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1.
J Neurol ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198714

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are important for obtaining CSF in neurology studies but are associated with adverse events and feared by many patients. We determined adverse event rates and pain scores in patients prospectively enrolled in two cohort studies who underwent LPs using a standardized protocol and 25 g needle. METHODS: Eight hundred and nine LPs performed in 262 patients age ≥ 60 years in the MADCO-PC and INTUIT studies were analyzed. Medical records were monitored for LP-related adverse events, and patients were queried about subjective complaints. We analyzed adverse event rates, including headaches and pain scores. RESULTS: There were 22 adverse events among 809 LPs performed, a rate of 2.72% (95% CI 1.71-4.09%). Patient hospital stay did not increase due to adverse events. Four patients (0.49%) developed a post-lumbar puncture headache (PLPH). Twelve patients (1.48%) developed nausea, vasovagal responses, or headaches that did not meet PLPH criteria. Six patients (0.74%) reported lower back pain at the LP site not associated with muscular weakness or paresthesia. The median pain score was 1 [0, 3]; the mode was 0 out of 10. CONCLUSIONS: The LP protocol described herein may reduce adverse event rates and improve patient comfort in future studies.

3.
Urolithiasis ; 2019 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062069

RESUMEN

Low urine pH is a metabolic risk factor for stone formation. While medical therapy is typically prescribed (as urinary alkalinization), patients typically prefer dietary modifications. We aimed to assess capacity to alter urine pH with dietary management alone. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of stone formers seen between 2000 and 2015 with multiple 24-h urine collections (24hUC). Patients ≥ 18 years old with low urine pH (< 6.0) were included; those prescribed alkalinizing agents or thiazides were excluded. Demographic data, 24hUC parameters, and medications were abstracted. 24hUC was utilized to calculate gastrointestinal alkali absorption (GIAA). The primary outcome was urine pH ≥ 6.0 on second 24hUC. Predictors were selected utilizing multivariable logistic regression. The database consisted of 2197 stone formers; 224 of these met inclusion criteria. On second 24hUC, 124 (55.4%) achieved a favorable pH ≥ 6.0. On univariable analysis, a second pH ≥ 6.0 was associated with high initial pH, low initial sulfate, younger age, increase in citrate/GIAA/urine volume, and decrease in ammonium (P < 0.02). On multivariable analysis, high initial pH (OR = 23.64, P < 0.001), high initial GIAA (OR = 1.03, P = 0.001), lower initial sulfate (OR = 0.95, P < 0.001), increase in urine volume (OR = 2.19, P = 0.001), increase in GIAA (OR = 8.6, P < 0.001), increase in citrate (OR = 2.7, P = 0.014), decrease in ammonium (OR = 0.18, P < 0.001), and younger age (OR = 0.97, P = 0.025) were associated with a second pH ≥ 6.0. The analysis demonstrated a corrected AUC of 0.853. These data suggest that certain dietary recommendations (increases in urine volume, citrate, GIAA, and decreased acid load) may normalize urine pH in a select group of patients. This may allow urologists to counsel patients with low urine pH on possibility of success with dietary modification alone.

4.
Urology ; 120: 56-61, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006268

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of plain abdominal radiography (kidneys, ureter, and bladder [KUB]) with digital tomosynthesis (DT) to noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT), the gold standard imaging modality for urinary stones. Due to radiation and cost concerns, KUB is often used for diagnosis and follow-up of nephrolithiasis. DT, a novel technique that produces high-quality radiographs with less radiation and/or cost than low-dose NCCT, has not been assessed in this situation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven fresh tissue cadavers were implanted with stones of known size and/or composition and imaged with KUB, DT, and NCCT. Four blinded readers (2 urologists, 2 radiologists) evaluated KUBs for presence and/or location of calculi. They then re-evaluated with addition of tomograms to assess additional value. After a memory extinction period, readers evaluated NCCT images. Accuracy of detection was determined using nearest-neighbor match with generalized linear mixed modeling. RESULTS: Total of 59 stones were identified on reference read. Overall, NCCT and DT were both superior to KUB alone (P < .001) while the difference between DT and NCCT was not significant (P = .06). When evaluating uric acid stones, NCCT and DT outperformed KUB (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively) while DT and NCCT were similar (P = .16). Intrarenal stones were better evaluated on DT and NCCT (P < .001 compared to KUB), while DT and NCCT were similar (P = 1.00). Accuracy was lower than anticipated across modalities due to use of the cadaver model. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates DT is superior to KUB for identification of intrarenal calculi and could replace routine use of KUB or NCCT for detecting renal stones, even those composed of uric acid.


