*Science ; 375(6579): 430-433, 2022 01 28.*

##### RESUMEN

In thermodynamic equilibrium, current in metallic systems is carried by electronic states near the Fermi energy, whereas the filled bands underneath contribute little to conduction. Here, we describe a very different regime in which carrier distribution in graphene and its superlattices is shifted so far from equilibrium that the filled bands start playing an essential role, leading to a critical-current behavior. The criticalities develop upon the velocity of electron flow reaching the Fermi velocity. Key signatures of the out-of-equilibrium state are current-voltage characteristics that resemble those of superconductors, sharp peaks in differential resistance, sign reversal of the Hall effect, and a marked anomaly caused by the Schwinger-like production of hot electron-hole plasma. The observed behavior is expected to be common to all graphene-based superlattices.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(25): 256802, 2021 Dec 17.*

##### RESUMEN

We report on finite bias spectroscopy measurements of the two-electron spectrum in a gate defined bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dot for varying magnetic fields. The spin and valley degree of freedom in BLG give rise to multiplets of six orbital symmetric and ten orbital antisymmetric states. We find that orbital symmetric states are lower in energy and separated by ≈ 0.4-0.8 meV from orbital antisymmetric states. The symmetric multiplet exhibits an additional energy splitting of its six states of ≈ 0.15-0.5 meV due to lattice scale interactions. The experimental observations are supported by theoretical calculations, which allow to determine that intervalley scattering and "current-current" interaction constants are of the same magnitude in BLG.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(19): 197401, 2020 Nov 06.*

##### RESUMEN

We study electronic contribution to the Raman scattering signals of two-, three- and four-layer graphene with layers at one of the interfaces twisted by a small angle with respect to each other. We find that the Raman spectra of these systems feature two peaks produced by van Hove singularities in moiré minibands of twistronic graphene, one related to direct hybridization of the Dirac states, and the other resulting from band folding caused by moiré superlattice. The positions of both peaks strongly depend on the twist angle, so that their detection can be used for noninvasive characterization of the twist, even in hBN-encapsulated structures.

*Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5756, 2020 Nov 13.*

##### RESUMEN

In quantizing magnetic fields, graphene superlattices exhibit a complex fractal spectrum often referred to as the Hofstadter butterfly. It can be viewed as a collection of Landau levels that arise from quantization of Brown-Zak minibands recurring at rational (p/q) fractions of the magnetic flux quantum per superlattice unit cell. Here we show that, in graphene-on-boron-nitride superlattices, Brown-Zak fermions can exhibit mobilities above 106 cm2 V-1 s-1 and the mean free path exceeding several micrometers. The exceptional quality of our devices allows us to show that Brown-Zak minibands are 4q times degenerate and all the degeneracies (spin, valley and mini-valley) can be lifted by exchange interactions below 1 K. We also found negative bend resistance at 1/q fractions for electrical probes placed as far as several micrometers apart. The latter observation highlights the fact that Brown-Zak fermions are Bloch quasiparticles propagating in high fields along straight trajectories, just like electrons in zero field.

*Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3054, 2020 Jun 11.*

##### RESUMEN

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

*Sci Adv ; 6(16): eaay7838, 2020 Apr.*

##### RESUMEN

Magnetic fields force ballistic electrons injected from a narrow contact to move along skipping orbits and form caustics. This leads to pronounced resistance peaks at nearby voltage probes as electrons are effectively focused inside them, a phenomenon known as magnetic focusing. This can be used not only for the demonstration of ballistic transport but also to study the electronic structure of metals. Here, we use magnetic focusing to probe narrowbands in graphene bilayers twisted at ~2°. Their minibands are found to support long-range ballistic transport limited at low temperatures by intrinsic electron-electron scattering. A voltage bias between the layers causes strong minivalley splitting and allows selective focusing for different minivalleys, which is of interest for using this degree of freedom in frequently discussed valleytronics.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(20): 206101, 2020 May 22.*

