Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 42
Filtrar
1.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 762-769, 2021 08 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503325

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem globally. The public service workers, who are facilitators of national development, are particularly vulnerable because the nature of their job predisposes them to unhealthy lifestyles. However, there is paucity of reference data on the profile of cardiovascular risks among public servants in Nigeria. Therefore, this study determined the pattern and predictors of cardiovascular risk among public servants in Southwest, Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 1,778 public servants were recruited from 47 Ministries, Departments and Agencies in Ondo State through multi-stage random sampling technique. The World Health Organization Stepwise instrument and Framingham Heart Study non-laboratory cardiovascular risk assessment tool were used to collect data. STATA version 14.2 was used for analysis and p-value of< 0.05 was taken as significant. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 44.2±9.1 years. They were predominantly females (64.8%). The proportions of participants with moderate and high 10-year absolute cardiovascular risks were 18.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Significant factors associated with increased cardiovascular risk were age (p=<0.001), sex (p =<0.001), education (p =<0.001), income (p =<0.001), staff category (p =<0.001) and employment grade level (p=<0.001). The significant predictors of increased cardiovascular risk on multivariate analysis were age > 50years (AOR:1.25;CI:1.19-1.32;p=<0.001) and male sex (AOR:6.62; CI:3.76-11.65;p=<0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of increased 10-year absolute cardiovascular risk among public servants in Ondo State was high. The significant predictors were age >50 years and male sex. Cardiovascular risk reduction strategies should be encouraged among public servants especially the older males.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Heliyon ; 4(12): e01105, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603722

RESUMEN

Background: This study was a response to the dearth of information on the timing of menarche in low-income countries, and the need to update knowledge on the condition. It thereby enables the provision of adequate support to young girls during menarche. The study determined the timing and range of onset of menarche and identified the factors influencing the timing. Methods: We used data on girls' sexual and reproductive processes from a nationally representative population survey of girls aged 15-24 years in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, and survival analysis techniques were used for data analysis at p = 0·05. Finding: A quarter of the respondents (26%) had commenced menstruation by age 12. Almost all, (90%) had experienced menstruation by age 17. Girls aged 20-24 years reported later menarche (time ratio 1·066, 95% CI: 1·045-1·087) compared to those aged 15-19 years. An increase of respondents age by one year resulted in 0·8% delay in onset timing. Significant differences were also found in the zone of residence among the sampled population. Compared with girls from the South East, the timing of menstruation was generally delayed among the girls from South-South by 5%, North Central by 9%, South West by 10%, North East by 16% and 17% among girls from the North West. Interpretation: There was a wide range in menarcheal age in Nigerian girls with a peak at 13-14 years and the possibility of a secular trend in the timing of onset. Early family life education is recommended.

3.
Ann Ib Postgrad Med ; 14(2): 81-84, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337092

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria accounts for about 60% of all clinic attendance in Nigeria. About 300,000 children die of malaria annually while an estimated 4,500 pregnant women are lost annually on account of malaria in Nigeria alone. High cost of treatment is a barrier to the uptake of health services in low resource settings, therefore an exploration of the cost of malaria management will reveal possible components that may benefit from intervention and thus reveal important clues for improving access to malaria treatment. Objective of this study therefore is to describe patronage and cost of malaria treatment in private hospitals in Ibadan. METHOD: This was a descriptive cross sectional study, carried out in private hospitals in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire with open and close-ended questions was used to collect data on patronage and cost of treatment in adults, children and pregnant women attending private health facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were presented using tables of frequencies and proportions while analysis was by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 40 doctors and hospitals participated in the study. Average patronage for malaria, both complicated and uncomplicated per month was 153 patients per hospital. Malaria cases accounts for 331 (46.2%) of total clinic cases seen in private hospitals in a month. About 121 (78%) of malaria cases seen were uncomplicated while 32 (21%) of cases were complicated malaria. Average amount charged patient for treating uncomplicated malaria in private hospitals was N3,941. Average amount spent on antimalarial drugs was about N2,443 (62%) while N1,064 (27.7%) was spent on laboratory investigation and N406.00 (10.3%) for medical consultation. CONCLUSION: Drugs cost constitute the bulk of expenses on malaria treatment. Policy makers may improve access to malaria treatment by subsidizing the cost of anti-malaria drugs for pregnant women and children, who might not be able to afford treatment.

