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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(12): 123909, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972398

RESUMEN

We present an experimental setup developed to perform optical spectroscopy experiments (Raman scattering and photoluminescence measurements) with a micrometer spatial resolution in an extreme environment of low temperature, high magnetic field, and high pressure. This unique experimental setup, to the best of our knowledge, allows us to deeply explore the phase diagram of condensed matter systems by independently tuning these three thermodynamic parameters while monitoring the low-energy excitations (electronic, phononic, or magnetic excitations) to spatially map the Raman scattering response or to investigate objects with low dimensions. We apply this technique to bulk FePS3, a layered antiferromagnet with a Néel temperature of T ≈ 120 K.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4037, 2020 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788704

RESUMEN

Excitons with binding energies of a few hundreds of meV control the optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Knowledge of the fine structure of these excitons is therefore essential to understand the optoelectronic properties of these 2D materials. Here we measure the exciton fine structure of MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers encapsulated in boron nitride by magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy in magnetic fields up to 30 T. The experiments performed in transverse magnetic field reveal a brightening of the spin-forbidden dark excitons in MoS2 monolayer: we find that the dark excitons appear at 14 meV below the bright ones. Measurements performed in tilted magnetic field provide a conceivable description of the neutral exciton fine structure. The experimental results are in agreement with a model taking into account the effect of the exchange interaction on both the bright and dark exciton states as well as the interaction with the magnetic field.

3.
Nanoscale ; 12(35): 18153-18159, 2020 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853305

RESUMEN

Low temperature and polarization resolved magneto-photoluminescence experiments are used to investigate the properties of dark excitons and dark trions in a monolayer of WS2 encapsulated in hexagonal BN (hBN). We find that this system is an n-type doped semiconductor and that dark trions dominate the emission spectrum. In line with previous studies on WSe2, we identify the Coulomb exchange interaction coupled neutral dark and grey excitons through their polarization properties, while an analogous effect is not observed for dark trions. Applying the magnetic field in both perpendicular and parallel configurations with respect to the monolayer plane, we determine the g-factor of dark trions to be g ∼ -8.6. Their decay rate is close to 0.5 ns, more than 2 orders of magnitude longer than that of bright excitons.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4981, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188877

RESUMEN

Atomically thin materials, like semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (S-TMDs), are highly sensitive to the environment. This opens up an opportunity to externally control their properties by changing their surroundings. Photoluminescence and reflectance contrast techniques are employed to investigate the effect of metallic substrates on optical properties of MoSe2 monolayer (ML). The optical spectra of MoSe2 MLs deposited on Pt, Au, Mo and Zr have distinctive metal-related lineshapes. In particular, a substantial variation in the intensity ratio and the energy separation between a negative trion and a neutral exciton is observed. It is shown that using metals as substrates affects the doping of S-TMD MLs. The explanation of the effect involves the Schottky barrier formation at the interface between the MoSe2 ML and the metallic substrates. The alignment of energy levels at the metal/semiconductor junction allows for the transfer of charge carriers between them. We argue that a proper selection of metallic substrates can be a way to inject appropriate types of carriers into the respective bands of S-TMDs.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(13): 136801, 2019 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697524

RESUMEN

We demonstrate that, in monolayers (MLs) of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, the s-type Rydberg series of excitonic states follows a simple energy ladder: ε_{n}=-Ry^{*}/(n+δ)^{2}, n=1,2,…, in which Ry^{*} is very close to the Rydberg energy scaled by the dielectric constant of the medium surrounding the ML and by the reduced effective electron-hole mass, whereas the ML polarizability is accounted for only by δ. This is justified by the analysis of experimental data on excitonic resonances, as extracted from magneto-optical measurements of a high-quality WSe_{2} ML encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and well reproduced with an analytically solvable Schrödinger equation when approximating the electron-hole potential in the form of a modified Kratzer potential. Applying our convention to other MoSe_{2}, WS_{2}, MoS_{2} MLs encapsulated in hBN, we estimate an apparent magnitude of δ for each of the studied structures. Intriguingly, δ is found to be close to zero for WSe_{2} as well as for MoS_{2} monolayers, what implies that the energy ladder of excitonic states in these two-dimensional structures resembles that of Rydberg states of a three-dimensional hydrogen atom.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(9): 096803, 2019 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524465

RESUMEN

Monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides are two-dimensional direct-gap systems which host tightly bound excitons with an internal degree of freedom corresponding to the valley of the constituting carriers. Strong spin-orbit interaction and the resulting ordering of the spin-split subbands in the valence and conduction bands makes the lowest-lying excitons in WX_{2} (X being S or Se) spin forbidden and optically dark. With polarization-resolved photoluminescence experiments performed on a WSe_{2} monolayer encapsulated in a hexagonal boron nitride, we show how the intrinsic exchange interaction in combination with the applied in-plane and/or out-of-plane magnetic fields enables one to probe and manipulate the valley degree of freedom of the dark excitons.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2335, 2019 05 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133651

