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1.
Drug Saf ; 47(3): 227-236, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38114757

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The ConcePTION project aims to improve the way medication use during pregnancy is studied. This includes exploring the possibility of developing a distributed data processing and analysis infrastructure using a common data model that could form a foundational platform for future surveillance and research. A prerequisite would be that data from various data access providers (DAPs) can be harmonised according to an agreed set of standard rules concerning the structure and content of the data. To do so, a reference framework of core data elements (CDEs) recommended for primary data studies on drug safety during pregnancy was previously developed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of several public and private DAPs using different primary data sources focusing on multiple sclerosis, as a pilot, to map their respective data variables and definitions with the CDE recommendations framework. METHODS: Four pregnancy registries (Gilenya, Novartis; Aubagio, Sanofi; the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists [OTIS]; Aubagio, Sanofi; the Dutch Pregnancy Drug Register, Lareb), two enhanced pharmacovigilance programmes (Gilenya PRIM, Novartis; MAPLE-MS, Merck Healthcare KGaA) and four Teratology Information Services (UK TIS, Jerusalem TIS, Zerifin TIS, Swiss TIS) participated in the study. The ConcePTION primary data source CDE includes 51 items covering administrative functions, the description of pregnancy, maternal medical history, maternal illnesses arising in pregnancy, delivery details, and pregnancy and infant outcomes. For each variable in the CDE, the DAPs identified whether their variables were: identical to the one mentioned in the CDE; derived; similar but with a divergent definition; or not available. RESULTS: The majority of the DAP data variables were either directly taken (85%, n = 305/357, range 73-94% between DAPs) or derived by combining different variables (12%, n = 42/357, range 0-24% between DAPs) to conform to the CDE variables and definitions. For very few of the DAP variables, alignment with the CDE items was not possible, either because of divergent definitions (1%, n = 3/357, range 0-2% between DAPs) or because the variables were not available (2%, n = 7/357, range 0-4% between DAPs). CONCLUSIONS: Data access providers participating in this study presented a very high proportion of variables matching the CDE items, indicating that alignment of definitions and harmonisation of data analysis by different stakeholders to accelerate and strengthen pregnancy pharmacovigilance safety data analyses could be feasible.


Asunto(s)
Crotonatos , Clorhidrato de Fingolimod , Hidroxibutiratos , Nitrilos , Toluidinas , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Recolección de Datos , Sistema de Registros
3.
J Clin Med ; 12(13)2023 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37445553

RESUMEN

The lack of inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of medicines to treat COVID-19 has made it difficult to establish evidence-based treatment guidelines for pregnant women. Our aim was to provide a review of the evolution and updates of the national guidelines on medicines used in pregnant women with COVID-19 published by the obstetrician and gynecologists' societies in thirteen countries in 2020-2022. Based on the results of the RECOVERY (Randomized Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy) trial, the national societies successively recommended against prescribing hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir and azithromycin. Guidelines for remdesivir differed completely between countries, from compassionate or conditional use to recommendation against. Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir was authorized in Australia and the UK only in research settings and was no longer recommended in the UK at the end of 2022. After initial reluctance to use corticosteroids, the results of the RECOVERY trial have enabled the recommendation of dexamethasone in case of severe COVID-19 since mid-2020. Some societies recommended prescribing tocilizumab to pregnant patients with hypoxia and systemic inflammation from June 2021. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies were authorized at the end of 2021 with conditional use in some countries, and then no longer recommended in Belgium and the USA at the end of 2022. The gradual convergence of the recommendations, although delayed compared to the general population, highlights the importance of the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials and of international collaboration to improve the pharmacological treatment of pregnant women with COVID-19.