4.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 44(1): 53-60, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26548116

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a global increase in morbidity and mortality due to zoonotic diseases hence there is a need to identify possible sources of infections to human population. This study assessed veterinarians' compliance with standard infection control practices (ICPs) for prevention of zoonosis in Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional survey of 320 veterinarians participating in the National Annual Conference of the Nigerian Veterinary Me ic Association was done in November, 2011 Characteristics related to compliance with standard infection control practices were assessed. Chi-square and logistic regression tests were done at 0.05 significant levels. More veterinarians (51.1% and 61.2%) did not comply with appropriate ICPs while carrying out medical procedures of necropsy and assisting in parturition. Those with longer years of practice (OR=0.42,95% CI=0.23-0.75) and with long working hours (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.28-0.97) were less likely to comply with ICPS. Private practice veterinarians' were less likely than public practitioners to comply (OR=0.67, 95% CI = 0.15-0.69). Also veterinarians who had workplace IC policy were more likely than those without to be compliant with ICPs (OR=3.71, 95% CI = 1.87-7.37). CONCLUSION: Future conferences can be used to advise veterinarians on the importance of implementing appropriate IC measures. Also infection prevention practices laws and policies should be enacted to encourage compliance by veterinarians.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Control de Infecciones/normas , Veterinarios , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Nigeria , Salud Laboral , Equipos de Seguridad
5.
Obes Rev ; 16(7): 547-65, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25893796

RESUMEN

Previous reviews of childhood obesity prevention have focused largely on schools and findings have been inconsistent. Funded by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Institutes of Health, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programmes conducted in high-income countries and implemented in various settings. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL®, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from inception through 22 April 2013 for relevant studies, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments, targeting diet, physical activity or both, and conducted in children aged 2-18 in high-income countries. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data. The strength of evidence (SOE) supporting interventions was graded for each study setting (e.g. home, school). Meta-analyses were performed on studies judged sufficiently similar and appropriate to pool using random effect models. This paper reported our findings on various adiposity-related outcomes. We identified 147 articles (139 intervention studies) of which 115 studies were primarily school based, although other settings could have been involved. Most were conducted in the United States and within the past decade. SOE was high for physical activity-only interventions delivered in schools with home involvement or combined diet-physical activity interventions delivered in schools with both home and community components. SOE was moderate for school-based interventions targeting either diet or physical activity, combined interventions delivered in schools with home or community components or combined interventions delivered in the community with a school component. SOE was low for combined interventions in childcare or home settings. Evidence was insufficient for other interventions. In conclusion, at least moderately strong evidence supports the effectiveness of school-based interventions for preventing childhood obesity. More research is needed to evaluate programmes in other settings or of other design types, especially environmental, policy and consumer health informatics-oriented interventions.


Asunto(s)
Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Programas de Reducción de Peso , Terapia Conductista , Niño , Dieta Reductora , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Motivación , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Desarrollo de Programa , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Programas de Reducción de Peso/métodos
6.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 44(4): 303-9, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27462692

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, self-medication of young children is common. Children under the age of five are often self-medicated with antibiotics because of their increased susceptibility to infections. OBJECTIVES: To assess mothers' knowledge on the hazards of antibiotics self-medication in a rural community of South-west Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 mothers selected through a purposive sampling technique from Koko community in Olodo, Ibadan between October and December, 2014. Data were collected using a semistructured interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression were done at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: A very high proportion (96.5%) of mothers in this study practiced antibiotic self-medication for their children. Only 28.1% were knowledgeable about the risks and side effects of antibiotic self-medication. Chi-square test revealed that there was a significant association between respondents' educational status (P < 0.05) and knowledge of the hazards. Mothers with no formal education were less likely to be knowledgeable compared to those who had tertiary education (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.02- 0.57). CONCLUSION: High proportions of mothers lack adequate knowledge on the hazards of antibiotics self-medication. Mothers, particularly those with lower educational levels and young age need to be educated on the risks and side effects of this practice.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Conducta Materna , Madres , Automedicación , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres/psicología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Población Rural , Automedicación/efectos adversos , Automedicación/psicología , Automedicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social
7.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 44(4): 321-7, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27462694

