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1.
Nano Lett ; 22(16): 6760-6766, 2022 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930625

RESUMEN

We report experimental investigations of transport through bilayer graphene (BLG)/chromium trihalide (CrX3; X = Cl, Br, I) van der Waals interfaces. In all cases, a large charge transfer from BLG to CrX3 takes place (reaching densities in excess of 1013 cm-2), and generates an electric field perpendicular to the interface that opens a band gap in BLG. We determine the gap from the activation energy of the conductivity and find excellent agreement with the latest theory accounting for the contribution of the σ bands to the BLG dielectric susceptibility. We further show that for BLG/CrCl3 and BLG/CrBr3 the band gap can be extracted from the gate voltage dependence of the low-temperature conductivity, and use this finding to refine the gap dependence on the magnetic field. Our results allow a quantitative comparison of the electronic properties of BLG with theoretical predictions and indicate that electrons occupying the CrX3 conduction band are correlated.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3917, 2022 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798736

RESUMEN

Light-emitting electronic devices are ubiquitous in key areas of current technology, such as data communications, solid-state lighting, displays, and optical interconnects. Controlling the spectrum of the emitted light electrically, by simply acting on the device bias conditions, is an important goal with potential technological repercussions. However, identifying a material platform enabling broad electrical tuning of the spectrum of electroluminescent devices remains challenging. Here, we propose light-emitting field-effect transistors based on van der Waals interfaces of atomically thin semiconductors as a promising class of devices to achieve this goal. We demonstrate that large spectral changes in room-temperature electroluminescence can be controlled both at the device assembly stage -by suitably selecting the material forming the interfaces- and on-chip, by changing the bias to modify the device operation point. Even though the precise relation between device bias and kinetics of the radiative transitions remains to be understood, our experiments show that the physical mechanism responsible for light emission is robust, making these devices compatible with simple large areas device production methods.

3.
Nano Lett ; 22(4): 1534-1540, 2022 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129361

RESUMEN

Moiré structures in small-angle-twisted bilayers of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with a broken-symmetry interface form arrays of ferroelectric (FE) domains with periodically alternating out-of-plane polarization. Here, we propose a network theory for the tunability of such FE domain structure by applying an electric field perpendicular to the 2D crystal. Using multiscale analysis, we derive a fully parametrized string-theory-like description of the domain wall network (DWN) and show that it undergoes a qualitative change, after the arcs of partial dislocation (PD) like domain walls merge (near the network nodes) into streaks of perfect screw dislocations (PSD), which happens at a threshold displacement field dependent on the DWN period.

4.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 390-395, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210566

RESUMEN

Twisted heterostructures of two-dimensional crystals offer almost unlimited scope for the design of new metamaterials. Here we demonstrate a room temperature ferroelectric semiconductor that is assembled using mono- or few-layer MoS2. These van der Waals heterostructures feature broken inversion symmetry, which, together with the asymmetry of atomic arrangement at the interface of two 2D crystals, enables ferroelectric domains with alternating out-of-plane polarization arranged into a twist-controlled network. The last can be moved by applying out-of-plane electrical fields, as visualized in situ using channelling contrast electron microscopy. The observed interfacial charge transfer, movement of domain walls and their bending rigidity agree well with theoretical calculations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-principle field-effect transistors, where the channel resistance exhibits a pronounced hysteresis governed by pinning of ferroelectric domain walls. Our results show a potential avenue towards room temperature electronic and optoelectronic semiconductor devices with built-in ferroelectric memory functions.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(13): 136402, 2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623864

RESUMEN

Bloch states of electrons in honeycomb two-dimensional crystals with multivalley band structure and broken inversion symmetry have orbital magnetic moments of a topological nature. In crystals with two degenerate valleys, a perpendicular magnetic field lifts the valley degeneracy via a Zeeman effect due to these magnetic moments, leading to magnetoelectric effects which can be leveraged for creating valleytronic devices. In this work, we demonstrate that trilayer graphene with Bernal stacking (ABA TLG), hosts topological magnetic moments with a large and widely tunable valley g factor (g_{ν}), reaching a value g_{ν}∼1050 at the extreme of the studied parametric range. The reported experiment consists in sublattice-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy under perpendicular electric and magnetic fields that control the TLG bands. The tunneling spectra agree very well with the results of theoretical modeling that includes the full details of the TLG tight-binding model and accounts for a quantum-dot-like potential profile formed electrostatically under the scanning tunneling microscope tip.

