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1.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859993

RESUMEN

Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) have many properties that make them attractive for optoelectronic applications, including expanded compositional tunability and crystallographic stabilization. While they have not achieved the same photovoltaic (PV) efficiencies of top-performing perovskite thin films, they do reproducibly show high open circuit voltage (VOC) in comparison. Further understanding of the VOC attainable in PQDs as a function of surface passivation, contact layers, and PQD composition will further progress the field and may lend useful lessons for non-QD perovskite solar cells. Here, we use photoluminescence-based spectroscopic techniques to understand and identify the governing physics of the VOC in CsPbI3 PQDs. In particular, we probe the effect of the ligand exchange and contact interfaces on the VOC and free charge carrier concentration. The free charge carrier concentration is orders of magnitude higher than in typical perovskite thin films and could be tunable through ligand chemistry. Tuning the PQD A-site cation composition via replacement of Cs+ with FA+ maintains the background carrier concentration but reduces the trap density by up to a factor of 40, reducing the VOC deficit. These results dictate how to improve PQD optoelectronic properties and PV device performance and explain the reduced interfacial recombination observed by coupling PQDs with thin-film perovskites for a hybrid absorber layer.

2.
Mater Horiz ; 8(5): 1509-1517, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846459

RESUMEN

The primary photoexcited species in excitonic semiconductors is a bound electron-hole pair, or exciton. An important strategy for producing separated electrons and holes in photoexcited excitonic semiconductors is the use of donor/acceptor heterojunctions, but the degree to which the carriers can escape their mutual Coulomb attraction is still debated for many systems. Here, we employ a combined pump-probe ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) study on a suite of model excitonic heterojunctions consisting of mono-chiral semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (s-SWCNT) electron donors and small-molecule electron acceptors. Comparison of the charge-separated state dynamics between TA and TRMC photoconductance reveals a quantitative match over the 0.5 microsecond time scale. Charge separation yields derived from TA allow extraction of s-SWCNT hole mobilities of ca. 1.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 (at 9 GHz) by TRMC. The correlation between the techniques conclusively demonstrates that photoinduced charge carriers separated across these heterojunctions do not form bound charge transfer states, but instead form free/mobile charge carriers.

3.
Chem Rev ; 121(20): 12465-12547, 2021 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702037

RESUMEN

Heat is an abundant but often wasted source of energy. Thus, harvesting just a portion of this tremendous amount of energy holds significant promise for a more sustainable society. While traditional solid-state inorganic semiconductors have dominated the research stage on thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, carbon-based semiconductors have recently attracted a great deal of attention as potential thermoelectric materials for low-temperature energy harvesting, primarily driven by the high abundance of their atomic elements, ease of processing/manufacturing, and intrinsically low thermal conductivity. This quest for new materials has resulted in the discovery of several new kinds of thermoelectric materials and concepts capable of converting a heat flux into an electrical current by means of various types of particles transporting the electric charge: (i) electrons, (ii) ions, and (iii) redox molecules. This has contributed to expanding the applications envisaged for thermoelectric materials far beyond simple conversion of heat into electricity. This is the motivation behind this review. This work is divided in three sections. In the first section, we present the basic principle of the thermoelectric effects when the particles transporting the electric charge are electrons, ions, and redox molecules and describe the conceptual differences between the three thermodiffusion phenomena. In the second section, we review the efforts made on developing devices exploiting these three effects and give a thorough understanding of what limits their performance. In the third section, we review the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials investigated so far and provide a comprehensive understanding of what limits charge and energy transport in each of these classes of materials.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 32(37)2021 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882467