5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(10): 1306-1312, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37343619

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the risk of congenital malformation among pregnant women exposed to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines during the first trimester of pregnancy, which is a developmental period where the foetus is at risk of teratogenicity. METHODS: Pregnant women were prospectively enrolled from March 2021 to March 2022, at the time of COVID-19 vaccination. Pregnant women exposed to at least one dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine from conception to 11 weeks of gestations and 6 days were compared with pregnant women exposed to the vaccine from 12 weeks to the end of pregnancy. The primary outcome was a confirmed congenital malformation at birth. RESULTS: A total of 1450 pregnant women were enrolled including 124 in the first trimester and 1326 in the second and third trimester. The overall proportion of congenital malformation was 0.81% (n = 1/124; 95% CI: 0.02-4.41) and 0.83% (n = 11/1326; 95% CI: 0.41-1.48) among pregnant exposed to the COVID-19 vaccine during the first and second/third trimester, respectively. First trimester exposure was not associated with a higher risk of congenital malformation with a relative risk of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.12-6.80) with no significant changes after adjustment through exploratory analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women exposed to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine before 12 weeks of gestation did not have an increased risk of congenital malformation compared with women exposed outside the teratogenic window. Because vaccination is safe and effective, emphasis must be placed on promoting vaccination during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Primer Trimestre del Embarazo , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Estudios Prospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , ARN Mensajero/genética , Vacunación/efectos adversos
6.
J Diabetes Res ; 2023: 4105993, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37206113

RESUMEN

Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus (both pregestational and gestational) is increasing worldwide, and hyperglycemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Evidence on the safety and efficacy of metformin during pregnancy has accumulated resulting in an increase in its prescription in many reports. Aims: We aimed to determine the prevalence of antidiabetic drug use (insulins and blood glucose-lowering drugs) before and during pregnancy in Switzerland and the changes therein during pregnancy and over time. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study using Swiss health insurance claims (2012-2019). We established the MAMA cohort by identifying deliveries and estimating the last menstrual period. We identified claims for any antidiabetic medication (ADM), insulins, blood glucose-lowering drugs, and individual substances within each class. We defined three groups of pattern use based on timing of dispensation: (1) dispensation of at least one ADM in the prepregnancy period and in or after trimester 2 (T2) (pregestational diabetes); (2) dispensation for the first time in or after T2 (GDM); and (3) dispensation in the prepregnancy period and no dispensation in or after T2 (discontinuers). Within the pregestational diabetes group, we further defined continuers (dispensation for the same group of ADM) and switchers (different ADM group dispensed in the prepregnancy period and in or after T2). Results: MAMA included 104,098 deliveries with a mean maternal age at delivery of 31.7. Antidiabetic dispensations among pregnancies with pregestational and gestational diabetes increased over time. Insulin was the most dispensed medication for both diseases. Between 2017 and 2019, less than 10% of pregnancies treated for pregestational diabetes continued metformin rather than switching to insulin. Metformin was offered to less than 2% of pregnancies to treat gestational diabetes (2017-2019). Conclusion: Despite its position in the guidelines and the attractive alternative that metformin represents to patients who may encounter barriers with insulin therapy, there was reluctance to prescribe it.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional , Metformina , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Suiza/epidemiología , Glucemia , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Metformina/uso terapéutico , Insulina/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Embarazo , Glucosa
7.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37243177

