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1.
Nutrition ; 71: 110618, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881507

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D metabolic pathway genes, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in Brazilian adults. METHODS: The study population comprised 461 participants (33-79 y of age; 51% women) from the Pró-Saúde Study, a cohort of civil servants at a university campus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. LTL, genotypes of vitamin D-related SNPs (rs12785878, rs10741657, rs6013897, and rs2282679), and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were determined cross-sectionally. Differences in age- and sex-adjusted LTL means by categories of genotypes and 25(OH)D serum concentrations were evaluated. LTL associations with genotypes and 25(OH)D were investigated using multiple linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and markers of health behavior. RESULTS: Participants with CC genotype (rs2282679) had shorter age- and sex-adjusted mean LTL than those with AC and AA genotypes (mean ± SE: 0.51 ± 0.03, 0.58 ± 0.01 and 0.5 ± 0.01, respectively, P < 0.05). In adjusted analyses, the CC genotype (rs2282679) was inversely associated with LTL (ß = -0.061; 95% confidence interval, -0.120 to -0.001). Other vitamin D-related SNPs and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with LTL. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in the gene encoding vitamin D binding protein (GC - rs2282679) were associated with LTL, suggesting an influence of vitamin D status on telomere length that may start early in life.

2.
Appetite ; 144: 104464, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539579

RESUMEN

The literature on body image and food consumption has generally focused on isolated food items, while overlooking the growing role of ultra-processed foods in the overall diet. The objective of this study was to assess the association of body image (dis)satisfaction and perception with food consumption, according to the NOVA classification, which takes into account the extent and purpose of industrial food processing. A silhouette scale developed considering the Brazilian adults' Body Mass Index was used to assess body image (dis)satisfaction and perception. Food consumption was evaluated using a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and its items were categorized into three groups: unprocessed or minimally-processed foods and culinary preparations; processed foods; ultra-processed foods. The association was assessed using linear regression models. A total of 514 of Brazilian university employees were evaluated. Women dissatisfied due to excess weight consumed less unprocessed or minimally-processed foods and culinary preparations (-6.6, 95% CI: -10.7; -2.5) and more ultra-processed foods (3.7, 95% CI: 0.1; 7.2) compared to satisfied. Women that overestimated their body size consumed less unprocessed or minimally-processed food and culinary preparations (-4.2, 95% CI: -7.3; -1.1), compared to those who had not distorted body image. Food consumption appears to be more strongly associated with body image (dis)satisfaction than with perception. An association was established between body image dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating habits. This relation deserves public health attention since it may contribute to the development of chronic diseases and reduce the quality of life and body image assessment could be adopted by nutritionists and other health professionals in their practice.

3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(11): e00155118, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691782

RESUMEN

The study aimed to assess the use of health services and the association with different measures of multimorbidity. This was a cross-sectional study nested in the Pró-Saúde Study, a longitudinal study of municipal technical and administrative employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were analyzed from phase 2 (2001-2002), and the study population consisted of 733 individuals who reported restrictions on habitual activities due to health problems in the 15 days prior to the data collection. The search for a health service (outcome variable) was used as the proxy for use of health services. Multimorbidity was assessed by simple count and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, generating four exposure variables: number of self-reported diseases, multimorbidity (2 or more diseases), and total score and number of systems affected. The analyses stratified by sex used Poisson regression models with robust variance, adjusted by age and schooling. Women showed higher mean values than men for all the measures, with 51% classified as having multimorbidity. In men, multimorbidity increased by 43% (95%CI: 1.11-1.84) the probability of using health services, while there was no statistically significant association in women. For men, each additional disease increased the probability of use of a health service by 14% (95%CI: 1.05-1.24). There were evident differences in the use of health services and multimorbidity according to sex. Explaining these patterns becomes relevant for the provision of efficient, coordinated, and safe care for persons with multimorbidity.

4.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 75, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553378

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the presence of common mental disorders among adults, according to different income strata. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 2,584 participants from the Pró-Saúde Study (2006), residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Common Mental Disorders were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to green areas was measured using the normalized difference vegetation index, in buffers with radiuses between 100 and 1,500 meters around the residence. We used the mean and maximum normalized difference vegetation index categorized into quartiles. The study population was divided into three subgroups, according to the income: low, intermediate, and high. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated with logistic regression models. The models were adjusted by sex and age, with and without inclusion of physical activity practice. RESULTS: The proportion of common mental disorders was 30% and 39% among men and women, respectively. The results of the adjusted models showed an inverse association between the presence of green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the occurrence of common mental disorders, in the buffer of 200 meters in the intermediate-income group and in the buffers of 400 and 1,500 meters in the low-income group. The odds ratio ranged from 0.52 (buffer of 1,500 meters) to 0.68 (buffer of 200 meters). The association found was independent of physical activity practice. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence found suggests the existence of a beneficial effect of urban green areas on the mental health of lower-income individuals. These findings can help in understanding how the urban environment can affect the mental health of the population.


