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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111048

RESUMEN

China's rapid development and urbanization have created large numbers of migrant laborers, with increasing numbers of young adults and couples migrating from rural areas to large cities. As a result, a large number of children have become left-behind children (LBC), who were left behind in their hometown and cared for by one parent, grandparents, relatives or friends. Some of these LBC have a chance to be college students, who are called college students with left-behind experience. Some studies have indicated that the absence of these college students' parents during childhood may cause them to have some mental health problems. Therefore, we want to examine the effects of left-behind experience on college students' mental health and compare the prevalence of mental health problems in left-behind students and control students (without left-behind experience). For this purpose, a cross-sectional comparative survey was conducted in a coastal city of Shandong province, Eastern China. First, 1605 college students from three universities (national admissions) were recruited, including 312 students with left-behind experience and 1293 controls. Their mental health level was measured using Symptom Check-list 90 (containing ten dimensions: somatization, obsessive-compulsion (OCD), interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, terror, paranoia, psychoticism, and other symptoms). The results showed that left-behind experience was a significant risk factor for the mental health problems of college students (OR = 2.27, 95%CI: 1.73 to 2.97). A comparison of the two groups, after controlling the confounding factors using the coarsened exact matching (CEM) algorithm, showed that the prevalence of mental health problems was 35.69% (n = 311) among the left-behind students, while it was 19.68% (n = 1194) among the controls. The two groups were significantly different in terms of these ten dimensions of the SCL-90 scale (p < 0.001), and the prevalence of each dimension among the left-behind students was consistently higher than that among the controls. In addition, different left-behind experiences and social supports during childhood had different effects on mental health problems.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183439

RESUMEN

RipX of Ralstonia solanacearum is translocated into host cells by a type III secretion system and acts as a harpin-like protein to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco plants. The molecular events in association with RipX-induced signaling transduction have not been fully elucidated. This work reports that transient expression of RipX induced a yellowing phenotype in Nicotiana benthamiana, coupled with activation of the defense reaction. Using yeast two-hybrid and split-luciferase complementation assays, mitochondrial ATP synthase F1 subunit α (ATPA) was identified as an interaction partner of RipX from N. benthamiana. Although a certain proportion was found in mitochondria, the YFP-ATPA fusion was able to localize to the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. RFP-RipX fusion was found from the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Moreover, ATPA interacted with RipX at both the cell membrane and cytoplasm in vivo. Silencing of the atpA gene had no effect on the appearance of yellowing phenotype induced by RipX. However, the silenced plants improved the resistance to R. solanacearum. Moreover, qRT-PCR and promoter GUS fusion experiments revealed that the transcript levels of atpA were evidently reduced in response to expression of RipX. These data demonstrated that RipX exerts a suppressive effect on the transcription of atpA gene, to induce defense reaction in N. benthamiana.

3.
Vaccine ; 38(10): 2298-2306, 2020 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035708

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal colonisation by S. pneumoniae is a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal infections. Influenza co-infection leads to increased susceptibility to secondary pneumonia and mortality during influenza epidemics. Increased bacterial load and impaired immune responses to pneumococcus caused by influenza play a role in this increased susceptibility. Using an Experimental Human Challenge Model and influenza vaccines, we examined symptoms experienced by healthy adults during nasal co-infection with S. pneumoniae and live attenuated influenza virus. METHODS: Randomised, blinded administration of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) or Tetravalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (TIV) either preceded bacterial inoculation or followed it, separated by a 3-day interval. The presence and density of S. pneumoniae was determined from nasal washes. Participants completed a symptom questionnaire from the first intervention until 6 days post second intervention. RESULTS: The timing and type of influenza vaccination and presence of S. pneumoniae in the nasopharynx significantly affected symptom reporting. In the study where influenza vaccination preceded bacterial inoculation: nasal symptoms were less common in the LAIV group than the TIV group (OR 0.57, p < 0.01); with colonisation status only affecting the TIV group where more symptoms were reported by colonised participants compared to non-colonised participants following inoculation (n = 12/23 [52.17%] vs n = 13/38 [34.21%], respectively; p < 0.05). In the study where influenza vaccination followed bacterial inoculation: no difference was seen in the symptoms reported between the LAIV and TIV groups following inoculation and subsequent vaccination; and symptoms were unaffected by colonisation status. CONCLUSION: Symptoms experienced during live viral vaccination and bacterial co-infection in the nasopharynx are directly affected by the precedence of the pathogen acquisition. Symptoms were directly affected by nasal pneumococcal colonisation but only when TIV was given prior to bacterial exposure.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18213, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852078