RESUMEN

The approaching end of Moore's law scaling has significantly accelerated multiple fields of research including neuromorphic-, quantum-, and photonic computing, each of which possesses unique benefits unobtained through conventional binary computers. One of the most compelling arguments for neuromorphic computing systems is power consumption, noting that computations made in the human brain are approximately 106times more efficient than conventional CMOS logic. This review article focuses on the materials science and physical mechanisms found in metal chalcogenides that are currently being explored for use in neuromorphic applications. We begin by reviewing the key biological signal generation and transduction mechanisms within neuronal components of mammalian brains and subsequently compare with observed experimental measurements in chalcogenides. With robustness and energy efficiency in mind, we will focus on short-range mechanisms such as structural phase changes and correlated electron systems that can be driven by low-energy stimuli, such as temperature or electric field. We aim to highlight fundamental materials research and existing gaps that need to be overcome to enable further integration or advancement of metal chalcogenides for neuromorphic systems.

5.
J Intensive Care Soc ; 21(2): 111-118, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489406

RESUMEN

Accumulation of a positive fluid balance is common in critically ill patients, and is associated with adverse outcomes, including mortality. However, there are few randomised clinical trials to guide clinicians as to the most appropriate fluid strategy following initial resuscitation and on the use of deresuscitation (removal of accumulated fluid using diuretics and/or renal replacement therapy). To inform the design of randomised trials, we surveyed critical care physicians with regard to perceptions of fluid overload in critical care, self-reported practice, acceptability of a variety of approaches to deresuscitation, appropriate safety parameters, and overall acceptability of a randomised trial of deresuscitation. Of 524 critical care specialists completing the survey, the majority practiced in mixed medical/surgical intensive care units in the United Kingdom. Most (309 of 363 respondents, 85%) believed fluid overload to be a modifiable source of morbidity; there was strong support (395 of 457, 86%) for a randomised trial of deresuscitation in critical illness. Marked practice variability was evident among respondents. In a given clinical scenario, self-reported practice ranged from the administration of fluid (N = 59, 14%) to the administration of a diuretic (N = 285, 67%). The majority (95%) considered it appropriate to administer diuretics for fluid overload in the setting of noradrenaline infusion and to continue to administer diuretics despite mild dysnatraemias, hypotension, metabolic alkalosis, and hypokalaemia. The majority of critical care physicians view fluid overload as a common and modifiable source of morbidity; deresuscitation is widely practiced, and there is widespread support for randomised trials of deresuscitation in critical illness.

6.
Chest ; 157(6): 1403-1404, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505300
7.
Nanoscale ; 11(44): 21196-21206, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663591

RESUMEN

Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) are attractive light-harvesting components for solar photoconversion schemes and architectures, and selective polymer extraction has emerged as a powerful route to obtain highly pure s-SWCNT samples for electronic applications. Here we demonstrate a novel method for producing electronically coupled thin films of near-monochiral s-SWCNTs without wrapping polymer. Detailed steady-state and transient optical studies on such samples provide new insights into the role of the wrapping polymer on controlling intra-bundle nanotube-nanotube interactions and exciton energy transfer within and between bundles. Complete removal of polymer from the networks results in rapid exciton trapping within nanotube bundles, limiting long-range exciton transport. The results suggest that intertube electronic coupling and associated exciton delocalization across multiple tubes can limit diffusive exciton transport. The complex relationship observed here between exciton delocalization, trapping, and long-range transport, helps to inform the design, preparation, and implementation of carbon nanotube networks as active elements for optical and electronic applications.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(23): 6864-6870, 2018 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457866

RESUMEN

Although molecular charge-transfer doping is widely used to manipulate carrier density in organic semiconductors, only a small fraction of charge carriers typically escape the Coulomb potential of dopant counterions to contribute to electrical conductivity. Here, we utilize microwave and direct-current (DC) measurements of electrical conductivity to demonstrate that a high percentage of charge carriers in redox-doped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (s-SWCNT) networks is delocalized as a free carrier density in the π-electron system (estimated as >46% at high doping densities). The microwave and four-point probe conductivities of hole-doped s-SWCNT films quantitatively match over almost 4 orders of magnitude in conductance, indicating that both measurements are dominated by the same population of delocalized carriers. We address the relevance of this surprising one-to-one correspondence by discussing the degree to which local environmental parameters (e.g., tube-tube junctions, Coulombic stabilization, and local bonding environment) may impact the relative magnitudes of each transport measurement.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 46(10): 1600-1607, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985214