Asunto(s)
Jardines/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Parques Recreativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 78, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553381

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize data about the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) among refugees around the world. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from the search in seven bibliographic databases. Studies on the prevalence of SV among refugees and asylum seekers of any country, sex or age, whether in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, were eligible. RESULTS: Of the 2,906 titles found, 60 articles were selected. The reported prevalence of SV was largely variable (0% to 99.8%). Reports of SV were collected in all continents, with 42% of the articles mentioning it in refugees from Africa (prevalence from 1.3% to 100%). The rape was the most reported SV in 65% of the studies (prevalence from 0% to 90.9%). The main victims were women in 89% of the studies, all the way, especially when still in the countries of origin. The SV was perpetrated particularly by intimate partners, but also by agents of supposed protection. Few studies have reported SV in men and children; the prevalence reached up to 39.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Approximately one-third of the studies (32%) were carried out in refugee camps and more than half (52%) in health services using mental health assessment tools. No study has addressed the most recent migratory crisis. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the methodological heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: SV is a prevalent problem affecting refugees of both sexes, of all ages, throughout the migratory journey, particularly those from Africa. Protection measures are urgently needed, and further studies, with more appropriate tools, may better measure the current magnitude of the problem.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190046, 2019 Aug 26.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460625

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the food consumption according to the degree of processing and associations with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of the Estudo Pró-Saúde (Pro-Health Study), with 520 civil servants of university campuses, Rio de Janeiro, 2012-13. A food frequency questionnaire was used to classify food consumption: 1) in natura, minimally processed, food preparations based on these foods; 2) processed foods; 3) ultra-processed foods. The relative energy contribution of each group was determined, and a seemingly unrelated equations regression (SUR) regression model was used to estimate associations with sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: The in natura food group (1) contributed with 59% of the energy consumption and was directly associated with age [45-49 years (ß = 1.8 confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI -1.2; 4.8); 50-54 (ß = 1.5 95%CI -1.5; 4.5); 55-59 (ß = 2.9 95%CI -0.4; 6.3) and ≥ 60 (ß = 4.6 95%CI 1.1; 8.2)], compared to age ≤ 44. In contrast, the group of ultra-processed foods contributed 27% and were inversely associated with age [45-49 (ß = -1.7 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 50-54 (ß = -1.8 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 55-59 (ß = -4.9 95%CI -8.0; -2.0); ≥ 60 (ß = -4.5 95%CI -7.6; -1.5)]. Gender, income and schooling were not associated with food consumption. CONCLUSION: Younger adults had higher consumption of ultra-processed foods, indicating the need for interventions mainly in this age group. The absence of association with other sociodemographic characteristics may be due to the influence of contextual factors.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas/estadística & datos numéricos , Ingestión de Energía , Conducta Alimentaria , Manipulación de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia
7.
Nutrition ; 61: 70-76, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703572

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Phase angle (PhA) is determined by bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and it is interpreted as an index of cell membrane integrity. Smokers are susceptible to systemic oxidative stress and often adopt unhealthy habits, which may contribute to cellular damage. This unfavorable conjuncture may result in lower PhA in smokers. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between PhA and smoking status. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 247 (48%) adult men. Body composition and PhA were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BIA, respectively. Blood sampling, food habits, and smoking status information were collected. Statistical analyses were performed for each sex separately. Analysis of covariance controlling for body mass index and age compared PhA values across smoking categories. Multiple linear regression determined whether smoking status was a PhA predictor. RESULTS: PhA was lower in male current smokers (6.6 ± 0.13°) compared with never-smokers (7 ± 0.06°; P = 0.038). The ratio of extracellular to intracellular water was higher in current (P = 0.003) and former male smokers (P = 0.006) compared with never-smokers. Body composition did not differ in male and female smoking categories. Male current smokers ingested more calories, protein, carbohydrates, and alcohol than never and former smokers (P < 0.05). Current female smokers had higher alcohol consumption compared with never smokers (P = 0.019). Male current smokers presented lower than never-smokers (unstandardized ß coefficient = -0.202; 95% confidence interval, -0.359 to -0.046). Smoking status was associated with PhA decrease only in men. CONCLUSION: The results from the present study suggest that being a current smoker results in lower PhA in men, even when controlling for other variables.