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviour among the youth contributes largely to the burden of reproductive health problems in Nigeria. This may have been worsened by the introduction of electronic media like internet and television (TV). However, little is known about the effects of electronic media on sexual behaviour of youth in Nigeria. Therefore, exploring the influence of effect of electronic media on sexual behaviour of youth may help policy maker to provide interventions to these problems. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the effect of electronic media on sexual behaviour of Undergraduates in the University of Ibadan. METHOD: This was an analytical cross-sectional study, using a multistage sampling method and data were collected through self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Variables measured are socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to electronic media and sexual practices of youths. Frequency tables were generated, and data analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty three questionnaires were returned out of 456 distributed, giving a response rate of 95%. Mean age of respondents was 18.75 (SD = 2.5) years. About 58.4% of males use the internet and 58.6% watch TV while 41.6% of female use the Internet and 41.4% watch TV. Watching sexually explicit program on internet increases risk of having premarital sex (OR = 3.1; CI = 1.2-7.7) while watching non sexually explicit programmes on T.V protects from having premarital sex (OR = 0.4 CI = 0.2-0.8). CONCLUSION: These observed influence of exposure to sexually charged materials on the internet and electronic media indicates the need for efforts to be directed to controlling access, of youths to these sexually explicit programmes on the internet and television programmes.


Asunto(s)
Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Actividades Recreativas/psicología , Conducta Sexual , Estudiantes/psicología , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Literatura Erótica/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria , Salud Reproductiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Ann Ib Postgrad Med ; 13(1): 6-16, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807081

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk for HIVinfection. However, there is dearth of information on the association between IPV and STIs particularly among married women in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between IPV and STIs among married women in Nigeria. METHOD: This was a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) dataset. A total of 18,402 married women aged between 15 and 49 years were included. Questions about intimate partner violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale (CTS). Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine relationship between IPV and self-reported STIs. RESULTS: The prevalence of IPV among married women in Nigeria was 29.3%. Majority of the women experienced emotional violence (22.1%), 17.3% of the women experienced physical violence while the least experienced form of violence was sexual IPV (4.4%). Majority (60.1%) of the women experienced just one type of IPV, 30.0% two types, 9.9% all three types. The prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections was 7.2%. Logistic regression demonstrated that after controlling for other covariates, women who experienced any form of IPV were found to be more likely to report STI than women who did not [OR 1.357 (95% CI 1.188-1.551)]. In addition, experience of physical and sexual IPV was significantly associated with history of STIs [OR 1.699 (95% CI 1.420-2.034); OR 1.414 (95% CI 1.085-1.843) respectively]. Experiencing two or more types of IPV was significantly associated with history of STIs [OR 1.759 (95% CI 1.446-2.139); OR 2.193 (95% CI 1.636-2.941) respectively]. CONCLUSION: There is a need to incorporate IPV screening and services in STI clinics. Also, it is important to screen for STIs among women who present with IPV particularly those with multiple types of violence.

9.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 43(Suppl 1): 51-60, 2014 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26681824

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner violence (IPV) is one of the common forms of violence against women and is a global public health problem that transcends social, economic, religious and cultural groups. It is often perceived as a private problem or a normal part of life but it contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by male civil servants in Oyo State Secretariat Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a multi-stage sampling technique. A total of 609 respondents completed a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 18 and STATA version 12. Chi-square statistic was used to test associations between categorical variables and predictors of perpetration of intimate partner violence were determined using logistic regression model at a level of statistical significance of 5%. RESULT: The mean age was 38.8±9.9 years and about 74.5% were married. The prevalence of IPV perpetration in the 12 months preceding the study was 66.0%. The prevalence of controlling behaviour was 52.2%, psychological abuse - 31.2%, sexual violence - 23.0%, and physical violence - 11.7%. The predictors of perpetrating any form of IPV included previous history of physical fight with another woman [OR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.30-3.40)], having a negative attitude towards wife beating [OR 2.5 [95% CI: 1.85-3.42], childhood exposure to parental IPV [OR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.30-3.41)] and use of alcohol [OR: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.14-2.15]. CONCLUSION: The different types of IPV were prevalent among the male civil servants, despite their educational status. Strategies to stop IPV should include male education to change attitudes that encourage violence in relationships to use of non-violent conflict resolution strategies. Education should also include the dangers of alcohol abuse and involvement in physical fights.