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To characterize current practice in fluid administration and deresuscitation (removal of fluid using diuretics or renal replacement therapy), the relationship between fluid balance, deresuscitative measures, and outcomes and to identify risk factors for positive fluid balance in critical illness. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Ten ICUs in the United Kingdom and Canada. PATIENTS: Adults receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for a minimum of 24 hours. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Four-hundred patients were included. Positive cumulative fluid balance (fluid input greater than output) occurred in 87.3%: the largest contributions to fluid input were from medications and maintenance fluids rather than resuscitative IV fluids. In a multivariate logistic regression model, fluid balance on day 3 was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality (odds ratio 1.26/L [95% CI, 1.07-1.46]), whereas negative fluid balance achieved in the context of deresuscitative measures was associated with lower mortality. Independent predictors of greater fluid balance included treatment in a Canadian site. CONCLUSIONS: Fluid balance is a practice-dependent and potentially modifiable risk factor for adverse outcomes in critical illness. Negative fluid balance achieved with deresuscitation on day 3 of ICU stay is associated with improved patient outcomes. Minimization of day 3 fluid balance by limiting maintenance fluid intake and drug diluents, and using deresuscitative measures, represents a potentially beneficial therapeutic strategy which merits investigation in randomized trials.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Fluidoterapia/métodos , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Resucitación/métodos , Desequilibrio Hidroelectrolítico/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Canadá , Enfermedad Crítica/mortalidad , Diuréticos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reino Unido , Desequilibrio Hidroelectrolítico/mortalidad
10.
ACS Nano ; 12(7): 6881-6894, 2018 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965726

RESUMEN

The hollow cores and well-defined diameters of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) allow for creation of one-dimensional hybrid structures by encapsulation of various molecules. Absorption and near-infrared photoluminescence-excitation (PLE) spectroscopy reveal that the absorption spectrum of encapsulated 1,3-bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-squaraine dye molecules inside SWCNTs is modulated by the SWCNT diameter, as observed through excitation energy transfer (EET) from the encapsulated molecules to the SWCNTs, implying a strongly diameter-dependent stacking of the molecules inside the SWCNTs. Transient absorption spectroscopy, simultaneously probing the encapsulated dyes and the host SWCNTs, demonstrates this EET, which can be used as a route to diameter-dependent photosensitization, to be fast (sub-picosecond). A wide series of SWCNT samples is systematically characterized by absorption, PLE, and resonant Raman scattering (RRS), also identifying the critical diameter for squaraine filling. In addition, we find that SWCNT filling does not limit the selectivity of subsequent separation protocols (including polyfluorene polymers for isolating only semiconducting SWCNTs and aqueous two-phase separation for enrichment of specific SWCNT chiralities). The design of these functional hybrid systems, with tunable dye absorption, fast and efficient EET, and the ability to remove all metallic SWCNTs by subsequent separation, demonstrates potential for implementation in photoconversion devices.

11.
Nat Mater ; 17(6): 499-503, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662156

RESUMEN

Unlike conventional spin-singlet Cooper pairs, spin-triplet pairs can carry spin1,2. Triplet supercurrents were discovered in Josephson junctions with metallic ferromagnet spacers, where spin transport can occur only within the ferromagnet and in conjunction with a charge current. Ferromagnetic resonance injects a pure spin current from a precessing ferromagnet into adjacent non-magnetic materials3,4. For spin-singlet pairing, the ferromagnetic resonance spin pumping efficiency decreases below the critical temperature (Tc) of a coupled superconductor5,6. Here we present ferromagnetic resonance experiments in which spin sink layers with strong spin-orbit coupling are added to the superconductor. Our results show that the induced spin currents, rather than being suppressed, are substantially larger in the superconducting state compared with the normal state; although further work is required to establish the details of the spin transport process, we show that this cannot be mediated by quasiparticles and is most likely a triplet pure spin supercurrent.