6.
Nano Lett ; 21(15): 6678-6683, 2021 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296602

RESUMEN

We describe how the out-of-plane dielectric polarizability of monolayer graphene influences the electrostatics of bilayer graphene-both Bernal (BLG) and twisted (tBLG). We compare the polarizability value computed using density functional theory with the output from previously published experimental data on the electrostatically controlled interlayer asymmetry potential in BLG and data on the on-layer density distribution in tBLG. We show that monolayers in tBLG are described well by polarizability αexp = 10.8 Å3 and effective out-of-plane dielectric susceptibility ϵz = 2.5, including their on-layer electron density distribution at zero magnetic field and the interlayer Landau level pinning at quantizing magnetic fields.

7.
Nat Photonics ; 15(7): 493-498, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221110

RESUMEN

Optical materials with colour-changing abilities have been explored for display devices1, smart windows2,3, or modulation of visual appearance4-6. The efficiency of these materials, however, has strong wavelength dependence, which limits their functionality to a specific spectral range. Here, we report graphene-based electro-optical devices with unprecedented optical tunability covering the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the visible to microwave. We achieve this non-volatile and reversible tunability by electro-intercalation of lithium into graphene layers in an optically accessible device structure. This unique colour-changing capability, together with area-selective intercalation, inspires fabrication of new multispectral devices, including display devices and electro-optical camouflage coating. We anticipate that these results provide realistic approaches for programmable smart optical surfaces with a potential utility in many scientific and engineering fields such as active plasmonics and adaptive thermal management.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13422, 2021 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183714

RESUMEN

In bilayers of two-dimensional semiconductors with stacking arrangements which lack inversion symmetry charge transfer between the layers due to layer-asymmetric interband hybridisation can generate a potential difference between the layers. We analyse bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)-in particular, [Formula: see text]-for which we find a substantial stacking-dependent charge transfer, and InSe, for which the charge transfer is found to be negligibly small. The information obtained about TMDs is then used to map potentials generated by the interlayer charge transfer across the moiré superlattice in twistronic bilayers.

9.
Faraday Discuss ; 227: 163-170, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325929

RESUMEN

III-VI post-transition metal chalcogenides (InSe and GaSe) are a new class of layered semiconductors, which feature a strong variation of size and type of their band gaps as a function of number of layers (N). Here, we investigate exfoliated layers of InSe and GaSe ranging from bulk crystals down to monolayer, encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride, using Raman spectroscopy. We present the N-dependence of both intralayer vibrations within each atomic layer, as well as of the interlayer shear and layer breathing modes. A linear chain model can be used to describe the evolution of the peak positions as a function of N, consistent with first principles calculations.

10.
Nature ; 584(7820): 210-214, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788736

RESUMEN

Of the two stable forms of graphite, hexagonal and rhombohedral, the former is more common and has been studied extensively. The latter is less stable, which has so far precluded its detailed investigation, despite many theoretical predictions about the abundance of exotic interaction-induced physics1-6. Advances in van der Waals heterostructure technology7 have now allowed us to make high-quality rhombohedral graphite films up to 50 graphene layers thick and study their transport properties. Here we show that the bulk electronic states in such rhombohedral graphite are gapped8 and, at low temperatures, electron transport is dominated by surface states. Because of their proposed topological nature, the surface states are of sufficiently high quality to observe the quantum Hall effect, whereby rhombohedral graphite exhibits phase transitions between a gapless semimetallic phase and a gapped quantum spin Hall phase with giant Berry curvature. We find that an energy gap can also be opened in the surface states by breaking their inversion symmetry by applying a perpendicular electric field. Moreover, in rhombohedral graphite thinner than four nanometres, a gap is present even without an external electric field. This spontaneous gap opening shows pronounced hysteresis and other signatures characteristic of electronic phase separation, which we attribute to emergence of strongly correlated electronic surface states.

