotypically drug resistant parasites, were analysed. These parasites were collected from patients who subsequently failed to clear their infection following drug treatment, as expected, but also from patients who successfully cleared their infections with drug-resistant parasites. 67 human polymorphisms (SNPs) on 17 chromosomes were analysed using Sequenom's mass spectrometry iPLEX gold platform, to identify regions of the human genome, which contribute to enhanced clearance of drug resistant parasites. RESULTS: An analysis of all data from the five countries revealed significant associations between the phenotype of ability to clear drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infection and human immune response loci common to all populations. Overall, three SNPs showed a significant association with clearance of drug-resistant parasites with odds ratios of 0.76 for SNP rs2706384 (95% CI 0.71-0.92, P = 0.005), 0.66 for SNP rs1805015 (95% CI 0.45-0.97, P = 0.03), and 0.67 for SNP rs1128127 (95% CI 0.45-0.99, P = 0.05), after adjustment for possible confounding factors. The first two SNPs (rs2706384 and rs1805015) are within loci involved in pro-inflammatory (interferon-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4) cytokine responses. The third locus encodes a protein involved in the degradation of misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum, and its role, if any, in the clearance phenotype is unclear. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed significant association of three loci in the human genome with the ability of parasite to clear drug-resistant P. falciparum in samples taken from five countries distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Both SNP rs2706384 and SNP1805015 have previously been reported to be associated with risk of malaria infection in African populations. The loci are involved in the Th1/Th2 balance, and the association of SNPs within these genes suggests a key role for antibody in the clearance of drug-resistant parasites. It is possible that patients able to clear drug-resistant infections have an enhanced ability to control parasite growth.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/farmacología , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Malaria Falciparum/genética , Malaria Falciparum/inmunología , Plasmodium falciparum/efectos de los fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/inmunología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adolescente , África , Antimaláricos/administración & dosificación , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Genómica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación
11.
Malar J ; 9: 34, 2010 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20105282

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of amodiaquine (AQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and the combination of SP+AQ in the treatment of Cameroonian children with clinical malaria was investigated. The prevalence of molecular markers for resistance to these drugs was studied to set the baseline for surveillance of their evolution with time. METHODS: Seven hundred and sixty children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were studied in three ecologically different regions of Cameroon - Mutengene (littoral equatorial forest), Yaoundé (forest-savannah mosaic) and Garoua (guinea-savannah). Study children were randomized to receive either AQ, SP or the combination AQ+SP. Clinical outcome was classified according to WHO criteria, as either early treatment failure (ETF), late clinical failure (LCF), late parasitological failure (LPF) or adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). The occurrence of mutations in pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr and dhps genes was studied by either RFLP or dot blot techniques and the prevalence of these mutations related to parasitological and therapeutic failures. RESULTS: After correction for the occurrence of re-infection by PCR, ACPRs on day 28 for AQ, SP and AQ+SP were 71.2%, 70.1% and 80.9%, in Garoua, 79.2%, 62.5%, and 81.9% in Mutengene, and 80.3%, 67.5% and 76.2% in Yaoundé respectively. High levels of Pfcrt 76T (87.11%) and Pfmdr1 86Y mutations (73.83%) were associated with quinoline resistance in the south compared to the north, 31.67% (76T) and 22.08% (86Y). There was a significant variation (p < 0.001) of the prevalence of the SGK haplotype between Garoua in the north (8.33%), Yaoundé (36.29%) in the savannah-forest mosaic and Mutengene (66.41%) in the South of Cameroon and a weak relation between SGK haplotype and SP failure. The 540E mutation on the dhps gene was extremely rare (0.3%) and occurred only in Mutengene while the pfmdr1 1034K and 1040D mutations were not detected in any of the three sites. CONCLUSION: In this study the prevalence of molecular markers for quinoline and anti-folate resistances showed high levels and differed between the south and north of Cameroon. AQ, SP and AQ+SP treatments were well tolerated but with low levels of efficacy that suggested alternative treatments were needed in Cameroon since 2005.


Asunto(s)
Amodiaquina/uso terapéutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Malaria Falciparum/tratamiento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/efectos de los fármacos , Pirimetamina/uso terapéutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapéutico , Administración Oral , Camerún/epidemiología , Preescolar , Método Doble Ciego , Esquema de Medicación , Combinación de Medicamentos , Monitoreo de Drogas , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Política de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Parasitaria , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
PLoS Med ; 6(4): e1000055, 2009 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19365539

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the molecular basis of resistance to a number of common antimalarial drugs is well known, a geographic description of the emergence and dispersal of resistance mutations across Africa has not been attempted. To that end we have characterised the evolutionary origins of antifolate resistance mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) gene and mapped their contemporary distribution. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used microsatellite polymorphism flanking the dhps gene to determine which resistance alleles shared common ancestry and found five major lineages each of which had a unique geographical distribution. The extent to which allelic lineages were shared among 20 African Plasmodium falciparum populations revealed five major geographical groupings. Resistance lineages were common to all sites within these regions. The most marked differentiation was between east and west African P. falciparum, in which resistance alleles were not only of different ancestry but also carried different resistance mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Resistant dhps has emerged independently in multiple sites in Africa during the past 10-20 years. Our data show the molecular basis of resistance differs between east and west Africa, which is likely to translate into differing antifolate sensitivity. We have also demonstrated that the dispersal patterns of resistance lineages give unique insights into recent parasite migration patterns.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/farmacología , Dihidropteroato Sintasa/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos/genética , Malaria Falciparum/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Protozoarias/genética , África/epidemiología , Alelos , Animales , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Cloroquina/farmacología , Cloroquina/uso terapéutico , ADN Protozoario/genética , Combinación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Malaria Falciparum/prevención & control , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Filogenia , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimología , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Vigilancia de la Población , Pirimetamina/farmacología , Pirimetamina/uso terapéutico , Selección Genética , Sulfadoxina/farmacología , Sulfadoxina/uso terapéutico
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