##### RESUMEN

We apply a multiscale modeling approach to study lattice reconstruction in marginally twisted bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD). For this, we develop density functional theory parametrized interpolation formulae for interlayer adhesion energies of MoSe_{2}, WSe_{2}, MoS_{2}, and WS_{2}, combine those with elasticity theory, and analyze the bilayer lattice relaxation into mesoscale domain structures. Paying particular attention to the inversion asymmetry of TMD monolayers, we show that 3R and 2H stacking domains, separated by a network of dislocations develop for twist angles Î¸^{∘}<Î¸_{P}^{∘}â¼2.5° and Î¸^{∘}<Î¸_{AP}^{∘}â¼1° for, respectively, bilayers with parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) orientation of the monolayer unit cells and suggest how the domain structures would manifest itself in local probe scanning of marginally twisted P and AP bilayers.

*Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2339, 2020 May 11.*

##### RESUMEN

Electron-electron interactions play a critical role in many condensed matter phenomena, and it is tempting to find a way to control them by changing the interactions' strength. One possible approach is to place a studied system in proximity of a metal, which induces additional screening and hence suppresses electron interactions. Here, using devices with atomically-thin gate dielectrics and atomically-flat metallic gates, we measure the electron-electron scattering length in graphene and report qualitative deviations from the standard behavior. The changes induced by screening become important only at gate dielectric thicknesses of a few nm, much smaller than a typical separation between electrons. Our theoretical analysis agrees well with the scattering rates extracted from measurements of electron viscosity in monolayer graphene and of umklapp electron-electron scattering in graphene superlattices. The results provide a guidance for future attempts to achieve proximity screening of many-body phenomena in two-dimensional systems.

*Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4008, 2019 Sep 05.*

##### RESUMEN

At very small twist angles of â¼0.1°, bilayer graphene exhibits a strain-accompanied lattice reconstruction that results in submicron-size triangular domains with the standard, Bernal stacking. If the interlayer bias is applied to open an energy gap inside the domain regions making them insulating, such marginally twisted bilayer graphene is expected to remain conductive due to a triangular network of chiral one-dimensional states hosted by domain boundaries. Here we study electron transport through this helical network and report giant Aharonov-Bohm oscillations that reach in amplitude up to 50% of resistivity and persist to temperatures above 100 K. At liquid helium temperatures, the network exhibits another kind of oscillations that appear as a function of carrier density and are accompanied by a sign-changing Hall effect. The latter are attributed to consecutive population of the narrow minibands formed by the network of one-dimensional states inside the gap.

*Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2335, 2019 05 27.*

##### RESUMEN

The intriguing physics of carrier-carrier interactions, which likewise affect the operation of light emitting devices, stimulate the research on semiconductor structures at high densities of excited carriers, a limit reachable at large pumping rates or in systems with long-lived electron-hole pairs. By electrically injecting carriers into WSe2/MoS2 type-II heterostructures which are indirect in real and k-space, we establish a large population of typical optically silent interlayer excitons. Here, we reveal their emission spectra and show that the emission energy is tunable by an applied electric field. When the population is further increased by suppressing the radiative recombination rate with the introduction of an hBN spacer between WSe2 and MoS2, Auger-type and exciton-exciton annihilation processes become important. These processes are traced by the observation of an up-converted emission demonstrating that excitons gaining energy in non-radiative Auger processes can be recovered and recombine radiatively.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(20): 5135-5139, 2018 05 15.*

##### RESUMEN

Graphene superlattices were shown to exhibit high-temperature quantum oscillations due to periodic emergence of delocalized Bloch states in high magnetic fields such that unit fractions of the flux quantum pierce a superlattice unit cell. Under these conditions, semiclassical electron trajectories become straight again, similar to the case of zero magnetic field. Here, we report magnetotransport measurements that reveal second-, third-, and fourth-order magnetic Bloch states at high electron densities and temperatures above 100 K. The recurrence of these states creates a fractal pattern intimately related to the origin of Hofstadter butterflies. The hierarchy of the fractal states is determined by the width of magnetic minibands, in qualitative agreement with our band-structure calculations.