10.
West Afr J Med ; 33(3): 211-5, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26070827

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this study was to review the cases of orbito-ocular tumors in a single tertiary health facility, and determine changes in pattern of presentation. METHODS: Medical records of all patients with histologically confirmed orbito-ocular tumors between January 1992 and December 2011 in a tertiary center were reviewed. Patients' demographics, types of orbito-ocular tumor and their presentation were recorded. RESULTS: Records of 205 patients were analyzed with a male to female ratio of 1.1:1 and median age of seven years. Retinoblastoma was the most common tumor followed by ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common eyelid tumor while rhabdomyosarcoma was the most common orbital tumor. No case of melanoma was seen during the period. More than two thirds of patients had lost vision at presentation due to delay in seeking appropriate medical attention Conclusion: There appears to be a reduction in the cases of orbito-ocular tumors in Ibadan, however, there is little variation in the pattern of presentation. Encouraging early presentation to the appropriate health facility may possibly reduce the morbidity in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Ojo/epidemiología , Neoplasias Orbitales/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biopsia , Niño , Preescolar , Neoplasias del Ojo/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Neoplasias Orbitales/diagnóstico , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
11.
Afr J Psychiatry (Johannesbg) ; 15(3): 189-92, 2012 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22722727

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Vagrant mentally ill patients are a highly marginalized group that receive limited care and attention from society. There is a dearth of information on the clinical status of this group in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical profiles and treatment outcomes between vagrant and non-vagrant mentally ill patients admitted to Aro Psychiatric Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective review of clinical records charting vagrant and non-vagrant mentally ill patients treated over a five year period from January 2004 to December 2008. RESULTS: The medical records of 61 vagrant and 122 non-vagrant mentally ill patients were reviewed and compared. The vagrant patients were more likely to be older, unmarried and alone, poorly educated, unemployed or performing unskilled labour, and diagnosed with schizophrenia. This cohort was also more likely to have physical co-morbidities compared with the non-vagrant mentally ill patients. The median time to improvement among the vagrants (211.0 days) was significantly longer than for the non-vagrant patients (34.0 days) suggesting more intractable illnesses. Other factors found to prolong the time to improvement among all patients were old age, education, being single, unemployment, the diagnoses of schizophrenia, and substance abuse. CONCLUSION: The clinical profiles and treatment outcomes were poorer among the vagrant mentally ill patients, underscoring a need for more comprehensive healthcare resources directed to this patient group in Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Personas sin Hogar/psicología , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología
12.
Ghana Med J ; 46(1): 22-6, 2012 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22605885

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the medical care provided to victims of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA). DESIGN: A retrospective cross sectional study. SETTING: The general outpatient clinic of a 150 bed secondary health care facility in Ibadan, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Children < 18 years who were treated as Victim's sexual assault. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Investigations and treatment prescribed for CSA victims. RESULTS: The median age of victims was 12 years (range 3-17 years). All were females and 33.3% had attained menarche. Many (68.1%) had torn hymen; of these, 16.3 % also had vaginal lacerations and bleeding. Children>10 years more often had torn hymen (P<0.001). Vaginal swab microscopy was done in 84.0% of those with torn hymen. About 60% of victims had retroviral screening done (all were non reactive) the retroviral screening of the perpetrator was requested in only case. None of the patients received post exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Of those with signs of vaginal penetration who had also attained menarche 12.2% had emergency contraceptives prescribed. Treatment of victims consisted mostly of antibiotics--47.2% and analgesics--37.5% with only 15.3% of patients proffered any form of counselling. CONCLUSIONS: There is a still a huge gap between the health care needs of victims of CSA and the medical services provided for victims of CSA. The use of a treatment protocol and additional training for health care providers in the management of CSA victims is encouraged.