8.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 78, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043317

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To synthesize data about the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) among refugees around the world. METHODS A systematic review was conducted from the search in seven bibliographic databases. Studies on the prevalence of SV among refugees and asylum seekers of any country, sex or age, whether in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, were eligible. RESULTS Of the 2,906 titles found, 60 articles were selected. The reported prevalence of SV was largely variable (0% to 99.8%). Reports of SV were collected in all continents, with 42% of the articles mentioning it in refugees from Africa (prevalence from 1.3% to 100%). The rape was the most reported SV in 65% of the studies (prevalence from 0% to 90.9%). The main victims were women in 89% of the studies, all the way, especially when still in the countries of origin. The SV was perpetrated particularly by intimate partners, but also by agents of supposed protection. Few studies have reported SV in men and children; the prevalence reached up to 39.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Approximately one-third of the studies (32%) were carried out in refugee camps and more than half (52%) in health services using mental health assessment tools. No study has addressed the most recent migratory crisis. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the methodological heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSIONS SV is a prevalent problem affecting refugees of both sexes, of all ages, throughout the migratory journey, particularly those from Africa. Protection measures are urgently needed, and further studies, with more appropriate tools, may better measure the current magnitude of the problem.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Sintetizar dados da literatura sobre a prevalência de violência sexual em refugiados. MÉTODOS Conduzimos uma revisão sistemática a partir da busca em sete bases bibliográficas. Foram elegíveis estudos em inglês, francês, espanhol e português com dados sobre a prevalência de violência sexual em refugiados e requerentes de asilo, de qualquer país, sexo ou idade. RESULTADOS Dos 2.906 títulos encontrados, 60 artigos foram incluídos. A prevalência foi amplamente variável (0% a 99,8%). Houve relatos de violência sexual em todos os continentes, com 42% dos artigos mencionando-a em refugiados provenientes da África (prevalências de 1,3% a 100%). O estupro foi a ocorrência mais relatada em 65% dos estudos (prevalências de 0% a 90,9%). As principais vítimas foram mulheres em 89% dos estudos, em todo o trajeto, principalmente nos países de origem. A violência foi perpetrada particularmente por parceiros íntimos, mas também por agentes de suposta proteção. Poucos estudos relataram-na em homens e crianças, com prevalências atingindo até 39,3% e 90,9%, respectivamente. Cerca de 1/3 dos estudos (32%) foram realizados em campos de refugiados ou locais de acolhimento, e mais da metade (52%) em serviços de saúde, utilizando instrumentos de avaliação de saúde mental. Nenhum estudo abordou a crise migratória mais recente. Não foi realizada meta-análise devido à heterogeneidade metodológica dos estudos. CONCLUSÕES A violência sexual é um problema prevalente que atinge refugiados de ambos os sexos, de todas as idades, em particular aqueles provenientes da África, durante todo o percurso migratório. Medidas de proteção são urgentemente necessárias, e novos estudos, com instrumentos mais apropriados, poderão mensurar melhor a magnitude atual do problema.

9.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 75, jan. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043319

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between exposure to green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the presence of common mental disorders among adults, according to different income strata. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 2,584 participants from the Pró-Saúde Study (2006), residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Common Mental Disorders were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to green areas was measured using the normalized difference vegetation index, in buffers with radiuses between 100 and 1,500 meters around the residence. We used the mean and maximum normalized difference vegetation index categorized into quartiles. The study population was divided into three subgroups, according to the income: low, intermediate, and high. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated with logistic regression models. The models were adjusted by sex and age, with and without inclusion of physical activity practice. RESULTS The proportion of common mental disorders was 30% and 39% among men and women, respectively. The results of the adjusted models showed an inverse association between the presence of green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the occurrence of common mental disorders, in the buffer of 200 meters in the intermediate-income group and in the buffers of 400 and 1,500 meters in the low-income group. The odds ratio ranged from 0.52 (buffer of 1,500 meters) to 0.68 (buffer of 200 meters). The association found was independent of physical activity practice. CONCLUSIONS The evidence found suggests the existence of a beneficial effect of urban green areas on the mental health of lower-income individuals. These findings can help in understanding how the urban environment can affect the mental health of the population.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar a associação entre a exposição às áreas verdes no entorno da residência e a presença de transtornos mentais comuns entre adultos, segundo diferentes estratos de renda. MÉTODOS Estudo seccional com 2.584 participantes do Estudo Pró-Saúde (2006), residentes na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os transtornos mentais comuns foram aferidos por meio do General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) e a exposição às áreas verdes pelo índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada, em buffers com raios entre 100 e 1.500 metros em torno da residência. Foram utilizados o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada médio e máximo categorizado em quartis. A população do estudo foi dividida em três subgrupos, de acordo com a renda: baixa, intermediária e alta. Foram estimadas razões de chances e seus intervalos de 95% de confiança com modelos de regressão logística. Os modelos foram ajustados por sexo e idade, com e sem inclusão da prática de atividade física. RESULTADOS A proporção de transtornos mentais comuns foi de 30% e 39% entre homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Os resultados dos modelos ajustados mostraram associação inversa entre a presença de áreas verdes no entorno do domicílio e a ocorrência de transtornos mentais comuns, no buffer de 200 metros no grupo de renda intermediária e nos buffers de 400 e 1.500 metros no grupo de baixa renda. A razão de chances variou de 0,52 (buffer de 1.500 metros) a 0,68 (buffer de 200 metros). A associação encontrada foi independente da prática de atividade física. CONCLUSÕES As evidências encontradas sugerem a existência de um efeito benéfico de áreas verdes urbanas na saúde mental dos indivíduos de renda mais baixa. Tais achados podem ajudar na compreensão de como o meio ambiente urbano pode afetar a saúde mental da população.