12.
Adv Mater ; 30(11)2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356158

RESUMEN

Conversion of waste heat to voltage has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of a number of critical energy sectors, such as the transportation and electricity-generation sectors, and manufacturing processes. Thermal energy is also an abundant low-flux source that can be harnessed to power portable/wearable electronic devices and critical components in remote off-grid locations. As such, a number of different inorganic and organic materials are being explored for their potential in thermoelectric-energy-harvesting devices. Carbon-based thermoelectric materials are particularly attractive due to their use of nontoxic, abundant source-materials, their amenability to high-throughput solution-phase fabrication routes, and the high specific energy (i.e., W g-1 ) enabled by their low mass. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) represent a unique 1D carbon allotrope with structural, electrical, and thermal properties that enable efficient thermoelectric-energy conversion. Here, the progress made toward understanding the fundamental thermoelectric properties of SWCNTs, nanotube-based composites, and thermoelectric devices prepared from these materials is reviewed in detail. This progress illuminates the tremendous potential that carbon-nanotube-based materials and composites have for producing high-performance next-generation devices for thermoelectric-energy harvesting.

13.
Intensive Care Med ; 43(2): 155-170, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734109

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether a conservative approach to fluid administration or deresuscitation (active removal of fluid using diuretics or renal replacement therapy) is beneficial following haemodynamic stabilisation of critically ill patients. PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of conservative or deresuscitative fluid strategies in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the post-resuscitation phase of critical illness. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials from 1980 to June 2016, and manually reviewed relevant conference proceedings from 2009 to the present. Two reviewers independently assessed search results for inclusion and undertook data extraction and quality appraisal. We included randomised trials comparing fluid regimens with differing fluid balances between groups, and observational studies investigating the relationship between fluid balance and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Marked clinical heterogeneity was evident. In a meta-analysis of 11 randomised trials (2051 patients) using a random-effects model, we found no significant difference in mortality with conservative or deresuscitative strategies compared with a liberal strategy or usual care [pooled risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.02, I 2 = 0 %]. A conservative or deresuscitative strategy resulted in increased ventilator-free days (mean difference 1.82 days, 95 % CI 0.53-3.10, I 2 = 9 %) and reduced length of ICU stay (mean difference -1.88 days, 95 % CI -0.12 to -3.64, I 2 = 75 %) compared with a liberal strategy or standard care. CONCLUSIONS: In adults and children with ARDS, sepsis or SIRS, a conservative or deresuscitative fluid strategy results in an increased number of ventilator-free days and a decreased length of ICU stay compared with a liberal strategy or standard care. The effect on mortality remains uncertain. Large randomised trials are needed to determine optimal fluid strategies in critical illness.


Asunto(s)
Tratamiento Conservador/métodos , Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Fluidoterapia/métodos , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/terapia , Sepsis/terapia , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/terapia , Adulto , Reanimación Cardiopulmonar , Niño , Diuréticos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Tiempo de Internación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal , Respiración Artificial/efectos adversos
14.
Nat Chem ; 8(6): 603-9, 2016 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27219706

RESUMEN

Understanding the kinetics and energetics of interfacial electron transfer in molecular systems is crucial for the development of a broad array of technologies, including photovoltaics, solar fuel systems and energy storage. The Marcus formulation for electron transfer relates the thermodynamic driving force and reorganization energy for charge transfer between a given donor/acceptor pair to the kinetics and yield of electron transfer. Here we investigated the influence of the thermodynamic driving force for photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and fullerene derivatives by employing time-resolved microwave conductivity as a sensitive probe of interfacial exciton dissociation. For the first time, we observed the Marcus inverted region (in which driving force exceeds reorganization energy) and quantified the reorganization energy for PET for a model SWCNT/acceptor system. The small reorganization energies (about 130 meV, most of which probably arises from the fullerene acceptors) are beneficial in minimizing energy loss in photoconversion schemes.