Asunto(s)
Radiografía Abdominal/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Cálculos Urinarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistema Urinario/diagnóstico por imagen , Cadáver , Humanos
5.
Can J Urol ; 24(5): 8982-8989, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971784

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Contemporary clinical guidelines utilize the highest Gleason sum (HGS) in any one core on prostate biopsy to determine prostate cancer treatment. Here, we present a large discrepancy between prostate cancer risk stratified as high risk on biopsy and their pathology after radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1424 men who underwent either open or robotic-assisted prostatectomy between 2004 and 2015. We analyzed 148 men who were diagnosed with HGS 8 on prostate biopsy. Biopsy and prostatectomy pathology were compared in aggregate and over 1 year time intervals. Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 61.5% (91/148) of clinical HGS 8 diagnoses were downgraded on prostatectomy, with 58.8% (87/148) downgraded to Gleason 7 (Gleason 4 + 3 n = 59; Gleason 3 + 4 n = 28). Factors associated with downgrading include lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at biopsy (median 6.8 ng/mL versus 9.1 ng/mL, p < 0.001), number of Gleason 8 biopsy cores (median 1 versus 2, p < 0.02), presence of Gleason pattern 3 on biopsy cores (67.9% versus 44.8%, p < 0.03), pT2 staging (72.4% versus 55.1%, p < 0.04), positive margins (53.9% versus 69.1%, p < 0.04), extracapsular extension (53.4% versus 74.1%, p < 0.02), and smaller percent tumor (median 10% versus 15%, p < 0.004). CONCLUSION: The large percentage of pathology downgrading of biopsy-diagnosed HGS 8 suggests suboptimal risk-stratification that may lead to suboptimal treatment strategies and much patient distress. Our study adds great urgency to the efforts refining prostate cancer clinical assessment.


Asunto(s)
Próstata/patología , Prostatectomía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Biopsia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Periodo Posoperatorio , Periodo Preoperatorio , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo
6.
J Endourol ; 31(9): 835-840, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622024

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Current treatment practices within the field of endourology require the routine use of radiation exposure to provide adequate imaging during urologic procedures. One such procedure requiring repeated radiation exposure during treatment is ureteroscopy. We set out to compare estimated fluoroscopic radiation exposures employing fixed table and portable C-arm fluoroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional dosimetry phantom model was placed supine on both fixed fluoroscopy and standard operating room tables. The models were then exposed to three separate 5-minute runs of fluoroscopic exposure. Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters were utilized in organ-specific locations to determine specific radiation exposure dosages. Absorbed radiation was determined for each organ location for both fluoroscopy units. Organ dose volumetric corrections were performed for skin and red bone marrow, to correct for the nonirradiated portion. Organ dose rate (ODR, mGy/s) and effective dose rate (EDR, mSv/s) were calculated, with values reported as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: There were found to be statistically significant elevations for both total EDR and organ-specific dose rates with the use of fixed table fluoroscopy compared with C-arm fluoroscopy. EDR was found to be 0.0240 ± 0.0019 mSv/s for the fixed table unit and 0.0029 ± 0.0005 mSv/s for the C-arm unit (p = 0.0024). Internal organs exposed to the most radiation during fixed table fluoroscopy included the gall bladder and stomach in comparison to C-arm fluoroscopy, which found elevated exposure in the kidneys, pancreas, and spleen. CONCLUSION: The routine use of fixed table fluoroscopy results in significantly elevated estimated organ doses and EDR when directly compared with C-arm fluoroscopy in model trials. This difference should be taken into consideration by practicing urologists when patient treatment requires the use of fluoroscopy to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable.