10.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 25(3): 413-423, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489102

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To reassess the Explicit Discrimination Scale (EDS; Bastos, Faerstein, Celeste, & Barros, 2012), an instrument developed in Brazil to examine intersecting forms of discrimination, with particular attention to the number of underlying dimensions, residual correlations, share of explained item variance, and stability of the configural and metric structure in broader populations. METHOD: Data from two cross-sectional studies and one cohort investigation were used. Although the cross-sectional studies were conducted among racially diverse undergraduate students (n = 1,022, 45% women, mean age = 23 years; n = 424, 59% women, mean age = 22 years), the cohort study included a probabilistic sample of community residents with 18% racial/ethnic minority respondents (n = 1,187, 57% women, mean age = 42 years). A series of exploratory models, exploratory structural equation models, and confirmatory factor analyses models was estimated. RESULTS: The EDS items might be best represented by a 3-factor model, which includes a second-order factor. Although only 1 pair of correlated residuals emerged, at least 4 different items with a sizable share of error variance were observed. The revised scale structure had an excellent fit to the data and was consistent among both undergraduate students and community residents. CONCLUSIONS: As well as demonstrating that discrimination may be structured by proximal, medial, and distal experiences with mistreatment, we suggest that the EDS has the potential to enhance research on the intersectional health impacts of discrimination. Future studies are required to assess scalability and provide scholars with a shortened version of the instrument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Discriminación Social/psicología , Discriminación Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Adulto Joven
11.
Glob Public Health ; 14(6-7): 875-883, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493435

RESUMEN

The historical struggles that Brazil faced to overcome malnutrition coincided with the empowerment of civil society and social movements which played a crucial role in the affirmation of health and food as social rights. After two decades under military dictatorship, Brazil went through a redemocratization process in the 1980s when activism emerged to demand spaces to participate in policy-making regarding the social agenda, including food and nutrition security (FNS). From 1988 onward institutional structures were established: the National Council of FNS (CONSEA) convenes government and civil society sectors to develop and monitor the implementation of policies, systems and actions. Social participation has been at the heart of structural changes achieved since then. Nevertheless, the country faces multiple challenges regarding FNS such as the double burden of disease, increasing use of pesticides and genetically modified seeds, weak regulation of ultra-processed products, and marketing practices that affect the environment, population health, and food sovereignty. This article aims at examining the development of the participatory political system and the role played by Brazilian social movements in the country's policies on FNS, in addition to outlining challenges faced by those policies.

12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190046, 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1020561