15.
Nano Lett ; 16(3): 1614-9, 2016 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26866446

RESUMEN

Quantum mechanical effects induced by the miniaturization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology hamper the performance and scalability prospects of field-effect transistors. However, those quantum effects, such as tunneling and coherence, can be harnessed to use existing CMOS technology for quantum information processing. Here, we report the observation of coherent charge oscillations in a double quantum dot formed in a silicon nanowire transistor detected via its dispersive interaction with a radio frequency resonant circuit coupled via the gate. Differential capacitance changes at the interdot charge transitions allow us to monitor the state of the system in the strong-driving regime where we observe the emergence of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference on the phase response of the resonator. A theoretical analysis of the dispersive signal demonstrates that quantum and tunneling capacitance changes must be included to describe the qubit-resonator interaction. Furthermore, a Fourier analysis of the interference pattern reveals a charge coherence time, T2 ≈ 100 ps. Our results demonstrate charge coherent control and readout in a simple silicon transistor and open up the possibility to implement charge and spin qubits in existing CMOS technology.

16.
Syst Rev ; 4: 162, 2015 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26563763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fluid administration to critically ill patients remains the subject of considerable controversy. While intravenous fluid given for resuscitation may be life-saving, a positive fluid balance over time is associated with worse outcomes in critical illness. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the existing evidence regarding the relationship between fluid administration or balance and clinically important patient outcomes in critical illness. METHODS: We will search Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1980 to the present and key conference proceedings from 2009 to the present. We will include studies of critically ill adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We will include randomised controlled trials comparing two or more fluid regimens of different volumes of fluid and observational studies reporting the relationship between volume of fluid administered or fluid balance and outcomes including mortality, lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stay and organ dysfunction. Two independent reviewers will assess articles for eligibility, data extraction and quality appraisal. We will conduct a narrative and/or meta-analysis as appropriate. DISCUSSION: While fluid management has been extensively studied and discussed in the critical care literature, no systematic review has attempted to summarise the evidence for post-resuscitation fluid strategies in critical illness. Results of the proposed systematic review will inform practice and the design of future clinical trials. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42013005608. ( http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Fluidoterapia , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/terapia , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Sepsis/terapia , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/terapia , Equilibrio Hidroelectrolítico , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Proyectos de Investigación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
17.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0125142, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25923789

RESUMEN

We propose a novel hybrid single-electron device for reprogrammable low-power logic operations, the magnetic single-electron transistor (MSET). The device consists of an aluminium single-electron transistor with a GaMnAs magnetic back-gate. Changing between different logic gate functions is realized by reorienting the magnetic moments of the magnetic layer, which induces a voltage shift on the Coulomb blockade oscillations of the MSET. We show that we can arbitrarily reprogram the function of the device from an n-type SET for in-plane magnetization of the GaMnAs layer to p-type SET for out-of-plane magnetization orientation. Moreover, we demonstrate a set of reprogrammable Boolean gates and its logical complement at the single device level. Finally, we propose two sets of reconfigurable binary gates using combinations of two MSETs in a pull-down network.


Asunto(s)
Campos Magnéticos , Modelos Teóricos , Transistores Electrónicos
18.
J Phys Chem B ; 118(43): 12541-8, 2014 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25329883