RESUMEN

With COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy at around 50% in the obstetric population, it is critical to identify which women should be addressed and how. Our study aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccination willingness among pregnant and postpartum women in Europe and to investigate associated determinants. This study was a cross-sectional, web-based survey conducted in Belgium, Norway, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and United Kingdom (UK) in June-August 2021. Among 3194 pregnant women, the proportions of women vaccinated or willing to be vaccinated ranged from 80.5% in Belgium to 21.5% in Norway. The associated characteristics were country of residence, chronic illness, history of flu vaccine, trimester of pregnancy, belief that COVID-19 is more severe during pregnancy, and belief that the COVID-19 vaccine is effective and safe during pregnancy. Among 1659 postpartum women, the proportions of women vaccinated or willing to be vaccinated ranged from 86.0% in the UK to 58.6% in Switzerland. The associated determinants were country of residence, chronic illness, history of flu vaccine, breastfeeding, and belief that the COVID-19 vaccine is safe during breastfeeding. Vaccine hesitancy in the obstetric population depends on medical history and especially on the opinion that the vaccine is safe and on the country of residence.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , Vacunación
8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 5(8): 100972, 2023 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37062508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the rise in the number of women giving birth at an advanced age, the association between advanced maternal age and adverse obstetrical outcomes is a growing concern in developed countries. Despite the well-established link between advanced maternal age and pregnancy-related complications, there has been limited research examining the specific risks related to unscheduled cesarean delivery in nulliparas at term. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the risks associated with unscheduled cesarean delivery in nulliparas at ≥37 weeks of gestation, comparing the outcomes of younger patients with those aged ≥40 years. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary maternity hospital in Switzerland (high-income country). The study included nulliparas who delivered a live-born infant at ≥37 weeks between January 2015 and December 2019. We excluded pregnant women who had a planned cesarean delivery, were aged <18 years, multiparous, delivered before 37 weeks of gestation, or had pregnancies that ended in stillbirth. Participants were divided into 2 age groups: (1) ≥40 years and (2) <40 years. The primary outcome was the incidence of unscheduled cesarean delivery. Its association with advanced maternal age was evaluated after adjusting for confounding factors by multivariate logistic regression, expressed as an adjusted odds ratio. Secondary outcomes included pregnancy outcomes and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 5211 patients were included: 173 in the ≥40-years (advanced maternal age) group and 5038 in the <40-years (non-advanced maternal age) group; 26.01% (95% confidence interval, 19.65-33.22; n=45) of women in the advanced maternal age group had an unscheduled cesarean delivery, whereas 15.26% (95% confidence interval, 14.28-16.29; n=769) of women in the non-advanced maternal age group underwent the procedure. Advanced maternal age was associated with unscheduled cesarean delivery, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.17; P=.024). Among vaginal deliveries, assisted procedures were performed on 29.7% (95% confidence interval, 21.9-38.4; n=38) of advanced maternal age patients vs 20.1% (95% confidence interval, 18.9-21.3; n=856) of non-advanced maternal age patients. Postpartum blood loss >1000 mL occurred in 5.8% (95% confidence interval, 2.8-10.4; n=10) of advanced maternal age patients and 3.1% (95% confidence interval, 2.6-3.6; n=156) of non-advanced maternal age patients. CONCLUSION: Advanced maternal age is associated with increased risk of unscheduled cesarean delivery among nulliparas. This provides healthcare professionals with confirmation that advanced age may represent an individual risk factor, suggesting that nulliparous patients aged over 40 years may benefit from improved information regarding the factors contributing to this pregnancy outcome.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Edad Materna , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cesárea/efectos adversos , Parto Obstétrico , Resultado del Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología
9.
Drug Saf ; 46(5): 479-491, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36976447

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The risks and benefits of medication use in pregnancy are typically established through post-marketing observational studies. As there is currently no standardised or systematic approach to the post-marketing assessment of medication safety in pregnancy, data generated through pregnancy pharmacovigilance (PregPV) research can be heterogenous and difficult to interpret. The aim of this article is to describe the development of a reference framework of core data elements (CDEs) for collection in primary source PregPV studies that can be used to standardise data collection procedures and, thereby, improve data harmonisation and evidence synthesis capabilities. METHODS: This CDE reference framework was developed within the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) ConcePTION project by experts in pharmacovigilance, pharmacoepidemiology, medical statistics, risk-benefit communication, clinical teratology, reproductive toxicology, genetics, obstetrics, paediatrics, and child psychology. The framework was produced through a scoping review of data collection systems used by established PregPV datasets, followed by extensive discussion and debate around the value, definition, and derivation of each data item identified from these systems. RESULTS: The finalised listing of CDEs comprises 98 individual data elements, arranged into 14 tables of related fields. These data elements are openly available on the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS) website ( http://www.entis-org.eu/cde ). DISCUSSION: With this set of recommendations, we aim to standardise PregPV primary source data collection processes to improve the speed at which high-quality evidence-based statements can be provided about the safety of medication use in pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Farmacovigilancia , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Niño , Recolección de Datos
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(1)2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646475