RESUMEN

RESUMO: Objetivo: Investigar o consumo alimentar segundo o grau de processamento e associações com características sociodemográficas. Métodos: Estudo transversal de subamostra do Estudo Pró-Saúde, com 520 funcionários públicos de campi universitários, Rio de Janeiro, 2012-13. Questionário de frequência alimentar foi utilizado para classificar o consumo alimentar: 1) in natura, minimamente processados, preparações culinárias à base desses alimentos; 2) alimentos processados; 3) alimentos ultraprocessados. Determinou-se a contribuição energética relativa de cada grupo, e foi utilizado modelo de regressão seemingly unrelated equations regression (SUR) para estimar associações com as características sociodemográficas. Resultados: O grupo de alimentos in natura (1) contribuiu com 59% do consumo energético e foi diretamente associado à idade [45-49 anos (β = 1,8 intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% -1,2; 4,8); 50-54 (β = 1,5 IC95% -1,5; 4,5); 55-59 (β = 2,9 IC95% -0,4; 6,3) e ≥ 60 (β = 4,6 IC95% 1,1; 8,2)], comparado à idade ≤ 44. Em contraste, ultraprocessados contribuíram com 27% e foram inversamente associados à idade [45-49 (β = -1,7 IC95% -4,3; 0,9); 50-54 (β = -1,8 IC95% -4,3; 0,9); 55-59 (β = -4,9 IC95% -8,0; -2,0); ≥ 60 (β = -4,5 IC95% -7,6; -1,5)]. Sexo, renda e escolaridade não foram associados ao consumo alimentar. Conclusão: Adultos mais jovens apresentaram maior consumo de ultraprocessados, indicando a necessidade de intervenções principalmente nessa faixa etária. A ausência de associação com demais características sociodemográficas pode ser por conta da influência de fatores contextuais.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the food consumption according to the degree of processing and associations with sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the Estudo Pró-Saúde (Pro-Health Study), with 520 civil servants of university campuses, Rio de Janeiro, 2012-13. A food frequency questionnaire was used to classify food consumption: 1) in natura, minimally processed, food preparations based on these foods; 2) processed foods; 3) ultra-processed foods. The relative energy contribution of each group was determined, and a seemingly unrelated equations regression (SUR) regression model was used to estimate associations with sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The in natura food group (1) contributed with 59% of the energy consumption and was directly associated with age [45-49 years (β = 1.8 confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI -1.2; 4.8); 50-54 (β = 1.5 95%CI -1.5; 4.5); 55-59 (β = 2.9 95%CI -0.4; 6.3) and ≥ 60 (β = 4.6 95%CI 1.1; 8.2)], compared to age ≤ 44. In contrast, the group of ultra-processed foods contributed 27% and were inversely associated with age [45-49 (β = -1.7 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 50-54 (β = -1.8 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 55-59 (β = -4.9 95%CI -8.0; -2.0); ≥ 60 (β = -4.5 95%CI -7.6; -1.5)]. Gender, income and schooling were not associated with food consumption. Conclusion: Younger adults had higher consumption of ultra-processed foods, indicating the need for interventions mainly in this age group. The absence of association with other sociodemographic characteristics may be due to the influence of contextual factors.

13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(11): e00155118, 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039402

RESUMEN

Resumo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o uso de serviços de saúde e sua associação com diferentes medidas de multimorbidade. Trata-se de um estudo transversal aninhado a uma investigação longitudinal de funcionários técnico-administrativos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Estudo Pró-Saúde. Foram analisados dados coletados na fase 2 (2001-2002), sendo a população de estudo composta por 733 indivíduos que relataram restrição de atividades habituais por problemas de saúde nos 15 dias anteriores à coleta de dados. Busca por serviço de saúde (variável de desfecho) foi utilizada como proxy para uso de serviços de saúde. Multimorbidade foi avaliada por meio de contagem simples e de uma escala cumulativa (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale), gerando quatro variáveis de exposição: número de morbidades autorrelatadas, multimorbidade (2 ou mais morbidades), escore total e número de sistemas afetados. Nas análises estratificadas por sexo, foram utilizados modelos de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta ajustados por idade e escolaridade. Mulheres apresentaram em média valores mais altos para todas as medidas, e 51% foram classificadas com multimorbidade. Ter multimorbidade aumentou em 43% (IC95%: 1,11-1,84) a probabilidade de utilizar os serviços de saúde em homens, enquanto para as mulheres não houve associação estatisticamente significativa. Para os homens, a cada morbidade adicional, a probabilidade de utilizar serviço de saúde aumentou em 14% (IC95%: 1,05-1,24). Diferenças no uso de serviços de saúde e multimorbidade segundo sexo são evidentes. Conhecer tais padrões torna-se relevante para a prestação de um cuidado eficiente, coordenado e seguro para pessoas com multimorbidade.


Abstract: The study aimed to assess the use of health services and the association with different measures of multimorbidity. This was a cross-sectional study nested in the Pró-Saúde Study, a longitudinal study of municipal technical and administrative employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were analyzed from phase 2 (2001-2002), and the study population consisted of 733 individuals who reported restrictions on habitual activities due to health problems in the 15 days prior to the data collection. The search for a health service (outcome variable) was used as the proxy for use of health services. Multimorbidity was assessed by simple count and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, generating four exposure variables: number of self-reported diseases, multimorbidity (2 or more diseases), and total score and number of systems affected. The analyses stratified by sex used Poisson regression models with robust variance, adjusted by age and schooling. Women showed higher mean values than men for all the measures, with 51% classified as having multimorbidity. In men, multimorbidity increased by 43% (95%CI: 1.11-1.84) the probability of using health services, while there was no statistically significant association in women. For men, each additional disease increased the probability of use of a health service by 14% (95%CI: 1.05-1.24). There were evident differences in the use of health services and multimorbidity according to sex. Explaining these patterns becomes relevant for the provision of efficient, coordinated, and safe care for persons with multimorbidity.