RESUMEN

Stable nitroxide radical bearing organic polymer materials are attracting much attention for their application as next generation energy storage materials. A greater understanding of the inherent charge transfer mechanisms in such systems will ultimately be paramount to further advancements in the understanding of both intrafilm and interfacial ion- and electron-transfer reactions. This work is focused on advancing the fundamental understanding of these dynamic charge transfer properties by exploiting the fact that these species are efficient fluorescence quenchers. We systematically incorporated fluorescent perylene dyes into solutions containing the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) radical and controlled their interaction by binding the TEMPO moiety into macromolecules with varying morphologies (e.g., chain length, density of radical pendant groups). In the case of the model compound, 4-oxo-TEMPO, quenching of the perylene excited state was found to be dominated by a dynamic (collisional) process, with a contribution from an apparent static process that is described by an ∼2 nm quenching sphere of action. When we incorporated the TEMPO unit into a macromolecule, the quenching behavior was altered significantly. The results can be described by using two models: (A) a collisional quenching process that becomes less efficient, presumably due to a reduction in the diffusion constant of the quenching entity, with a quenching sphere of action similar to 4-oxo-TEMPO or (B) a collisional quenching process that becomes more efficient as the radius of interaction grows larger with increasing oligomer length. This is the first study that definitively illustrates that fluorophore quenching by a polymer system cannot be explained using merely a classical Stern-Volmer approach but rather necessitates a more complex model.


Asunto(s)
Colorantes Fluorescentes/química , Óxidos de Nitrógeno/química , Perileno/química , Polímeros/química , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Conformación Molecular , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Piperidinas/química , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia
19.
Nano Lett ; 14(10): 5672-6, 2014 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25230333

RESUMEN

We present a combined experimental-theoretical demonstration of the energy spectrum and exchange coupling of an isolated donor pair in a silicon nanotransistor. The molecular hybridization of the atomic orbitals leads to an enhancement of the one- and two-electron binding energies and charging energy with respect to the single donor case, a desirable feature for quantum electronic devices. Our hydrogen molecule-like model based on a multivalley central-cell corrected effective mass theory incorporating a full configuration interaction treatment of the 2-electron spectrum matches the measured data for an arsenic diatomic molecule with interatomic distance R = 2.3 ± 0.5 nm.

20.
Chemphyschem ; 15(8): 1539-49, 2014 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24599888

RESUMEN

A comparative study of the photophysical performance of the prototypical fullerene derivative PC61BM with a planar small-molecule acceptor in an organic photovoltaic device is presented. The small-molecule planar acceptor is 2-[{7-(9,9-di-n-propyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl}methylene]malononitrile, termed K12. We discuss photoinduced free charge-carrier generation and transport in blends of PC61BM or K12 with poly(3-n-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), surveying literature results for P3HT:PC61BM and presenting new results on P3HT:K12. For both systems we also review previous work on film structure and correlate the structural and photophysical results. In both cases, a disordered mixed phase is formed between P3HT and the acceptor, although the photophysical properties of this mixed phase differ markedly for PC61BM and K12. In the case of PC61BM the mixed phase acts as a free carrier generation region that can efficiently shuttle carriers to the pure polymer and fullerene domains. As a result, the vast majority of excitons quenched in P3HT:PC61BM blends yield free carriers detected by the contactless time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) method. In contrast, approximately 85% of the excitons quenched in P3HT:K12 do not result in free carriers over the nanosecond timescale of the TRMC experiment. We attribute this to poor electron-transport properties in the mixed P3HT:K12 phase. We propose that the observed differences can be traced to the respective shapes of PC61BM and K12: the three-dimensional nature of the fullerene cage facilitates coupling between PC61BM molecules irrespective of their relative orientation, whereas for K12 strong electronic coupling is only expected for molecules oriented with their π systems parallel to each other. Comparison between the eutectic compositions of the P3HT:PC61BM and P3HT:K12 shows that the former contains enough fullerene to form a percolation pathway for electrons, whereas the latter contains a sub-percolating volume fraction of the planar acceptor. Furthermore, the planar K12 co-assembles with P3HT into a disordered, glassy phase that partly accounts for the poor electron-transport properties, and may also enhance recombination due to the strong intermolecular interactions between the donor and the acceptor. The implication for the performance of organic photovoltaic devices with the two acceptors is also discussed.

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