11.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(9): 750-754, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661373

RESUMEN

Van der Waals heterostructures obtained via stacking and twisting have been used to create moiré superlattices1, enabling new optical and electronic properties in solid-state systems. Moiré lattices in twisted bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) result in exciton trapping2-5, host Mott insulating and superconducting states6 and act as unique Hubbard systems7-9 whose correlated electronic states can be detected and manipulated optically. Structurally, these twisted heterostructures feature atomic reconstruction and domain formation10-14. However, due to the nanoscale size of moiré domains, the effects of atomic reconstruction on the electronic and excitonic properties have not been systematically investigated. Here we use near-0°-twist-angle MoSe2/MoSe2 bilayers with large rhombohedral AB/BA domains15 to directly probe the excitonic properties of individual domains with far-field optics. We show that this system features broken mirror/inversion symmetry, with the AB and BA domains supporting interlayer excitons with out-of-plane electric dipole moments in opposite directions. The dipole orientation of ground-state Γ-K interlayer excitons can be flipped with electric fields, while higher-energy K-K interlayer excitons undergo field-asymmetric hybridization with intralayer K-K excitons. Our study reveals the impact of crystal symmetry on TMD excitons and points to new avenues for realizing topologically non-trivial systems16,17, exotic metasurfaces18, collective excitonic phases19 and quantum emitter arrays20,21 via domain-pattern engineering.

12.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(7): 592-597, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451502

RESUMEN

Van der Waals heterostructures form a unique class of layered artificial solids in which physical properties can be manipulated through controlled composition, order and relative rotation of adjacent atomic planes. Here we use atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy to reveal the lattice reconstruction in twisted bilayers of the transition metal dichalcogenides, MoS2 and WS2. For twisted 3R bilayers, a tessellated pattern of mirror-reflected triangular 3R domains emerges, separated by a network of partial dislocations for twist angles θ < 2°. The electronic properties of these 3R domains, featuring layer-polarized conduction-band states caused by lack of both inversion and mirror symmetry, appear to be qualitatively different from those of 2H transition metal dichalcogenides. For twisted 2H bilayers, stable 2H domains dominate, with nuclei of a second metastable phase. This appears as a kagome-like pattern at θ ≈ 2°, transitioning at θ → 0 to a hexagonal array of screw dislocations separating large-area 2H domains. Tunnelling measurements show that such reconstruction creates strong piezoelectric textures, opening a new avenue for engineering of 2D material properties.

13.
Nat Mater ; 19(3): 299-304, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015532

RESUMEN

Van der Waals (vdW) interfaces based on 2D materials are promising for optoelectronics, as interlayer transitions between different compounds allow tailoring of the spectral response over a broad range. However, issues such as lattice mismatch or a small misalignment of the constituent layers can drastically suppress electron-photon coupling for these interlayer transitions. Here, we engineered type-II interfaces by assembling atomically thin crystals that have the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band at the Γ point, and thus avoid any momentum mismatch. We found that these van der Waals interfaces exhibit radiative optical transitions irrespective of the lattice constant, the rotational and/or translational alignment of the two layers or whether the constituent materials are direct or indirect gap semiconductors. Being robust and of general validity, our results broaden the scope of future optoelectronics device applications based on two-dimensional materials.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 125, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913279

RESUMEN

Control over the quantization of electrons in quantum wells is at the heart of the functioning of modern advanced electronics; high electron mobility transistors, semiconductor and Capasso terahertz lasers, and many others. However, this avenue has not been explored in the case of 2D materials. Here we apply this concept to van der Waals heterostructures using the thickness of exfoliated crystals to control the quantum well dimensions in few-layer semiconductor InSe. This approach realizes precise control over the energy of the subbands and their uniformity guarantees extremely high quality electronic transport in these systems. Using tunnelling and light emitting devices, we reveal the full subband structure by studying resonance features in the tunnelling current, photoabsorption and light emission spectra. In the future, these systems could enable development of elementary blocks for atomically thin infrared and THz light sources based on intersubband optical transitions in few-layer van der Waals materials.

16.
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 6152-6156, 2019 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361497

RESUMEN

Rhombohedral graphite features peculiar electronic properties, including persistence of low-energy surface bands of a topological nature. Here, we study the contribution of electron-hole excitations toward inelastic light scattering in thin films of rhombohedral graphite. We show that, in contrast to the featureless electron-hole contribution toward Raman spectrum of graphitic films with Bernal stacking, the inelastic light scattering accompanied by electron-hole excitations in crystals with rhombohedral stacking produces distinct features in the Raman signal which can be used both to identify the stacking and to determine the number of layers in the film.