RESUMEN

We aimed to investigate the association between excess body mass index (BMI) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in an operative population, and the impact of higher BMI on clinicopathological aggressiveness of PTC.Charts of 10,844 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules undergoing partial or total thyroidectomy between 1993 and 2015 were reviewed. Patients diagnosed with PTC were stratified in 4 groups: BMI < 18.5 (underweight), 18.5 ≤ BMI < 24 (normal-weight), 24 ≤ BMI < 28 (overweight) and BMI ≥ 28(obese). The impacts of high BMI on prevalence and clinicopathological parameters of PTC were retrospectively analyzed in both univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis.For every 5-unit increase in body mass, the odds of risk-adjusted malignance increased by 36.6%. The individuals who were obese and overweight were associated with high risk of thyroid cancer [odds ratio (OR)= 1.982, P < .001; OR= 1.377, P < .001; respectively] compared to normal weight patients, and this positive association was found in both genders. Obesity was independent predictors for tumors larger than 1 cm (OR = 1.562, P < .001) and multifocality (OR = 1.616, P < .001). However, there was no difference in cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis among BMI groups. Crude analysis showed BMI was associated with advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (relative risk, approximately 1.23 per 5 BMI units, P < .001), but this association disappeared after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity was significantly associated with the risk of PTC in a large, operative population. Higher BMI was significantly associated with larger tumor size and multifocal tumor.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Obesidad/complicaciones , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/diagnóstico , Tiroidectomía/métodos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/etiología , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/etiología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/cirugía
5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30960040

RESUMEN

Electrically conductive polymer composites are in high demand for modern technologies, however, the intrinsic brittleness of conducting conjugated polymers and the moderate electrical conductivity of engineering polymer/carbon composites have highly constrained their applications. In this work, super high electrical conductive polymer composites were produced by a novel hot embossing design. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites containing short carbon fiber (SCF) exhibited an electrical percolation threshold at 0.45 wt % and reached a saturated electrical conductivity of 49 S/m at 8 wt % of SCF. When reducing the sample thickness from 1.0 to 0.1 mm by the hot embossing process, a compression-induced percolation threshold occurred at 0.3 wt %, while the electrical conductivity was further enhanced to 378 S/m at 8 wt % SCF. Furthermore, the addition of a second nanofiller of 1 wt %, such as carbon nanotube or conducting carbon black, further increased the electrical conductivity of the PDMS/SCF (8 wt %) composites to 909 S/m and 657 S/m, respectively. The synergy of the densified conducting filler network by the mechanical compression and the hierarchical micro-/nano-scale filler approach has realized super high electrically conductive, yet mechanically flexible, polymer composites for modern flexible electronics applications.

6.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(1): 157-171, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017270