RESUMEN

The intriguing physics of carrier-carrier interactions, which likewise affect the operation of light emitting devices, stimulate the research on semiconductor structures at high densities of excited carriers, a limit reachable at large pumping rates or in systems with long-lived electron-hole pairs. By electrically injecting carriers into WSe2/MoS2 type-II heterostructures which are indirect in real and k-space, we establish a large population of typical optically silent interlayer excitons. Here, we reveal their emission spectra and show that the emission energy is tunable by an applied electric field. When the population is further increased by suppressing the radiative recombination rate with the introduction of an hBN spacer between WSe2 and MoS2, Auger-type and exciton-exciton annihilation processes become important. These processes are traced by the observation of an up-converted emission demonstrating that excitons gaining energy in non-radiative Auger processes can be recovered and recombine radiatively.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 29(32): 325705, 2018 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781447

RESUMEN

Embedding a WS2 monolayer in flakes of hexagonal boron nitride allowed us to resolve and study the photoluminescence response due to both singlet and triplet states of negatively charged excitons (trions) in this atomically thin semiconductor. The energy separation between the singlet and triplet states has been found to be relatively small reflecting rather weak effects of the electron-electron exchange interaction for the trion triplet in a WS2 monolayer, which involves two electrons with the same spin but from different valleys. Polarization-resolved experiments demonstrate that the helicity of the excitation light is better preserved in the emission spectrum of the triplet trion than in that of the singlet trion. Finally, the singlet (intravalley) trions are found to be observable even at ambient conditions whereas the emission due to the triplet (intervalley) trions is only efficient at low temperatures.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(13): 136401, 2016 Sep 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27715109

RESUMEN

We report on optical reflectivity experiments performed on Cd_{3}As_{2} over a broad range of photon energies and magnetic fields. The observed response clearly indicates the presence of 3D massless charge carriers. The specific cyclotron resonance absorption in the quantum limit implies that we are probing massless Kane electrons rather than symmetry-protected 3D Dirac particles. The latter may appear at a smaller energy scale and are not directly observed in our infrared experiments.

10.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(5): 055901, 2016 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26790102

RESUMEN

We have studied the Raman and infrared spectral response of TbMn2O5 under an applied magnetic field parallel to the easy magnetic a-axis at 4.2 K. Strong spin-lattice coupling in TbMn2O5 is evidenced by a frequency shift of Raman and infrared phonons as a function of magnetic field compared to the phonon response of BiMn2O5 that remains unaffected. The magnetic field behavior of the highest frequency phonons retraces the polarization switching in TbMn2O5 and shows an important frequency softening below 3 T that is modulated by the J 3 and J 4 exchange parameters. The role of the Tb(3+) spin alignment with H is interpreted in terms of a local lattice striction and the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism to the magnetoelectric process is evaluated.

11.
Sci Rep ; 6: 19087, 2016 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26750455

RESUMEN

The Faraday effect is a representative magneto-optical phenomenon, resulting from the transfer of angular momentum between interacting light and matter in which time-reversal symmetry has been broken by an externally applied magnetic field. Here we report on the Faraday rotation induced in the prominent 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3 due to bulk interband excitations. The origin of this non-resonant effect, extraordinarily strong among other non-magnetic materials, is traced back to the specific Dirac-type Hamiltonian for Bi2Se3, which implies that electrons and holes in this material closely resemble relativistic particles with a non-zero rest mass.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(18): 186401, 2015 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26001011

RESUMEN

We report on magneto-optical studies of Bi2Se3, a representative member of the 3D topological insulator family. Its electronic states in bulk are shown to be well described by a simple Dirac-type Hamiltonian for massive particles with only two parameters: the fundamental band gap and the band velocity. In a magnetic field, this model implies a unique property-spin splitting equal to twice the cyclotron energy: Es=2Ec. This explains the extensive magnetotransport studies concluding a fortuitous degeneracy of the spin and orbital split Landau levels in this material. The Es=2Ec match differentiates the massive Dirac electrons in bulk Bi2Se3 from those in quantum electrodynamics, for which Es=Ec always holds.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(12): 126804, 2015 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25860767