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Despite a growing body of research on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, there is continued controversy given heterogeneity in the quality and design of published studies. METHODS: We screened ongoing studies in our sequential, prospective meta-analysis. We pooled individual participant data to estimate the absolute and relative risk (RR) of adverse outcomes among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared with confirmed negative pregnancies. We evaluated the risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: We screened 137 studies and included 12 studies in 12 countries involving 13 136 pregnant women.Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection-as compared with uninfected pregnant women-were at significantly increased risk of maternal mortality (10 studies; n=1490; RR 7.68, 95% CI 1.70 to 34.61); admission to intensive care unit (8 studies; n=6660; RR 3.81, 95% CI 2.03 to 7.17); receiving mechanical ventilation (7 studies; n=4887; RR 15.23, 95% CI 4.32 to 53.71); receiving any critical care (7 studies; n=4735; RR 5.48, 95% CI 2.57 to 11.72); and being diagnosed with pneumonia (6 studies; n=4573; RR 23.46, 95% CI 3.03 to 181.39) and thromboembolic disease (8 studies; n=5146; RR 5.50, 95% CI 1.12 to 27.12).Neonates born to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to be admitted to a neonatal care unit after birth (7 studies; n=7637; RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.08); be born preterm (7 studies; n=6233; RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.29) or moderately preterm (7 studies; n=6071; RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.88 to 4.54); and to be born low birth weight (12 studies; n=11 930; RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.40). Infection was not linked to stillbirth. Studies were generally at low or moderate risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection at any time during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal death, severe maternal morbidities and neonatal morbidity, but not stillbirth or intrauterine growth restriction. As more data become available, we will update these findings per the published protocol.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mujeres Embarazadas , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 26: 100569, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628358

RESUMEN

Background: SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women are at higher risk of adverse outcomes, but little evidence is available on how variants impact that risk. We aim to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes among unvaccinated pregnant women that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, stratified by pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron periods. Methods: This prospective study enrolled women from March 2020 to September 2022. Exposure to the different SARS-CoV-2 variants was defined by their periods of predominance. The primary outcome was severe maternal adverse outcome defined as either intensive care unit admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome, advanced oxygen supplementation, or maternal death. The secondary outcomes were preterm birth and other perinatal outcomes. Findings: Overall, 1402, 262, and 391 SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women were enrolled during the pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron periods respectively. Severe maternal adverse outcome was reported in 3.4% (n = 947/1402; 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) 2.5-4.5), 6.5% (n = 7/262; 95%CI 3.8-10.2), and 1.0% (n = 4/391; 95%CI 0.3-2.6) of women during the pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron periods. The risk of severe maternal adverse outcome was higher during the Delta vs pre-Delta period (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-3.2) and lower during the Omicron vs pre-Delta period (aRR = 0.3; 95%CI, 0.1-0.8). The risks of hospitalization for COVID-19 were 12.6% (n = 176/1402; 95%CI 10.9-14.4), 17.2% (n = 45/262; 95%CI 12.8-22.3), and 12.5% (n = 49/391; 95%CI 9.4-16.2), during the pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron period, respectively. Pregnancy complications occurred after SARS-CoV-2 exposure in 30.0% (n = 363/1212; 95%CI 27.4-32.6), 35.2% (n = 83/236; 95%CI 29.1-41.6), and 30.3% (n = 105/347; 95%CI 25.5-35.4) of patients during the pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron periods, respectively. Stillbirths were reported in 0.5% (n = 6/1159; 95%CI 0.2-1.1), 2.8% (n = 6/210; 95%CI 1.0-6.0), and 0.9% (n = 2/213; 95%CI 0.1-3.4) or patients during the pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron periods respectively. Interpretation: The Delta period was associated with a higher risk of severe maternal adverse outcome and the Omicron period with a lower risk of severe adverse outcome compared to pre-Delta era. The reported risk of hospitalization was high during the Omicron period and should not be trivialized. Funding: Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Fondation CHUV.