Resumen: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el uso de servicios de salud y su asociación con diferentes medidas de multimorbilidad. Se trata de un estudio transversal, anidado en una investigación longitudinal de funcionarios técnico-administrativos, en el municipio de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Estudio Pro-Salud. Se analizaron los datos recogidos en la fase 2 (2001-2002), estando la población de estudio compuesta por 733 individuos que relataron restricción de actividades habituales por problemas de salud, durante los 15 días anteriores a la recogida de datos. Búsqueda de un servicio de salud (variable de desenlace) se utilizó como proxy para el uso de servicios de salud. La multimorbilidad se evaluó mediante cómputo simple y una escala acumulativa (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale), generando cuatro variables de exposición: número de morbilidades autoinformadas, multimorbilidad (2 o más morbilidades), puntuación total y número de sistemas afectados. En los análisis estratificados por sexo se utilizaron modelos de regresión de Poisson con variancia robusta ajustados por edad y escolaridad. Las mujeres presentaron de media valores más altos para todas las medidas, siendo que un 51% fueron clasificadas con multimorbilidad. Tener multimorbilidad aumentó en un 43% (IC95%: 1,11-1,84) la probabilidad de utilizar los servicios de salud en hombres, mientras que para las mujeres no hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa. Para los hombres, con cada morbilidad adicional, la probabilidad de utilizar un servicio de salud aumentó en un 14% (IC95%: 1,05-1,24). Las diferencias en el uso de servicios de salud y multimorbilidad según sexo son evidentes. Conocer estos patrones es relevante para la prestación de un cuidado eficiente, coordinado y seguro para personas con multimorbilidad.

14.
Health Place ; 53: 110-116, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098468

RESUMEN

Positive influences of natural and built environment characteristics on human physical activity have been observed mainly in high-income countries, but mixed results exist. We explored these relationships in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where exuberant nature coexists with high levels of social inequality and urban violence. Data originated from questionnaires self-administered by 1731 civil servants at university campuses who participated in 4 waves (1999, 2001, 2007, 2012) of a longitudinal study, and had their residential addresses geocoded. In multinomial regression models, adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics, mutually adjusted associations were estimated between 13-year trajectories of non-work physical activity and 8 contextual variables: distances from waterfronts, cycle paths, outdoor gym equipment, and squares; 2 indicators of exposure to greenness (a vegetation index - NDVI - derived from satellite images, and trees close to home); an indicator of walkability (street density), and neighborhood average income. Compared to participants living in the upper quartile of distance to waterfronts, those living in its lowest quartile had 2.6-fold higher odds (aOR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.37-5.01) of reporting non-work PA in all 4 study waves. Similar results were observed in relation to distance to cycle paths; no independent associations were observed with other natural and built environment variables.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo , Ejercicio , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Árboles , Caminata
15.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(5): e00029517, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846405

RESUMEN

The influence of neighborhood characteristics on self-rated health has been little studied. A multilevel approach using hierarchical models was applied to analyze the relationship between the socioeconomic characteristics in 621 neighborhoods (level 2) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the self-rated health of 3,054 university employees (level 1) from the baseline of the Pró-Saúde Study. Neighborhoods were created using the SKATER algorithm (Spatial 'K'luster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal) to cluster census tracts according to four indicators and a minimum population of 5,000 people. After adjustment for individual factors (per capita income, schooling, age, sex, ethnicity, health-related behavior and chronic diseases), low level of neighborhood income and higher numbers of members per household were significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Participants living in medium income-level neighborhoods were 34% more likely to self-rate their health as being poor. Those living in areas with a higher density of members per household were 50% more likely to present poor self-rated health. Neighborhood context influences self-rated health, beyond the effect of individual factors. Worsening neighborhood socioeconomic conditions affect health adversely, which in turn increasing the chance of poor self-rated health.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Características de la Residencia , Autoinforme , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social
16.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(1): 51-58, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Information about multimorbidity is scarce in developing countries. This study aimed to estimate the association of educational attainment with occurrences of multimorbidity in a population of public employees on university campuses in Rio de Janeiro. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted cross-sectional analyses on baseline data (1999-2001) from 3,253 participants in the Pró-Saúde study, conducted in Brazil. METHODS: The prevalence of multimorbidity, defined as a self-reported history of medical diagnoses of two or more chronic conditions, was estimated according to sex, age, smoking, obesity and educational level. The association between education and multimorbidity was estimated using odds ratios (OR) and the relative and slope indices of inequality, in order to quantify the degree of educational inequality among individuals with multimorbidity in this population. RESULTS: Greater age, female sex, smoking and obesity had direct associations with multimorbidity; and tobacco exposure and obesity also showed direct relationships with poorer educational level. There was a monotonic inverse linear trend between educational level and the presence of multimorbidity among women, with twice the odds (OR 2.47; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-4.40) between extremities of schooling categories. There was excess multimorbidity of 22% at the lowest extremity of schooling, thus showing that women with worse educational status were more affected by the outcome. No trend and no excess multimorbidity was seen among men. CONCLUSIONS: Educational inequality is an important determinant for development of multimorbidity. Men and women experience its effect differently. Researchers need to consider that sex may be an effect modifier in multimorbidity studies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Multimorbilidad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(1): 51-58, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-904137