Asunto(s)
Profilaxis Antibiótica/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso Sexual Infantil/terapia , Anticoncepción Postcoital/estadística & datos numéricos , Examen Físico , Adolescente , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/diagnóstico , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Nigeria , Servicio Ambulatorio en Hospital , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Acta Cytol ; 56(3): 251-8, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22555526

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytological findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria. STUDY DESIGN: All women aged ≥15 years in each household in Idikan, Ibadan, were invited to participate in a population-based study. Structured questionnaires were administered to all consenting women. Conventional cervical Papanicolaou smears obtained from sexually active women were classified using the 2001 Bethesda system. The diagnoses were correlated with sociodemographic data and risk factors. RESULTS: Of 2,870 women aged ≥15 years estimated to live in Idikan, 1,204 sexually active women consented to pelvic examination and cervical smears. Results were available for 1,104 women (mean age: 39.8 years). Mean ages at menarche, first sexual intercourse and first pregnancy were 16.1, 20.3 and 20.7 years, respectively. Cytological results were categorized into atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and atypical glandular cells 22 (1.99%); low-grade 43 (3.89%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) 17 (1.54%); invasive cancer 2 (0.18%) and normal 593 (53.8%) and reactive changes 427 (38.7%). The prevalence of epithelial abnormalities is 7.6%. Significant host-related factors in those with HSIL and invasive cancer included older age (mean 56.2 years), high parity and gravidity, lack of formal education and being divorced (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides prevalence data and local risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology in a Nigerian population, which will be useful for planning future cervical cancer control programs.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra el Cáncer/uso terapéutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Cuello del Útero/patología , Prueba de Papanicolaou , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Frotis Vaginal , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevención & control , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Frotis Vaginal/métodos , Adulto Joven
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 131(1): 22-7, 2010 Aug 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20542105

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leucosidea sericea is used as a vermifuge and in the treatment of ophthalmia by various tribes in southern African countries. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed at screening leaves and stems of Leucosidea sericea for pharmacological activity and validating the plant's traditional use. A general phytochemical screening was also carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM), ethanol (EtOH) and water extracts of the plant parts were investigated for antimicrobial, anthelmintic and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activities. Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Candida albicans were used for the antimicrobial evaluation. Caenorhabditis elegans was used for the anthelmintic assay using the microdilution technique. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and -2) were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of the plant extracts. Phytochemical analysis for phenolic compounds, including gallotannins, condensed tannins and flavonoids was done using 50% methanol extracts of the leaves and stems employing spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: The leaf extracts exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activity ranging from 0.025 to 6.25mg/ml. The most noteworthy minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.025 mg/ml was exhibited by PE and DCM leaf extracts against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. In the anthelmintic assay, the best minimum lethal concentration (MLC) value of 0.26 mg/ml was observed for the DCM and EtOH leaf extracts. Both leaf and stem organic solvent extracts exhibited high to moderate inhibition against COX-1 and -2 at a screening concentration of 250 microg/ml. At lower concentrations, the extracts displayed a dose-dependent inhibition, with the lowest IC(50) values of 0.06 microg/ml (COX-1) and 12.66 microg/ml (COX-2) exhibited by the PE extract of the leaves. Generally, the leaf extracts exhibited better pharmacological activities and contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds than the stem extracts. Alkaloids and saponins were only detected in the leaf and stem extracts, respectively. CONCLUSION: The reported results support the local use of Leucosidea sericea against eye infections and as a vermifuge. The pharmacological activities exhibited by the leaf extracts are probably due to their higher phenolic levels.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa/farmacología , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Rosácea , Animales , Antihelmínticos/aislamiento & purificación , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Bacillus subtilis/efectos de los fármacos , Bacillus subtilis/fisiología , Caenorhabditis elegans , Células Cultivadas , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa/uso terapéutico , Infecciones del Ojo/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones del Ojo/microbiología , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/fisiología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Hojas de la Planta , Tallos de la Planta , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiología
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 127(2): 235-41, 2010 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19932161