12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 228(2): 161-177, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027953

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This sequential, prospective meta-analysis sought to identify risk factors among pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19 for adverse outcomes related to disease severity, maternal morbidities, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and adverse birth outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We prospectively invited study investigators to join the sequential, prospective meta-analysis via professional research networks beginning in March 2020. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible studies included those recruiting at least 25 consecutive cases of COVID-19 in pregnancy within a defined catchment area. METHODS: We included individual patient data from 21 participating studies. Data quality was assessed, and harmonized variables for risk factors and outcomes were constructed. Duplicate cases were removed. Pooled estimates for the absolute and relative risk of adverse outcomes comparing those with and without each risk factor were generated using a 2-stage meta-analysis. RESULTS: We collected data from 33 countries and territories, including 21,977 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy or postpartum. We found that women with comorbidities (preexisting diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease) vs those without were at higher risk for COVID-19 severity and adverse pregnancy outcomes (fetal death, preterm birth, low birthweight). Participants with COVID-19 and HIV were 1.74 times (95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.71) more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit. Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy were at higher risk of intensive care unit admission (relative risk, 5.53; 95% confidence interval, 2.27-13.44), ventilation (relative risk, 9.36; 95% confidence interval, 3.87-22.63), and pregnancy-related death (relative risk, 14.10; 95% confidence interval, 2.83-70.36). Prepregnancy obesity was also a risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes including intensive care unit admission (relative risk, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.60), ventilation (relative risk, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.51), any critical care (relative risk, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.77), and pneumonia (relative risk, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.33). Anemic pregnant women with COVID-19 also had increased risk of intensive care unit admission (relative risk, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.11) and death (relative risk, 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.81). CONCLUSION: We found that pregnant women with comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were at increased risk for severe COVID-19-related outcomes, maternal morbidities, and adverse birth outcomes. We also identified several less commonly known risk factors, including HIV infection, prepregnancy underweight, and anemia. Although pregnant women are already considered a high-risk population, special priority for prevention and treatment should be given to pregnant women with these additional risk factors.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Infecciones por VIH , Hipertensión , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Delgadez , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Periodo Posparto
13.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 89(5): 1560-1574, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417423

RESUMEN

AIM: The objective of this study was to describe the use of COVID-19-related medicines during pregnancy and their evolution between the early/late periods of the pandemic. METHODS: Pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from March 2020 to July 2021 were included using the COVI-PREG registry. Exposure to the following COVID-19-related medicines was recorded: antibiotics, antivirals, hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids, anti-interleukin-6 and immunoglobulins. We described the prevalence of medicines used, by trimester of pregnancy, maternal COVID-19 severity level and early/late period of the pandemic (before and after 1 July 2020). FINDINGS: We included 1964 pregnant patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 10.4% (205/1964) received at least one COVID-19-related medicine including antibiotics (8.6%; 169/1694), corticosteroids (3.2%; 62/1964), antivirals (2.0%; 39/1964), hydroxychloroquine (1.4%; 27/1964) and anti-interleukin-6 (0.3%; 5/1964). The use of at least one COVID-19-related medicine was 3.1% (12/381) in asymptomatic individuals, 4.2% (52/1233) in outpatients, 19.7% (46/233) in inpatients without oxygen, 72.1% (44/61) in those requiring standard oxygen, 95.7% (22/23) in those requiring high flow oxygen, 96.2% (25/26) in patients who required intubation and 57.1% (4/7) among patients who died. The proportion who received medicines to treat COVID-19 was higher before than after July 2020 (16.7% vs. 7.7%). Antibiotics, antivirals and hydroxychloroquine had lower rates of use during the late period. CONCLUSION: Medicine use in pregnancy increased with disease severity. The trend towards increased use of corticosteroids seems to be aligned with changing guidelines. Evidence is still needed regarding the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19-related medicines in pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Pacientes Internos , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18448, 2022 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323687

RESUMEN

The aim of our study was to evaluate the mental health of pregnant individuals during the early COVID-19 pandemic and the potential factors associated. A Swiss online survey was proposed to individuals who gave birth during the pandemic period from March 2020. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 questions (GAD-7), and Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were evaluated and used to defined mental health impairment as a composite outcome. From October, 2020 to February, 2021, 736 participants responded. The anxiety GAD-7 score was moderate in 9.6% and severe in 2.0%. The EPDS was moderate in 21.5% and severe in 32.9%. The IES-R was moderate in 10.3% and severe in 3.9%. Mental health impairment was reported in 37.0%. The association between the risk of mental health impairment and foreign nationality was significant (OR = 1.48; 95%CI [1.06-2.05]) as well as fetal and pregnancy worries because of coronavirus (OR = 1.46; 95% CI [1.08-1.98]) and 1.65; 95% CI [1.22-2.24]). Adjusted ORs were significant for foreign nationality (aOR = 1.51; 95%CI [1.07-2.13]) and pregnancy worries because of coronavirus (aOR = 1.62; 95%CI [1.10-2.40]). Pregnant people and especially foreign national have a high risk of mental health impairment during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Etnicidad , Suiza/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología
15.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 11 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423129