RESUMEN

The prevalence of psoriasis is increasing, and poses a serious risk to human health and quality of life. Psoriasis, a chronic immune­mediated skin disease with epidermal hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, is associated with numerous complications, including metabolic syndromes that are regulated by sirtuins (SIRTs) via deacetylation. As they serve a necessary function in inflammation and metabolism, SIRTs are considered to link inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have indicated that SIRTs serve a function in the pathophysiology of psoriasis, but to date no detailed research has been conducted investigating the expression levels and patterns of SIRTs in psoriasis. The present study investigated the abnormal expression of SIRTs in psoriasis and provided a theoretical foundation for the treatment and prognosis of psoriasis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)­α­stimulated HaCaT cells and an imiquimod­induced psoriasis mouse model were used to produce in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. Psoriasis clinical specimens (psoriasis area and severity index >10; n=22) and normal group specimens (n=22) were obtained from human subjects. The mRNA and protein expression levels in human and mouse skin lesions and TNF­α­stimulated HaCaT cells were detected using reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT­qPCR) and western blotting, and compared with the control groups. The expression patterns of SIRT proteins were investigated using immunofluorescence (IF) staining. The expression levels of SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4 and SIRT5 were downregulated while those of SIRT6 and SIRT7 were upregulated in skin lesions and TNF­α­stimulated HaCaT cells compared with the control group as determined by RT­qPCR, western blotting and IF. Statistically significant differences were observed in vivo and in vitro. P­values of SIRT1­7 mRNA are less than 0.05 in RT­qPCR, and the P­values of SIRT1­7 proteins are less than 0.05 except for SIRT4 in the western blot analysis. SIRTs serve notable functions in severe psoriasis dermatitis, with the overexpression of SIRT6 and SIRT7 potentially induced by the adaptive immune response, and the downregulation of SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4 and SIRT5 may be a result of an internal environment imbalance in vivo. Psoriasis is an inflammation and metabolism­associated disease mediated by the SIRT family. The present results provide a novel potential mechanism and strategy for the treatment of psoriasis by modulating the function and expression of SIRTs.


Asunto(s)
Psoriasis/metabolismo , Sirtuinas/biosíntesis , Animales , Línea Celular , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Imiquimod/efectos adversos , Imiquimod/farmacología , Ratones , Psoriasis/inducido químicamente , Psoriasis/genética , Psoriasis/patología , Sirtuinas/genética
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917496

RESUMEN

High out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for chronic disease care often contribute directly to household poverty. Although previous studies have explored the determinants of impoverishment in China, few published studies have compared levels of impoverishment before and after the New Health Care Reform (NHCR) in households with members with chronic diseases (hereafter referred to as chronic households). Our study explored this using data from the fourth and fifth National Health Service Surveys conducted in Shaanxi Province. In total, 1938 households in 2008 and 7700 households in 2013 were included in the analysis. Rates of impoverishment were measured using a method proposed by the World Health Organization. Multilevel logistic modeling was used to explore the influence of the NHCR on household impoverishment. Our study found that the influence of NHCR on impoverishment varied by residential location. After the reform, in rural areas, there was a significant decline in impoverishment, although the impoverishment rate remained high. There was little change in urban areas. In addition, impoverishment in the poorest households did not decline after the NHCR. Our findings are important for policy makers in particular for evaluating reform effectiveness, informing directions for health policy improvement, and highlighting achievements in the efforts to alleviate the economic burden of households that have members with chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/economía , Reforma de la Atención de Salud/economía , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
Chemistry ; 25(16): 4040-4046, 2019 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615246

RESUMEN

A new route for obtaining N-doped carbon nanosheets through an in situ solid-state thermal organic-inorganic polymerization and carbonization method, with glucose and melamine as precursors, due to different temperature intervals for glucose or melamine polymerization, is reported. At a current rate of 0.2 C, as a cathode for a lithium-sulfur cell, the N-doped carbon nanosheet/sulfur hybrid delivers a high capacity of 1313 and 722 mA h g-1 in the 1st and 200th cycles, respectively; these values are over 40 % higher than that of cells with glucose-derived carbon nanosheets.

9.
Meat Sci ; 147: 82-90, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218956

RESUMEN

The study explored the preservation effect of Portulaca oleracea L. extract (POE) on pork meat under refrigerated conditions for 9 days. POE was tested for antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity in vitro and the results showed that POE has strong antioxidant activity and has antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus to some extent. Effect of POE in different levels (0.25%, 0.50% and 1.0%) on quality and shelflife of pork meat storage were evaluated. Results showed that the treatments of POE significantly inhibited microbial growth,delayed lipids oxidation, reduced values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total volatile base­nitrogen (TVB-N), increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05). Concomitantly, 1.0%POE and 0.50%POE treatments had better appearance compared with control after 9 days storage. All results confirmed that POE could effectively maintain the quality of chilled pork compared to control.