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Extracts of seven South African medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of pain-related ailments were evaluated. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The study was aimed at evaluating medicinal and therapeutic potentials of the investigated traditional medicinal plants. Plant extracts were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity and other pharmacological properties such as anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical analysis of total phenolic contents, condensed tannins, gallotannins and flavonoids in the aqueous methanol extracts of the medicinal plants were also carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of 50% methanol (50% MeOH), petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM) and ethanol (EtOH) plant extracts was done against cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) enzymes. 50% MeOH, PE, DCM and EtOH extracts were tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, while 50% MeOH extracts were tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing power in the antioxidant assays. Total phenolic compounds, condensed tannins, gallotannins and flavonoids were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: At the screening assay concentration (0.25 microg/microl), 13 extracts showed good COX-1 inhibitory activity (>50%), while good activity was observed in 15 extracts against COX-2 enzyme. All the extracts of Crinum moorei (bulbs) showed good inhibition against both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Though not significantly different (P=0.05), the highest COX-1 percentage inhibition (100%) was shown by Aloe ferox leaf PE and Colocasia antiquorum tuber DCM extracts, while Colocasia antiquorum tuber PE extract exhibited the highest (92.7%) percentage inhibition against COX-2. Crinum moorei bulb DCM extract showed the lowest EC(50) value (2.9 microg/ml) in the AChE assay. In addition, good to moderate bioactivities were observed in some extracts of Aloe ferox (leaves), Crinum moorei (bulbs) and Pycnostachys reticulata (leaves) in all the assays. The presence and/or amounts of phenolic compounds varied with plant species. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study validate the use of the investigated medicinal plants in South African traditional medicine for pain-related ailments.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/uso terapéutico , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Plantas Medicinales , Acetilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/farmacología , Ciclooxigenasa 1/metabolismo , Ciclooxigenasa 2/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Dolor/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Sudáfrica
16.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 39(4): 293-303, 2010 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21735995

RESUMEN

Women are at risk of violence at all stages of their life, including during pregnancy. Using a interviewer-administered questionnaire, 306 pregnant women were interviewed in two public secondary health facilities in Ibadan to compare prevalence and risk factors of VAW before and during pregnancy. Prevalence ofVAW a year before current pregnancy was 41.5% compared to 17.7% during pregnancy. Perpetrators before pregnancy were mostly relatives (22%), while during pregnancy, partners (64%). Major reasons for violence were "not obeying instructions" (33.3%) and "misbehaving" (26%). Education (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.83) and polygamous union (OR 9.56; 95% CI 3.71-24.63) and consumption of alcohol (OR 7.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.53) were statistically significant a year before pregnancy. Mothers occupation (OR 0.19; 95% CI 1.05-4.49); type of union (OR14.13; 95% CI 6.13-32.59), alcohol consumption by partner (OR 6.06; 95% CI 0.05-0.54); and not wanting pregnancy (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.20-9.30) were statistically significant in the index pregnancy. Hemorrhage (7.4% vs. 4.8%), abortion (1.9% vs. 1.2%), intrauterine death (3.7% vs. 1.2%) and premature labour (9.3% vs. 3.2%) were more often found in women who experienced VAW than those who did not, the latter was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Violence avoidance strategies included 'playing along' (51.3%) and 'praying' (21%). Pregnancy was protective against VAW. Empowerment of women through education and employment is crucial. Counselling on planning of families is also necessary. Screening for violence in pregnancy and close monitoring of the abused to ensure good obstetric outcome is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato Conyugal/etnología , Maltrato Conyugal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
17.
West Afr J Med ; 28(2): 92-6, 2009 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19761170

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Disturbances of menstrual function are the commonest complaints among adolescents. Disorders of menstruation may have implications for future reproductive health. OBJECTIVE: To assess menstrual patterns among school girls in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. METHODS: This was cross-sectional descriptive study in which 1,213 apparently healthy school girls were selected by multistage sampling technique in fifteen secondary schools from the five local governments within the metropolis. Information about details of menstrual experience was obtained with a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The girls were aged between 9 and 23 years. Majority of respondents 768 (633%) experienced normal cycle length, 391 (32.2%) had short cycles; and 55 (4.5%) had cycle length greater than 35 days. Prevalence of normal cycles increased with increasing age; abnormalities of cycle length tended to decrease with increasing age (p < 0.01). The majority, 1,152 (95%), had normal menstrual loss. The majority 882 (72.7%) experienced dysmenorrhoea; severe dysmenorrhoea was reported by 154 (12.7%). Cycle length was not associated with presence of dysmenorrhoea (p > 0.05); 695 (57.3%) had symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of menstrual abnormalities among adolescent schoolgirls is high. More attention should be paid to identify and treat these menstrual morbidities.