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Information about multimorbidity is scarce in developing countries. This study aimed to estimate the association of educational attainment with occurrences of multimorbidity in a population of public employees on university campuses in Rio de Janeiro. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted cross-sectional analyses on baseline data (1999-2001) from 3,253 participants in the Pró-Saúde study, conducted in Brazil. METHODS: The prevalence of multimorbidity, defined as a self-reported history of medical diagnoses of two or more chronic conditions, was estimated according to sex, age, smoking, obesity and educational level. The association between education and multimorbidity was estimated using odds ratios (OR) and the relative and slope indices of inequality, in order to quantify the degree of educational inequality among individuals with multimorbidity in this population. RESULTS: Greater age, female sex, smoking and obesity had direct associations with multimorbidity; and tobacco exposure and obesity also showed direct relationships with poorer educational level. There was a monotonic inverse linear trend between educational level and the presence of multimorbidity among women, with twice the odds (OR 2.47; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-4.40) between extremities of schooling categories. There was excess multimorbidity of 22% at the lowest extremity of schooling, thus showing that women with worse educational status were more affected by the outcome. No trend and no excess multimorbidity was seen among men. CONCLUSIONS: Educational inequality is an important determinant for development of multimorbidity. Men and women experience its effect differently. Researchers need to consider that sex may be an effect modifier in multimorbidity studies.

18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(5): e00029517, 2018. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952389

RESUMEN

The influence of neighborhood characteristics on self-rated health has been little studied. A multilevel approach using hierarchical models was applied to analyze the relationship between the socioeconomic characteristics in 621 neighborhoods (level 2) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the self-rated health of 3,054 university employees (level 1) from the baseline of the Pró-Saúde Study. Neighborhoods were created using the SKATER algorithm (Spatial 'K'luster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal) to cluster census tracts according to four indicators and a minimum population of 5,000 people. After adjustment for individual factors (per capita income, schooling, age, sex, ethnicity, health-related behavior and chronic diseases), low level of neighborhood income and higher numbers of members per household were significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Participants living in medium income-level neighborhoods were 34% more likely to self-rate their health as being poor. Those living in areas with a higher density of members per household were 50% more likely to present poor self-rated health. Neighborhood context influences self-rated health, beyond the effect of individual factors. Worsening neighborhood socioeconomic conditions affect health adversely, which in turn increasing the chance of poor self-rated health.


Existem relativamente poucos estudos sobre a influência das características de vizinhança sobre a auto-avaliação da saúde. Foi aplicada uma abordagem multinível com modelos hierárquicos para analisar a relação entre as características socioeconômicas de 621 vizinhanças (nível 2) da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e a auto-avaliação da saúde de 3.054 servidores universitários (nível 1) da linha de base do Estudo Pró-Saúde. As vizinhanças foram criadas pela aplicação do algoritmo SKATER (Spatial 'K'luster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal) aos setores censitários, de acordo com quatro indicadores e uma população mínima de 5 mil habitantes. Depois de ajustar para fatores individuais (renda per capita, escolaridade, idade, sexo, raça/cor, comportamentos relacionados à saúde e doenças crônicas), houve uma associação significativa entre renda baixa e número maior de pessoas por domicílio na vizinhança e autoavaliação da saúde "ruim". Os residentes de vizinhanças de renda média apresentaram probabilidade 34% maior de avaliar a própria saúde como "ruim". Aqueles que viviam em vizinhanças com maior número médio de pessoas por domicílio mostraram uma probabilidade 50% maior de autoavaliação da saúde "ruim". Para além de fatores individuais, o contexto de vizinhança influencia a autoavaliação da saúde. Piores condições socioeconômicas da vizinhança afetam negativamente a saúde, que por sua vez aumenta as chances de autoavaliação da saúde "ruim".