Asunto(s)
Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Portulaca , Carne Roja/análisis , Carne Roja/microbiología , Adulto , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Color , Femenino , Calidad de los Alimentos , Almacenamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido , Masculino , Refrigeración/métodos , Porcinos , Sustancias Reactivas al Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análisis
10.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 20(3): 372-381, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353625

RESUMEN

Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, a polar flagellated bacterium, causes citrus canker disease worldwide. In this study, we found that the X. citri ssp. citri response regulator VemR plays a regulatory role in flagellum-derived cell motility. Deletion of the vemR gene resulted in a reduction in cell motility, as well as reductions in virulence and exopolysaccharide production. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated that vemR is transcribed in an operon together with rpoN2 and fleQ. In the vemR mutant, the flagellar distal rod gene flgG was significantly down-regulated. Because flgG is also rpoN2 dependent, we speculated that VemR and RpoN2 physically interact, which was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid and maltose-binding protein (MBP) pull-down assays. This suggested that the transcription of flgG is synergistically controlled by VemR and RpoN2. To confirm this, we constructed a vemR and rpoN2 double mutant. In this mutant, the reductions in cell motility and flgG transcription were unable to be restored by the expression of either vemR or rpoN2 alone. In contrast, the expression of both vemR and rpoN2 together in the double mutant restored the wild-type phenotype. Together, our data demonstrate that the response regulator VemR functions as an RpoN2 cognate activator to positively regulate the transcription of the rod gene flgG in X. citri ssp. citri.

11.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 47(3): 187-193, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499203

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are very common. Ultrasound (US) and fine needle aspiration (FNA) are both integral in cancer screening. This study investigated the concordance between thyroid nodule sizes measured by US and gross pathologic examination and their relationship with malignancy. METHODS: A retrospective design was used to select consecutive patients with proven carcinoma of the thyroid. The number and maximum diameter of nodules, rates and types of malignancy, as well as predictors of malignancy were determined. RESULTS: The 10 944 patients examined had 15 283 thyroid nodules, 44.6% of which were malignant. Of the 4449 nodules sampled by FNA and the 8748 not sampled by FNA, 76.5% and 30.5% were malignant, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (NPVs), and overall accuracy of FNA based on final pathology were 97.9%, 96.3%, 98.8%, 93.5%, and 97.5%, respectively. Nodule sizes determined by US were comparable with most nodules having either the same size range (n = 2959, 77.7%) or differing only by one size range (n = 770, 20.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid nodule size is inversely related to malignancy risk, as larger nodules have lower malignancy rates. Nodule size estimated by US shows relatively good correlation with final pathologic size. However, thyroid nodules should undergo FNA regardless of size. If the FNA is not benign, nodule size should influence therapeutic decision making.


Asunto(s)
Nódulo Tiroideo/diagnóstico por imagen , Nódulo Tiroideo/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Biopsia con Aguja Fina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Ultrasonografía
12.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(6): 697-707, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540527

RESUMEN

Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease. Here, we report that a large FAD-linked oxidase encoded by RSc0454 in GMI1000 is required for pathogenicity. The FAD-linked oxidase encoded by RSc0454 is composed of 1,345 amino acids, including DUF3683, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) domains. The RSc0454 protein showed both LDH and SDH activities. To investigate its role in pathogenicity, a deletion mutant of the RSc0454 gene was constructed in GMI1000, which was impaired in its ability to cause bacterial wilt disease in tomato. A single DUF3683, LDH, or SDH domain was insufficient to restore bacterial pathogenicity. Mutagenesis of the RSc0454 gene did not affect growth rate but caused cell aggregation at the bottom of the liquid nutrient medium, which was reversed by exogenous applications of lactate, fumarate, pyruvate, and succinate. qRT-PCR and promoter LacZ fusion experiments demonstrated that RSc0454 gene transcription was induced by lactate and fumarate (both substrates of LDH). Compared with the downregulation of the succinate dehydrogenase gene sdhBADC and the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldh, RSc0454 gene transcription was enhanced in planta. This suggests that the oxidase encoded by RSc0454 was involved in a redox balance, which is in line with the different living conditions of R. solanacearum.