RESUMEN

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) has emerged as a threatening zoonosis. Its spread around the world has been growing fast over the last 2 years, particularly in 2022. The reasons for this sudden spread are probably multifactorial. The R0 values of the two MPXV clades are rather low, and a massive pandemic is considered unlikely, although the increase in the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms found in the 2022 MPXV strain could indicate an accelerated human adaptation. Very little is known about the risks of an infection during pregnancy for both the mother and the fetus. Further observations must be made to create clear, adapted, evidence-based guidelines. This article summarizes the current knowledge about MPXV infections and similar pregnancy virus infections.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos/genética
16.
Hum Reprod ; 37(12): 2921-2931, 2022 11 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228661

RESUMEN

STUDY QUESTION: Did the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic have an impact on monthly birth rates in Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Using datasets on live births per month in Europe, collected from the Human Fertility Database, we found a -14.1% decline in live births in January 2021 (i.e. 9-10 months after the epidemic peaks and first lockdowns), compared to the average number of live births in January 2018 and 2019. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous pandemics in the 20th and 21st centuries have been associated with a decline in birth rates 9 months after their peak, and a rebound in births over time. Lockdowns were necessary to control the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and may have had an impact on subsequent birth rates. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Monthly time series data on live births from January 2018 to March 2021 were extracted to provide a time-series analysis of birthrates during and after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 24 European countries. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We conducted a random-effect generalized least squares regression to assess the seasonality of births from January 2018 to March 2021, and to identify potential differences in monthly live births after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, considering the seasonality of births. To quantify these potential differences, we estimated the variation rate between the monthly live births observed during 2020 and 2021 and the mean of the 2018-2019 monthly live births in Europe. Factors potentially associated with a variation in monthly birth rates were assessed using univariable and multivariable generalized linear regressions. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: When considering the seasonality of births, January 2021 was the only month with a significant difference in live births. A drop of -14.1% was observed compared to the average number of live births in January 2018 and 2019. At the national level, this drop was observed 9-10 months after the epidemic peaks in 13 countries. The duration of lockdowns was the variable that had the stronger association with this decrease, whereas higher incomes per capita could be a factor limiting this decline. A rebound in births compared to the previous years occurred in March 2021 in 13 countries. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Our data are based on national data, limiting the power in the multivariable models used and the identification of other potential factors contributing to a decrease or an increase in birth rates. In addition, we collected only live births up to April 2021, which precludes the identification of a difference in births seasonality in 2021. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: As with previous pandemics, the COVID-19 outbreak was associated with a decline in births 9 months after its first wave. This trend may be associated with the duration of the lockdowns. Although there was a rebound in births in the following months, it does not seem to compensate for this decline. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The authors receive no external funding and have no conflict of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Asunto(s)
Tasa de Natalidad , COVID-19 , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Factores de Tiempo , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Nacimiento Vivo/epidemiología , Fertilización In Vitro/métodos
18.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(8)2022 Jul 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36015195

RESUMEN

Sodium is reabsorbed all along the renal tubules. The positive impacts of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) on hard renal and/or cardiac endpoints calls for the role of diuretics in nephroprotection and cardioprotection in patients with diabetes mellitus to be reviewed. Here, we review: (a) the mechanisms of action of the available natriuretics; (b) the physiological adaptations to chronic loop diuretic usage that lead to increased sodium reabsorption in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules; (c) the physiology of sodium retention in patients with diabetes mellitus; and (d) the mechanisms of aldosterone breakthrough. We show the rationale for combined diuretics to target not only the loop of Henle, but also the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Indeed, higher residual proteinuria in patients treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers portends poorer renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Diuretics are known to optimize the reduction of proteinuria, in addition to RAAS blockers, but may favor aldosterone breakthrough in the absence of MRA. The aim of our study is to support a combined diuretics strategy to improve the management of patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease or heart failure.

