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4.
Int Braz J Urol ; 50(2): 209-222, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386791

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this narrative review is to discuss the current state of research funding in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is based on the most recent edition of the course Funding for Research and Innovation in the University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine which was a three-day course with 12 hours of instruction. The course brought together leading experts in the field to comprehensively discuss the current state of research funding in Brazil. Each speaker provided a presentation on a specific topic related to research funding. After the workshop, speakers assembled relevant topics in this manuscript. RESULTS: collaborative research is critical for securing research funding. It optimizes proposal competitiveness, amplifies societal impact, and manages risks effectively. As such, fostering and supporting these collaborations is paramount for both researchers and funding agencies. To maintain the highest integrity in research, investigators involved in these collaborations must disclose any relationships that could potentially influence the outcomes or interpretation of their projects. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, the mainstay of research funding stems from public entities, with agencies such as CNPq, CAPES, and state bodies like FAPESP, FAPERJ, FAPEMIG and others at the forefront. Concurrently, industry funding offers viable pathways, especially through industry-sponsored studies, investigator-led projects, and collaborative initiatives. The Brazilian funding landscape is further enriched by innovative platforms, including crowdfunding and the contributions of institutions like the Serrapilheira Institute. Internationally, esteemed organizations such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation stand out as potential funders.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Brasil
6.
Int Braz J Urol ; 50(2): 164-177, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386787

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical anatomy of the kidney collecting system through a narrative review of the literature, highlighting its importance during diagnosis and its approach during surgical procedures for the treatment of renal stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a review about the anatomy of the kidney collecting system. We analyzed papers published in the past 40 years in the databases Pubmed, Embase and Scielo, and we included only papers in English and excluded case reports, editorials and opinions of specialists. RESULTS: Renal collecting system could be divided in four groups: A1 - kidney midzone (KM), drained by minor calyx that are dependent on the superior or the inferior caliceal groups; A2 - KM drained by crossed calyx, one draining into the superior caliceal group and another draining into the inferior caliceal group; B1 - KM drained by a major caliceal group independent of both the superior and inferior groups; and B2 - KM drained by minor calyx entering directly into the renal pelvis. Some details and anatomic variations of the collecting system are related to clinical and radiological aspects, particularly perpendicular calyces, interpyelocalyx space, position of calyces in relation to renal border, classification of the renal collecting system, infundibular diameter and the angle between the lower infundibulum and renal pelvis. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of intra-renal collecting system divisions and variations as the angle between the renal pelvis and lower infundibula, position of the calices in relationship with renal edge and the diameter and position of the calyces are important for the planning of minimally invasive renal surgeries.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos Renales , Riñón , Humanos , Riñón/diagnóstico por imagen , Riñón/cirugía , Cálices Renales/diagnóstico por imagen , Cálices Renales/cirugía , Pelvis Renal/diagnóstico por imagen , Pelvis Renal/cirugía , Cálculos Renales/diagnóstico por imagen , Cálculos Renales/cirugía , Bases de Datos Factuales
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(6): 749-756, Nov.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550279

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the histology and distribution of abdominal testicular vessels in human fetuses Patients and Methods: We studied 19 fetuses (34 testes) ranging in age from 12 to 19 weeks post-conception. The fetuses were evaluated regarding crown-rump length (CRL), total length (TL) and body weight immediately before dissection. Each testis was dissected and embedded in paraffin, from which 5 µm thick sections were obtained and stained with Masson's trichrome and Anti-CD31 antibody to quantify the vessels. The stereological analysis was carried out with the Image Pro and Image J programs, using a grid to determine volumetric densities (Vv). Means were statistically compared using the unpaired T-test (p<0.05). Results: The fetuses presented mean weight of 222.5g, mean CRL of 15.3 cm and mean TL of 23.2 cm. All testes were in the abdominal position. The mean percentage of vessels (Vv) in the upper portion of the testis was 7.6% (4.6 to 15%) and in the lower portion the mean was 5.11% (2.3 to 9.8%), with a significant difference (p=0.0001). In the analysis between the upper portion of the right and left testes (p=0.99) and in the analysis of the lower portion of the right and left testes (p=0.83), we did not observe significant differences. Conclusion: The upper portion of the abdominal testis in human fetuses had a higher concentration of vessels than the lower portion. These results suggest that manipulation of the lower end of the testis during Fowler-Stephens surgery should be avoided in order to preserve the collateral circulation.

11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(6): 775-778, Nov.-Dec. 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550287
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(5): 564-579, Sep.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506410

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objectives: This review discusses deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) diagnosis and surgery using current urological knowledge and technologies. Materials and Methods: Narrative review of deep infiltrating endometriosis that result in urological issues. We examined manuscripts from Pubmed, Embase, and Scielo's database using the following MeSH terms: ('endometriosis') AND ('urology' OR 'urological' OR 'urologist') AND ('bladder' OR'vesical') AND ('ureteral' OR 'ureter'). Selection followed PRISMA guidelines. Sample images from our records were brought to endorse the findings. Results: Thirty four related articles were chosen from 105. DIE may affect the urinary system in 52.6% of patients. Lower urinary tract symptoms may require urodynamic examination. Ultrasonography offers strong statistical yields for detecting urinary tract lesions or distortions, but magnetic resonance will confirm the diagnosis. Cystoscopy can detect active lesions, although any macroscopic visual appeal is pathognomonic. Endourology is utilized intraoperatively for bladder and ureteral assessment, however transurethral endoscopic excision of bladder lesions had higher recurrence rates. Laparoscopy is the route of choice for treatment; partial cystectomy, and bladder shaving were the most prevalent surgical treatments for bladder endometriosis. Regarding the ureteral treatment, the simple ureterolysis and complex reconstructive techniques were described in most papers. Using anatomical landmarks or neuronavigation, pelvic surgical systematization allows intraoperative neural structure identification. Conclusions: DIE in the urinary system is common, however the number of publications with high level of evidence is limited. The initial tools for diagnosis are ultrasonography and cystoscopy, but magnetic resonance is the most reliable tool. When the patient has voiding symptoms, the urodynamic examination is crucial. Laparoscopy improves lesion detection and anatomical understanding. This approach must be carried out by professionals with high expertise, since the surgery goes beyond the resection of lesions and includes the preservation of nerve structures and urinary tract reconstruction techniques.

16.
Urol Ann ; 15(3): 349-351, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37664096

RESUMEN

Penile fracture (PF) is defined as the rupture of the tunica albuginea (TA) of the corpora cavernosa (CC) caused by trauma to the erect penis. We present a case and clinical evolution of the delayed approach of PF. Physical examination showed a ventral rounded mass in the middle surface of the penile shaft, associated with mild discoloration and edema. Surgery was performed with a vertical penoscrotal incision. We found an encapsulated hematoma on the right ventral mid penile shaft connected at its base to an approximate 1 cm transverse defect on the TA and we performed debridement and excision of the hematoma. Tunical defect was repaired with PDS 3/0 simple suture. The patient had a great postoperative evolution without local complications. The early diagnosis and surgical treatment reaches better functional results, with maintenance of erectile function in patients with penile fracture.

17.
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(4): 511-514, July-Aug. 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506400
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