Asunto(s)
Oxidorreductasas , Ralstonia solanacearum , Virulencia , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleótido/metabolismo , Oxidorreductasas/genética , Oxidorreductasas/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Ralstonia solanacearum/enzimología , Ralstonia solanacearum/genética , Ralstonia solanacearum/patogenicidad , Eliminación de Secuencia , Virulencia/genética
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 871, 2018 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458772

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic disease has become one of the leading causes of poverty in China, which posed heavy economic burden on individuals, households and society, and accounts for an estimated 80% of deaths and 70% of disability-adjusted life-years lost now in China. This study aims to assess the effect of chronic diseases on health payment-induced poverty in Shaanxi Province, China. METHODS: The data was from the 5th National Health Survey of Shaanxi Province, which was part of China's National Health Service Survey (NHSS) conducted in 2013. Totally, 20,700 households were selected for analysis. We used poverty headcount, poverty gap and mean positive poverty gap to assess the incidence, depth and intensity of poverty before and after health payment, respectively. Logistic regression models were further undertaken to evaluate the influence of percentage of chronic patients in households on the health payment-induced poverty with the control of other covariates. RESULTS: In rural areas, the incidence of poverty increased 31.90% before and after health payment in the household group when the percentage of chronic patients in the households was 0, and the poverty gap rose from 932.77 CNY to 1253.85 CNY (50.56% increased). In the group when the percentage of chronic patients in the households was 1-40% and 41-50%, the poverty gap increased 76.78 and 89.29%, respectively. In the group when the percentage of chronic patients in the households was 51~ 100%, the increase of poverty headcount and poverty gap was 49.89 and 46.24%. In the logistic model, we found that the proportion of chronic patients in the households was closely related with the health payment-induced poverty. The percentage of chronic disease in the households increased by 1 %, the incidence of poverty increased by 1.01 times. On the other hand, the male household head and the household's head with higher educational lever were seen as protective factors for impoverishment. CONCLUSIONS: With the percentage of chronic patients in the households growing, the health payment-induced poverty increases sharply. Furthermore, the households members with more chronic diseases in rural areas were more likely to suffer poverty than those in urban areas. Our analysis emphasizes the need to protect households from the impoverishment of chronic diseases, and our findings will provide suggestions for further healthcare reforms in China and guidance for vulnerable groups.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Pobreza/economía , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica/economía , Personas con Discapacidad , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Programas Nacionales de Salud/economía , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Salud Rural/economía , Salud Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Salud Urbana/economía , Salud Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428518

RESUMEN

Background: This study aims to assess the specific difference of the health-related quality of life between people with Parkinson's and non-Parkinson's. Methods: A total of 1710 people were drawn from a prospective study with a smartphone-based survey named '100 for Parkinson's' to assess health-related quality of life. The EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and the EQ visual analogue scale were used to measure health-related quality of life and a linear mixed model was used to analyze the difference. Results: The mean difference of EQ-5D-5L index values between people with Parkinson's and non-Parkinson's was 0.15 (95%CI: 0.12, 0.18) at baseline; it changed to 0.17 (95%CI: 0.14, 0.20) at the end of study. The mean difference of EQ visual analogue scale scores between them increased from 10.18 (95%CI: 7.40, 12.96) to 12.19 (95%CI: 9.41, 14.97) from baseline to the end of study. Conclusion: Data can be captured from the participants' own smart devices and support the notion that health-related quality of life for people with Parkinson's is lower than non-Parkinson's. This analysis provides useful evidence for the EQ-5D instrument and is helpful for public health specialists and epidemiologists to assess the health needs of people with Parkinson's and indirectly improve their health status.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Parkinson/psicología , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dimensión del Dolor , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Teléfono Inteligente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12326, 2018 08 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120264