Asunto(s)
Menstruación , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Dismenorrea/epidemiología , Dismenorrea/prevención & control , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Menstruación/fisiología , Nigeria/epidemiología , Oligomenorrea/epidemiología , Oligomenorrea/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 123(2): 237-43, 2009 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19429367

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The investigated medicinal plants are commonly used for the treatment of pains and cramps related to gastro-intestinal tract infections in South African traditional medicine. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes. Phytochemical analysis was also carried out in the quest to determine some plant metabolites that may be responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cyclooxygenase assay was used to test for the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant extracts using cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) enzymes. Total phenolic compounds including condensed tannins, gallotannins and flavonoids were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative tests for alkaloids and saponins were also carried out. RESULTS: Most of the plant extracts evaluated showed dose dependent activity against COX-1 and/or COX-2 enzymes. Agapanthus campanulatus root dichloromethane extract showed the highest COX-2 inhibitory activity (83.7%) at 62.5 microg/ml. The presence and/or amounts of phenolics, condensed tannins, gallotannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins varied with plant parts and species. CONCLUSION: The results support the use of the investigated plant in treating pain and cramp related to gastro-intestinal tract infections. To some extent, the observed anti-inflammatory activity could be attributed to the various plant secondary metabolites detected in the plant materials.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Plantas Medicinales/química , Alcaloides/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios/aislamiento & purificación , Ciclooxigenasa 1/efectos de los fármacos , Ciclooxigenasa 2/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de la Ciclooxigenasa/aislamiento & purificación , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/fisiopatología , Humanos , Indometacina/administración & dosificación , Indometacina/farmacología , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Saponinas/aislamiento & purificación , Sudáfrica
19.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 37(1): 21-7, 2008 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18756851

RESUMEN

The study was carried out to document parental influence on the reproductive health behaviour of youths in Ibadan, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 274 youths from Idikan community was carried out. Information on the socio-demographic characteristics, parental communication, parental monitoring and sexual practices of respondents were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 274 youths were interviewed, 111 (40.5%) were sexually active. The overall mean age at first sexual exposure was 15.2 +/- 3.0 yrs (males = 15.4 +/- 3.5 yrs, females 14.90 +/- 2.6 yrs). Fifty-two (19.0%) respondents used condom regularly. More out of school youths (42.2%) were more sexually active than those in school (38.7%) (chi2 = 0.32 p = 0.573). Youths (50.8%) with secondary school education used condom regularly than those with primary education 40.4% (p > 0.05). Mothers were more involved in family life education than fathers (40.9% vs. 16.8% p < 0.05) and family life education was found to promote condom use (p < 0.001). Predictors of regular condom use among the youths were comprehensive family life education by mothers (OR = 6.24, C.I = 2.47-15.75, p = 0.001), respondents' level of education (OR = 0.415, C.I = 0.211-0.814 p = 0.011) and occupation (OR = 0.48, C.I = 0.24-0.95 p = 0.034). While comprehensive family life education by mothers (OR = 2.11, C.I = 1.04-4.28, p = 0.038), female sex (OR = 2.2, C.I = 1.28-3.83 p = 0.005) and liberal monitoring pattern by mother (OR = 2.16, C.I = 1.03-4.53 p = 0.04) were predictors of increased sexual activity. Parents particularly mothers can promote safe sexual practices by giving information and education on reproductive health matters.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Conducta Reproductiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria , Conducta Reproductiva/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Salud Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 36(3): 267-72, 2007 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18390067

RESUMEN

The benefits of autopsy in medical practice are undisputed. In spite of these benefits, autopsy rates worldwide are on a precipitous decline. This study aims to determine trends in autopsy rate in a Nigerian tertiary institution from 1984-2003.A retrospective study of the autopsies conducted between 1984 and 2003. The post mortem registers of the department of Pathology University College Hospital Ibadan were reviewed for records of autopsy over the two decades. A total of 30,899 deaths and 3385 autopsy requests were registered during the period of study, giving average annual deaths of 1626 and average annual autopsies of 178 respectively. Autopsy rates at the hospital declined from an average of 19% in 1984 to 3.6% in 2003. The decline affected all clinical departments and both sexes. The highest autopsy rate of 19.9% was in 1986, while the lowest rate of 3% was recorded in the year 2000. There has been a remarkable decline in hospital autopsy rate in the University College Hospital Ibadan over the last 2 decades. The decline affected both adult and pediatric patients, both sexes and all principal medical units. There is need for active involvement of all stake holders including clinicians, pathologists and family members of deceased patients in strategic measures aimed at reversing this trend. An investigation into the factors responsible for this decline with the view to improving the autopsy services in the hospital is also required.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Universitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria , Estudios Retrospectivos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...