La influencia de las características del vecindario en la salud autoevaluada se ha estudiado escasamente. Se aplicó un análisis multinivel usando modelos jerárquicos para analizar la relación entre las características socioeconómicas en 621 vecindarios (nivel 2), dentro de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, y la salud autoevaluada de 3.054 empleados universitarios (nivel 1), procedentes de la base de referencia del Estudio Pró-Saúde. Se crearon vecindarios con el uso del algoritmo SKATER (Spatial 'K'luster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal), con el fin de agrupar secciones del censo, de acuerdo con cuatro indicadores y una población mínima de 5.000 personas. Tras el ajuste por factores individuales (ingresos per cápita, escolarización, edad, sexo, etnia, comportamiento informado de salud y enfermedades crónicas), el bajo nivel de ingresos en el vecindario y el alto número de miembros por hogar estuvieron significativamente asociados a un escasa salud autoevaluada. Los participantes que vivían en vecindarios con un nivel de ingresos medios tuvieron una probabilidad un 34% mayor de autoevaluar su salud más bien como mala. Quienes estaban viviendo en vecindarios con una densidad más alta de miembros por vivienda tuvieron una probabilidad de un 50% mayor de presentar una salud autoevaluada mala. El contexto del vecindario influencia la salud autoevaluada, además del efecto de los factores individuales. Un empeoramiento de las condiciones socioeconómicas en el vecindario afecta adversamente a la salud, que a su vez aumenta la oportunidad de una salud autoevaluada como mala.

19.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(2): 130-135, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-841337

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective: To describe a historical series on the median duration of breastfeeding in a population of mothers whose children were born from the 1960s onwards, identifying factors associated with the interruption of breastfeeding in each decade. Methods: Data were analyzed from the Pró-Saúde Study, a longitudinal epidemiological investigation started in 1999 among technical and administrative employees of a university in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Breastfeeding duration was collected in two study phases: Phase 1 (1999), and phase 4 (2011-2012). Of these, those who had at least one child and reported the duration of breastfeeding for the first child were selected (n = 1539). To analyze the duration of breastfeeding, survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the effect of covariates on the duration of breastfeeding was estimated by Cox regression model. Results: It was found that the median duration of breastfeeding was higher in the 1990s and 2000s and lower in the 1970s, compared to the 1960s. In addition, there was an association between higher income and maternal age with breastfeeding interruption, which was focused in the 1970s. Conclusion: There was shorter duration of breastfeeding in the 1970s compared to the 1960s. Increased duration and prevalence of breastfeeding from the 1970s onwards coincided with the national trend and the promotion of this practice since 1980.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever uma série histórica sobre a duração mediana da amamentação em população de mães com crianças nascidas a partir da década de 1960 e identificar fatores associados à sua interrupção em cada década. Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 1.539 participantes do Estudo Pró-Saúde (EPS), uma investigação epidemiológica longitudinal iniciada em 1999 entre trabalhadores técnico-administrativos de uma universidade no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram usadas informações sobre duração do aleitamento materno do primeiro filho coletadas em duas fases do EPS (1999 e 2011-12). Para análise da duração do aleitamento materno foram construídas curvas de sobrevida pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e sua associação com covariáveis foi estimada pelo modelo de regressão de Cox. Resultados: Verificou-se que a duração mediana do aleitamento materno foi maior nas décadas de 1990 e 2000 e menor na década de 1970, em comparação com a década de 1960. Além disso, houve associação entre maior renda e faixa etária maternas com interrupção do aleitamento materno, que se concentrou na década de 1970. Conclusão: Observou-se menor duração do aleitamento materno na década de 1970 em relação à década de 1960. O aumento da duração e das prevalências de amamentação a partir da década de 1970 coincidiu com a tendência nacional e com a promoção dessa prática a partir de 1980.

20.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 93(2): 130-135, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27453144

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe a historical series on the median duration of breastfeeding in a population of mothers whose children were born from the 1960s onwards, identifying factors associated with the interruption of breastfeeding in each decade. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Pró-Saúde Study, a longitudinal epidemiological investigation started in 1999 among technical and administrative employees of a university in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Breastfeeding duration was collected in two study phases: Phase 1 (1999), and phase 4 (2011-2012). Of these, those who had at least one child and reported the duration of breastfeeding for the first child were selected (n=1539). To analyze the duration of breastfeeding, survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the effect of covariates on the duration of breastfeeding was estimated by Cox regression model. RESULTS: It was found that the median duration of breastfeeding was higher in the 1990s and 2000s and lower in the 1970s, compared to the 1960s. In addition, there was an association between higher income and maternal age with breastfeeding interruption, which was focused in the 1970s. CONCLUSION: There was shorter duration of breastfeeding in the 1970s compared to the 1960s. Increased duration and prevalence of breastfeeding from the 1970s onwards coincided with the national trend and the promotion of this practice since 1980.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Lactancia Materna/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Niño , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Edad Materna , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
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