RESUMEN

This population-based cross-sectional study aims to explore the effect of China's Rural Hospital Delivery Subsidy (RHDS) policy on the utilization of women's hospital delivery between rural and urban areas. A total of 2398 women were drawn from the Fourth and Fifth National Health Service Surveys, from the Shaanxi province. A generalized linear mixed model was used to analyze the influence of the RHDS policy on the hospital delivery rate. Concentration index and decomposition methods were used to explore the equity of hospital delivery utilization. Prior to introduction of the RHDS policy, the difference in hospital delivery rates was -0.09 (95% CL: -0.16, -0.01) between rural and urban women when adjusting the influence of socioeconomic factors on hospital delivery; after implementation of the policy, the difference was reduced to 0.02 (95% CL: -0.01, 0.06). The horizontal inequity index was reduced from 0.084 to 0.009 for rural women and from 0.070 to 0.011 for urban women. China's Rural Hospital Delivery Subsidy policy had some positive effect on reducing the gap between rural and urban women's hospital delivery rate and inequity. However, there is still a pro-rich inequity of hospital delivery utilization for both rural and urban women.


Asunto(s)
Parto Obstétrico , Política de Salud , Hospitales Rurales , Salud Materna , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Salud Materna/legislación & jurisprudencia , Embarazo , Servicios de Salud Rural , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
16.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 882, 2018 07 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012123

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the awareness of mental health problems in late life is rising, the association between financial transfers to the older generations from children and mental health at older ages in China has received little attention. This study examines the association between financial transfers from children and depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly residents (from 45 years of age and older) in China. METHODS: We used the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2013) (n = 10,935) This included data on financial transfers from all non-co-resident children to their parents, and the individual scores on depressive symptoms as measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CESD-10). A two-level - individual and community levels - mixed linear model was deployed to explore their association. RESULTS: Financial transfers from children to parents was the major component of inter-generational financial transfers in Chinese families. A higher financial support from non-co-resident children was signivicantly and positively related to fewer depressive symptoms (coef. = - 0.195,P-value< 0.001) among both the mid-aged and elderly parents. CONCLUSIONS: Financial transfers from non-co-resident children are associated with depressive symptoms among mid-aged and elderly residents in the China situation. Taxation and other policy measures should encourage and facilitate these type of financial transfers and prevent a decrease of support from children to parents.


Asunto(s)
Niños Adultos , Depresión/economía , Donaciones , Padres , Jubilación , Actividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Cuidado del Niño , China , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Jubilación/economía , Jubilación/psicología
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 17(1): 82, 2018 06 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907150

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hypertension has become a global health challenge given its high prevalence and but low awareness and detection. Whether the actual prevalence of hypertension has been estimated is important, especially for the poor. This study aimed to measure tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence of hypertension and compare the inequity between them in China. METHODS: Data were derived from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2011. By using the multistage, stratified, random sampling method, 12,168 respondents aged 18 or older were identified for analysis. Both tested prevalence (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or/and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or /and current use any of antihypertensive medication) and self-reported prevalence (ever diagnosed with hypertension by a doctor) were used to measure the prevalence of hypertension. The concentration index was employed to measure the extent of inequality in tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence. A decomposition method, based on a Probit model, was used to analyze income-related horizontal inequity of tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence. RESULTS: The tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence of total respondents were 28.8% [95% CI (28.0%, 29.6%)] and 15.7% [95% CI (15.0%, 16.3%)], and 26.4% [95% CI (25.1%, 27.6%)] and 19.0% [95% CI (17.9%, 20.1%)] in urban areas, and 30.3% [95% CI (29.3%, 31.4%)] and 13.5% [95% CI (12.7%, 14.3%)] in rural areas. The horizontal inequity indexes of mean tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence were - 0.0494 and 0.1203 of total respondents, - 0.0736 and 0.0748 in urban area, and - 0.0177 and 0.0466 in rural area respectively, indicating pro-poor inequity in tested prevalence and pro-rich inequity in self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Economic status, education attainment and age were key factors of the pro-poor inequity in tested prevalence. Economic status, area and age were key factors to explain the poor-rich inequity in self-reported prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed self-reported prevalence of hypertension was much lower than tested prevalence in China, while a larger gap between self-reported and tested prevalence was found in rural areas. Our study suggested social strategies aiming at narrowing economic gap and regional disparities, reducing educational inequity, and facilitating health conditions of the elderly should be implemented. Finally, awareness raising campaigns to test hypertension in rural area need be strengthened by health education programs and improving the access to public health service, especially for those who do not engage with regular health checkups.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión/epidemiología , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Concienciación , Presión Sanguínea , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 502(4): 479-485, 2018 08 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859186