RESUMEN

We present magneto-Raman scattering studies of electronic inter-Landau level excitations in quasineutral graphene samples with different strengths of Coulomb interaction. The band velocity associated with these excitations is found to depend on the dielectric environment, on the index of Landau level involved, and to vary as a function of the magnetic field. This contradicts the single-particle picture of noninteracting massless Dirac electrons but is accounted for by theory when the effect of electron-electron interaction is taken into account. Raman active, zero-momentum inter-Landau level excitations in graphene are sensitive to electron-electron interactions due to the nonapplicability of the Kohn theorem in this system, with a clearly nonparabolic dispersion relation.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(1): 017602, 2012 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22304291

RESUMEN

Graphite, a model (semi)metal with trigonally warped bands, is investigated with a magnetoabsorption experiment and viewed as an electronic system in the vicinity of the Lifshitz transition. A characteristic pattern of up to 20 cyclotron resonance harmonics has been observed. This large number of resonances, their relative strengths and characteristic shapes trace the universal properties of the electronic states near a separatrix in momentum space. Quantum-mechanical perturbative methods with respect to the trigonal warping term hardly describe the data which are, on the other hand, fairly well reproduced within a quasiclassical approach and conventional band structure model. Trigonal symmetry is preserved in graphite in contrast to a similar system, bilayer graphene.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(21): 216603, 2011 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22181904

RESUMEN

The energy dependence of the electronic scattering time is probed by Landau level spectroscopy in quasineutral multilayer epitaxial graphene. From the broadening of overlapping Landau levels we find that the scattering rate 1/τ increases linearly with energy ϵ. This implies a surprising property of the Landau level spectrum in graphene-the number of resolved Landau levels remains constant with the applied magnetic field. Insights are given about possible scattering mechanisms and carrier mobilities in the graphene system investigated.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(12): 126806, 2011 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22026788

RESUMEN

By using high-magnetic fields (up to 60 T), we observe compelling evidence of the integer quantum Hall effect in trilayer graphene. The magnetotransport fingerprints are similar to those of the graphene monolayer, except for the absence of a plateau at a filling factor of ν=2. At a very low filling factor, the Hall resistance vanishes due to the presence of mixed electron and hole carriers induced by disorder. The measured Hall resistivity plateaus are well reproduced theoretically, using a self-consistent Hartree calculations of the Landau levels and assuming an ABC stacking order of the three layers.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(3): 036807, 2011 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21838392

RESUMEN

Magneto-Raman-scattering experiments from the surface of graphite reveal novel features associated to purely electronic excitations which are observed in addition to phonon-mediated resonances. Graphene-like and graphite domains are identified through experiments with ∼1 µm spatial resolution performed in magnetic fields up to 32 T. Polarization resolved measurements emphasize the characteristic selection rules for electronic transitions in graphene. Graphene on graphite displays the unexpected hybridization between optical phonon and symmetric across the Dirac point inter Landau level transitions. The results open new experimental possibilities--to use light scattering methods in studies of graphene under quantum Hall effect conditions.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 103(13): 136403, 2009 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19905531

RESUMEN

We have identified the cyclotron resonance response of the purest graphene ever investigated, which can be found in nature on the surface of bulk graphite, in the form of decoupled layers from the substrate material. Probing such flakes with Landau level spectroscopy in the THz range at very low magnetic fields, we demonstrate a superior electronic quality of these ultralow density layers (n_{0} approximately 3 x 10;{9} cm;{-2}) expressed by the carrier mobility in excess of 10;{7} cm;{2}/(V * s) or scattering time of tau approximately 20 ps. These parameters set new and surprisingly high limits for intrinsic properties of graphene and represent an important challenge for further developments of current graphene technologies.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 103(18): 186803, 2009 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19905824

RESUMEN

Magneto-Raman scattering study of the E2g optical phonons in multilayer epitaxial graphene grown on a carbon face of SiC is presented. At 4.2 K in magnetic field up to 33 T, we observe a series of well-pronounced avoided crossings each time the optically active inter-Landau level transition is tuned in resonance with the E2g phonon excitation (at 196 meV). The width of the phonon Raman scattering response also shows pronounced variations and is enhanced in conditions of resonance. The experimental results are well reproduced by a model that gives directly the strength of the electron-phonon interaction.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(16): 166401, 2009 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19518730

RESUMEN

We describe an infrared transmission study of a thin layer of bulk graphite in magnetic fields up to B=34 T. Two series of absorption lines whose energy scales as sqrt[B] and B are present in the spectra and identified as contributions of massless holes at the H point and massive electrons in the vicinity of the K point, respectively. We find that the optical response of the K point electrons corresponds, over a wide range of energy and magnetic field, to a graphene bilayer with an effective interlayer coupling 2gamma_{1}, twice the value for a real graphene bilayer, which reflects the crystal ordering of bulk graphite along the c axis. The K point electrons thus behave as massive Dirac fermions with a mass enhanced twice in comparison to a true graphene bilayer.

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