*Science ; 357(6347): 181-184, 2017 07 14.*

##### RESUMEN

Cyclotron motion of charge carriers in metals and semiconductors leads to Landau quantization and magneto-oscillatory behavior in their properties. Cryogenic temperatures are usually required to observe these oscillations. We show that graphene superlattices support a different type of quantum oscillation that does not rely on Landau quantization. The oscillations are extremely robust and persist well above room temperature in magnetic fields of only a few tesla. We attribute this phenomenon to repetitive changes in the electronic structure of superlattices such that charge carriers experience effectively no magnetic field at simple fractions of the flux quantum per superlattice unit cell. Our work hints at unexplored physics in Hofstadter butterfly systems at high temperatures.

*Sci Rep ; 6: 39619, 2016 12 23.*

##### RESUMEN

The electronic band structure of van der Waals (vdW) layered crystals has properties that depend on the composition, thickness and stacking of the component layers. Here we use density functional theory and high field magneto-optics to investigate the metal chalcogenide InSe, a recent addition to the family of vdW layered crystals, which transforms from a direct to an indirect band gap semiconductor as the number of layers is reduced. We investigate this direct-to-indirect bandgap crossover, demonstrate a highly tuneable optical response from the near infrared to the visible spectrum with decreasing layer thickness down to 2 layers, and report quantum dot-like optical emissions distributed over a wide range of energy. Our analysis also indicates that electron and exciton effective masses are weakly dependent on the layer thickness and are significantly smaller than in other vdW crystals. These properties are unprecedented within the large family of vdW crystals and demonstrate the potential of InSe for electronic and photonic technologies.

*Science ; 353(6299): 575-9, 2016 Aug 05.*

##### RESUMEN

Chirality is a fundamental property of electrons with the relativistic spectrum found in graphene and topological insulators. It plays a crucial role in relativistic phenomena, such as Klein tunneling, but it is difficult to visualize directly. Here, we report the direct observation and manipulation of chirality and pseudospin polarization in the tunneling of electrons between two almost perfectly aligned graphene crystals. We use a strong in-plane magnetic field as a tool to resolve the contributions of the chiral electronic states that have a phase difference between the two components of their vector wave function. Our experiments not only shed light on chirality, but also demonstrate a technique for preparing graphene's Dirac electrons in a particular quantum chiral state in a selected valley.

*Nano Lett ; 15(12): 8223-8, 2015 Dec 09.*

##### RESUMEN

Monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides are direct bandgap semiconductors, which makes them promising for optoelectronic applications. In particular, van der Waals heterostructures consisting of monolayers of MoS2 sandwiched between atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and graphene electrodes allows one to obtain light emitting quantum wells (LEQWs) with low-temperature external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1%. However, the EQE of MoS2- and MoSe2-based LEQWs shows behavior common for many other materials: it decreases fast from cryogenic conditions to room temperature, undermining their practical applications. Here we compare MoSe2 and WSe2 LEQWs. We show that the EQE of WSe2 devices grows with temperature, with room temperature EQE reaching 5%, which is 250× more than the previous best performance of MoS2 and MoSe2 quantum wells in ambient conditions. We attribute such different temperature dependences to the inverted sign of spin-orbit splitting of conduction band states in tungsten and molybdenum dichalcogenides, which makes the lowest-energy exciton in WSe2 dark.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 115(11): 115501, 2015 Sep 11.*

##### RESUMEN

We report diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the interlayer binding energy of bilayer graphene. We find the binding energies of the AA-and AB-stacked structures at the equilibrium separation to be 11.5(9) and 17.7(9) meV/atom, respectively. The out-of-plane zone-center optical phonon frequency predicted by our binding-energy curve is consistent with available experimental results. As well as assisting the modeling of interactions between graphene layers, our results will facilitate the development of van der Waals exchange-correlation functionals for density functional theory calculations.