RESUMEN

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is the causal agent of citrus canker, a serious bacterial disease that affects citrus trees worldwide. The ectopic expression of TAL effector AvrXa7 in Xcc suppressed canker development. The Xcc strain expressing avrXa7 induced a yellow symptom around the inoculation site. Transcriptome analysis revealed 315 differentially expressed genes, which were categorized into several functional groups. The more interesting genes were those involved in the biosynthesis of terpene and ethylene. In particular, the linoleate 13 S-lipoxygenase gene CsLOX2-1 was found to possess the AvrXa7 binding sequence in the promoter region. The recognition of AvrXa7 to the CsLOX2-1 promoter was subsequently confirmed by yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments. This demonstrated that the TALE effector AvrXa7 promotes CsLOX2-1 expression by directly binding to the promoter sequence. Our findings contribute a valuable clue to identifying the potential genes that can be used to prevent citrus canker.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Citrus/genética , Citrus/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/genética , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Efectores Tipo Activadores de la Transcripción/genética , Xanthomonas/genética , Xanthomonas/patogenicidad , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Agentes de Control Biológico , Citrus/metabolismo , Expresión Génica Ectópica , Genes de Plantas , Lipooxigenasa/genética , Lipooxigenasa/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , Efectores Tipo Activadores de la Transcripción/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
19.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1171, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942288

RESUMEN

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is the major causal agent of citrus canker disease. The XAC1347 gene, which encodes a conserved membrane protein in Xcc, is required for virulence during infection. However, the molecular events mediated by XAC1347 remain unclear. In this study, we reported that XAC1347 gene is positively regulated by two component regulatory system ColRS and required for type III secretion system function. A non-polar deletion mutant of the XAC1347 gene resulted in a Hrp minus phenotype in plants and reduced copper homeostasis. Real-time PCR experiments indicated that XAC1347 gene is induced by copper ions. The expression levels of representative genes from four hrp operons, including hrpB1, hrcV, hrpF, and hrpD6, were reduced in XAC1347 mutant, indicating that XAC1347 is involved hrp gene expression.

20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 16(1): 41, 2018 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: China has three basic health insurance schemes: Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) and New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS). This study aimed to compare the equity of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of residents under any two of the schemes. METHODS: Using data from the 5th National Health Services Survey of Shaanxi Province, China, coarsened exact matching method was employed to control confounding factors. We included a matched sample of 6802 respondents between UEBMI and URBMI, 34,169 respondents between UEBMI and NRCMS, and 36,928 respondents between URBMI and NRCMS. HRQoL was measured by EQ-5D-3L based on the Chinese-specific value set. Concentration index was adopted to assess health inequality and was decomposed into its contributing factors to explain health inequality. RESULTS: After matching, the horizontal inequity indexes were 0.0036 and 0.0045 in UEBMI and URBMI, 0.0035 and 0.0058 in UEBMI and NRCMS, and 0.0053 and 0.0052 in URBMI and NRCMS respectively, which were mainly explained by age, educational and economic statuses. The findings demonstrated the pro-rich health inequity was much higher for the rural scheme than that for the urban ones. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need to consolidate all three schemes by administrating uniformly, merging funds pooling and benefit packages. Based on the contributing factors, strategies aim to facilitate health conditions of the elderly, narrow economic gap, and reduce educational inequity, are essential. This study will provide evidence-based strategies on consolidating the fragmented health schemes towards reducing health inequity in both China and other developing countries.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Seguro de Salud/organización & administración , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Anciano , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven
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