17.
ACS Nano ; 13(5): 5112-5123, 2019 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946569

RESUMEN

Two dimensional III-VI metal monochalcogenide materials, such as GaSe and InSe, are attracting considerable attention due to their promising electronic and optoelectronic properties. Here, an investigation of point and extended atomic defects formed in mono-, bi-, and few-layer GaSe and InSe crystals is presented. Using state-of-the-art scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is observed that these materials can form both metal and selenium vacancies under the action of the electron beam. Selenium vacancies are observed to be healable: recovering the perfect lattice structure in the presence of selenium or enabling incorporation of dopant atoms in the presence of impurities. Under prolonged imaging, multiple point defects are observed to coalesce to form extended defect structures, with GaSe generally developing trigonal defects and InSe primarily forming line defects. These insights into atomic behavior could be harnessed to synthesize and tune the properties of 2D post-transition-metal monochalcogenide materials for optoelectronic applications.

18.
Nature ; 567(7746): 81-86, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842637

RESUMEN

Atomically thin layers of two-dimensional materials can be assembled in vertical stacks that are held together by relatively weak van der Waals forces, enabling coupling between monolayer crystals with incommensurate lattices and arbitrary mutual rotation1,2. Consequently, an overarching periodicity emerges in the local atomic registry of the constituent crystal structures, which is known as a moiré superlattice3. In graphene/hexagonal boron nitride structures4, the presence of a moiré superlattice can lead to the observation of electronic minibands5-7, whereas in twisted graphene bilayers its effects are enhanced by interlayer resonant conditions, resulting in a superconductor-insulator transition at magic twist angles8. Here, using semiconducting heterostructures assembled from incommensurate molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) monolayers, we demonstrate that excitonic bands can hybridize, resulting in a resonant enhancement of moiré superlattice effects. MoSe2 and WS2 were chosen for the near-degeneracy of their conduction-band edges, in order to promote the hybridization of intra- and interlayer excitons. Hybridization manifests through a pronounced exciton energy shift as a periodic function of the interlayer rotation angle, which occurs as hybridized excitons are formed by holes that reside in MoSe2 binding to a twist-dependent superposition of electron states in the adjacent monolayers. For heterostructures in which the monolayer pairs are nearly aligned, resonant mixing of the electron states leads to pronounced effects of the geometrical moiré pattern of the heterostructure on the dispersion and optical spectra of the hybridized excitons. Our findings underpin strategies for band-structure engineering in semiconductor devices based on van der Waals heterostructures9.

19.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 2136-2142, 2019 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676744

RESUMEN

Atomically thin films of III-VI post-transition metal chalcogenides (InSe and GaSe) form an interesting class of two-dimensional semiconductors that feature a strong variation of their band gap as a function of the number of layers in the crystal and, specifically for InSe, an expected crossover from a direct gap in the bulk to a weakly indirect band gap in monolayers and bilayers. Here, we apply angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with submicrometer spatial resolution (µARPES) to visualize the layer-dependent valence band structure of mechanically exfoliated crystals of InSe. We show that for one-layer and two-layer InSe the valence band maxima are away from the Γ-point, forming an indirect gap, with the conduction band edge known to be at the Γ-point. In contrast, for six or more layers the band gap becomes direct, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The high-quality monolayer and bilayer samples enable us to resolve, in the photoluminescence spectra, the band-edge exciton (A) from the exciton (B) involving holes in a pair of deeper valence bands, degenerate at Γ, with a splitting that agrees with both µARPES data and the results of DFT modeling. Due to the difference in symmetry between these two valence bands, light emitted by the A-exciton should be predominantly polarized perpendicular to the plane of the two-dimensional crystal, which we have verified for few-layer InSe crystals.

20.
Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaay8897, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064323

RESUMEN

When two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals are brought into close proximity to form a van der Waals heterostructure, neighbouring crystals may influence each other's properties. Of particular interest is when the two crystals closely match and a moiré pattern forms, resulting in modified electronic and excitonic spectra, crystal reconstruction, and more. Thus, moiré patterns are a viable tool for controlling the properties of 2D materials. However, the difference in periodicity of the two crystals limits the reconstruction and, thus, is a barrier to the low-energy regime. Here, we present a route to spectrum reconstruction at all energies. By using graphene which is aligned to two hexagonal boron nitride layers, one can make electrons scatter in the differential moiré pattern which results in spectral changes at arbitrarily low energies. Further, we demonstrate that the strength of this potential relies crucially on the atomic reconstruction of graphene within the differential moiré super cell.

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