19.
Biomedicines ; 10(7)2022 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35884801

RESUMEN

Liver fibrosis is associated with arterial calcification (AC). Since the liver is a source of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), an anti-calcifying compound, we investigated the relationship between plasma PPi ([PPi]pl), liver fibrosis, liver function, AC, and the hepatic expression of genes regulating PPi homeostasis. To that aim, we compared [PPi]pl before liver transplantation (LT) and 3 months after LT. We also assessed the expression of four key regulators of PPi in liver tissues and established correlations between AC, and scores of liver fibrosis and liver failure in these patients. LT candidates with various liver diseases were included. AC scores were assessed in coronary arteries, abdominal aorta, and aortic valves. Liver fibrosis was evaluated on liver biopsies and from non-invasive tests (FIB-4 and APRI scores). Liver functions were assessed by measuring serum albumin, ALBI, MELD, and Pugh−Child scores. An enzymatic assay was used to dose [PPi]pl. A group of patients without liver alterations from a previous cohort provided a control group. Gene expression assays were performed with mRNA extracted from liver biopsies and compared between LT recipients and the control individuals. [PPi]pl negatively correlated with APRI (r = −0.57, p = 0.001, n = 29) and FIB-4 (r = −0.47, p = 0.006, n = 29) but not with interstitial fibrosis index from liver biopsies (r = 0.07, p = 0.40, n = 16). Serum albumin positively correlated with [PPi]pl (r = 0.71; p < 0.0001, n = 20). ALBI, MELD, and Pugh−Child scores correlated negatively with [PPi]pl (r = −0.60, p = 0.0005; r = −0.56, p = 0.002; r = −0.41, p = 0.02, respectively, with n = 20). Liver fibrosis assessed on liver biopsies by FIB-4 and by APRI positively correlated with coronary AC (r = 0.51, p = 0.02, n = 16; r = 0.58, p = 0.009, n = 20; r = 0.41, p = 0.04, n = 20, respectively) and with abdominal aorta AC (r = 0.50, p = 0.02, n = 16; r = 0.67, p = 0.002, n = 20; r = 0.61, p = 0.04, n = 20, respectively). FIB-4 also positively correlated with aortic valve calcification (r = 0.40, p = 0.046, n = 20). The key regulator genes of PPi production in liver were lower in patients undergoing liver transplantation as compared to controls. Three months after surgery, serum albumin levels were restored to physiological levels (40 [37−44] vs. 35 [30−40], p = 0.009) and [PPi]pl was normalized (1.40 [1.07−1.86] vs. 0.68 [0.53−0.80] µmol/L, p = 0.0005, n = 12). Liver failure and/or fibrosis correlated with AC in several arterial beds and were associated with low plasma PPi and dysregulation of key proteins involved in PPi homeostasis. Liver transplantation normalized these parameters.

20.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270150, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709239

RESUMEN

We urgently need answers to basic epidemiological questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant and postpartum women and its effect on their newborns. While many national registries, health facilities, and research groups are collecting relevant data, we need a collaborative and methodologically rigorous approach to better combine these data and address knowledge gaps, especially those related to rare outcomes. We propose that using a sequential, prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is the best approach to generate data for policy- and practice-oriented guidelines. As the pandemic evolves, additional studies identified retrospectively by the steering committee or through living systematic reviews will be invited to participate in this PMA. Investigators can contribute to the PMA by either submitting individual patient data or running standardized code to generate aggregate data estimates. For the primary analysis, we will pool data using two-stage meta-analysis methods. The meta-analyses will be updated as additional data accrue in each contributing study and as additional studies meet study-specific time or data accrual thresholds for sharing. At the time of publication, investigators of 25 studies, including more than 76,000 pregnancies, in 41 countries had agreed to share data for this analysis. Among the included studies, 12 have a contemporaneous comparison group of pregnancies without COVID-19, and four studies include a comparison group of non-pregnant women of reproductive age with COVID-19. Protocols and updates will be maintained publicly. Results will be shared with key stakeholders, including the World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health (MNCAH) Research Working Group. Data contributors will share results with local stakeholders. Scientific publications will be published in open-access journals on an ongoing basis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
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