##### Asunto(s)

Grafito/química , Modelos Químicos , Teoría Cuántica , Difusión , Método de Montecarlo , Fonones , Termodinámica*Nat Nanotechnol ; 9(10): 808-13, 2014 Oct.*

##### RESUMEN

Recent developments in the technology of van der Waals heterostructures made from two-dimensional atomic crystals have already led to the observation of new physical phenomena, such as the metal-insulator transition and Coulomb drag, and to the realization of functional devices, such as tunnel diodes, tunnel transistors and photovoltaic sensors. An unprecedented degree of control of the electronic properties is available not only by means of the selection of materials in the stack, but also through the additional fine-tuning achievable by adjusting the built-in strain and relative orientation of the component layers. Here we demonstrate how careful alignment of the crystallographic orientation of two graphene electrodes separated by a layer of hexagonal boron nitride in a transistor device can achieve resonant tunnelling with conservation of electron energy, momentum and, potentially, chirality. We show how the resonance peak and negative differential conductance in the device characteristics induce a tunable radiofrequency oscillatory current that has potential for future high-frequency technology.

*Rep Prog Phys ; 76(10): 104501, 2013 Oct.*

##### RESUMEN

In this paper, we review the recent extraordinary progress in the development of a new quantum standard for resistance based on graphene. We discuss the unique properties of this material system relating to resistance metrology and discuss results of the recent highest-ever precision direct comparison of the Hall resistance between graphene and traditional GaAs. We mainly focus our review on graphene expitaxially grown on SiC, a system which so far resulted in the best results. We also briefly discuss progress in the two other graphene material systems, exfoliated graphene and chemical vapour deposition graphene, and make a critical comparison with SiC graphene. Finally, we discuss other possible applications of graphene in metrology.

##### Asunto(s)

Impedancia Eléctrica , Grafito/química , Grafito/normas , Modelos Químicos , Teoría Cuántica , Simulación por Computador , Valores de Referencia*Phys Rev Lett ; 110(22): 227402, 2013 May 31.*

##### RESUMEN

We perform polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy on graphene in magnetic fields up to 45 T. This reveals a filling-factor-dependent, multicomponent anticrossing structure of the Raman G peak, resulting from magnetophonon resonances between magnetoexcitons and E(2g) phonons. This is explained with a model of Raman scattering taking into account the effects of spatially inhomogeneous carrier densities and strain. Random fluctuations of strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields lead to increased scattering intensity inside the anticrossing gap, consistent with the experiments.

*Nat Nanotechnol ; 8(6): 417-20, 2013 Jun.*

##### RESUMEN

Single-electron pumps are set to revolutionize electrical metrology by enabling the ampere to be redefined in terms of the elementary charge of an electron. Pumps based on lithographically fixed tunnel barriers in mesoscopic metallic systems and normal/superconducting hybrid turnstiles can reach very small error rates, but only at megahertz pumping speeds that correspond to small currents of the order of picoamperes. Tunable barrier pumps in semiconductor structures are operated at gigahertz frequencies, but the theoretical treatment of the error rate is more complex and only approximate predictions are available. Here, we present a monolithic, fixed-barrier single-electron pump made entirely from graphene that performs at frequencies up to several gigahertz. Combined with the record-high accuracy of the quantum Hall effect and proximity-induced Josephson junctions, quantized-current generation brings an all-graphene closure of the quantum metrological triangle within reach. Envisaged applications for graphene charge pumps outside quantum metrology include single-photon generation via electron-hole recombination in electrostatically doped bilayer graphene reservoirs, single Dirac fermion emission in relativistic electron quantum optics and read-out of spin-based graphene qubits in quantum information processing.