Asunto(s)
Fluoroscopía/instrumentación , Fantasmas de Imagen , Dosis de Radiación , Exposición a la Radiación/estadística & datos numéricos , Ureteroscopía , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Riñón , Radiometría
7.
Urolithiasis ; 45(2): 185-192, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27240693

RESUMEN

Previous studies suggested that patients with pure struvite calculi rarely have underlying metabolic abnormalities. Therefore, most of these patients do not undergo metabolic studies. We report our experience with these patients and their response to directed medical therapy. Between 1/2005 and 9/2012, 75 patients treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy for struvite stones were identified. Of these, 7 had pure struvite stones (Group 1), 32 had mixed struvite stones (Group 2), both with metabolic evaluation, and 17 had pure struvite stones without metabolic evaluation (Group 3). The frequency of metabolic abnormalities and stone activity (defined as stone growth or stone-related events) was compared between groups. The median age was 55 years and 64 % were female. No significant difference in race, infection history, family history, stone location or volume existed between groups. Metabolic abnormalities were found in 57 % of Group 1 and 81 % of Group 2 patients. A similar proportion of Group 1 and 2 patients received modification to or continuation of metabolic therapy, whereas no Group 3 patients received any directed therapy. In patients with >6 months follow-up, the stone activity rate between Groups 1 and 2 appeared similar whereas Group 3 trended towards higher stone activity rate. Metabolic abnormalities in pure struvite stone formers appear to be more common than previously reported. Directed medical therapy in these patients may reduce stone activity. The role of metabolic evaluation and directed medical therapy needs reconsideration in patients with pure struvite stones.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos Renales/química , Cálculos Renales/metabolismo , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Cálculos Renales/cirugía , Litotricia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nefrostomía Percutánea , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estruvita
8.
J Endourol ; 2017 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27981862

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A novel single-use flexible ureteroscope promises the optical characteristics and maneuverability of a reusable fourth-generation flexible ureteroscope. In this study, the LithoVue Single-Use Digital flexible ureteroscope was directly compared with contemporary reusable flexible ureteroscopes, with regard to optics, deflection, and irrigation flow. METHODS: Three flexible ureteroscopes such as the LithoVue (Single Use; Boston Scientific), Flex-Xc (Karl Storz, Germany), and Cobra (Richard Wolf, Germany) were assessed in vitro for image resolution, distortion, color representation, grayscale imaging, field of view, and depth of field. Ureteroscope deflection was tested with an empty channel followed by placement of a 200 µm laser fiber and a 1.9F wire basket, a 2.0F nanoelectric pulse lithotripsy (NPL) probe, and a 2.4F NPL probe. Ureteroscope irrigation flow was measured using normal saline at 100 cm, with an empty channel followed by a 200 µm laser fiber, a 1.9F wire basket and a 2.0F NPL probe. RESULTS: The LithoVue showed the largest field of view, with excellent resolution, image distortion, and depth of field. No substantial difference was demonstrated in color reproducibility or in the discernment of grayscales between ureteroscopes. The LithoVue maintained full deflection ability with all instruments in the working channel, although the Flex-Xc and Cobra ureteroscopes showed loss of deflection ranging from 2° to 27°, depending on the instrument placed. With an empty channel, the LithoVue showed an absolute flow rate similar to the Flex-Xc ureteroscope (p = 0.003). It maintained better flow with instruments in the channel than the Flex-Xc ureteroscope. The Cobra ureteroscope has a separate 3.3F instrument channel, keeping flow rates the same with instrument insertion. CONCLUSION: The LithoVue Single-Use Digital ureteroscope has comparable optical capabilities, deflection, and flow, making it a viable alternative to standard reusable fourth-generation flexible digital and fiberoptic ureteroscopes.

9.
Int J Urol ; 23(8): 674-8, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27225958

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of end-expiratory pressure used during anesthesia on blood loss during radical prostatectomy. METHODS: We evaluated 247 patients who underwent either radical retropubic prostatectomy or robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy at a single institution from 2008 to 2013 by one of four surgeons. Patient characteristics were compared using t-tests, rank sum or χ(2) -tests as appropriate. The association between positive end-expiratory pressure and estimated blood loss was tested using linear regression. RESULTS: Patients were classified into high (≥4 cmH2 O) and low (≤1 cmH2 O) positive-end expiratory pressure groups. Estimated blood loss in radical retropubic prostatectomy was higher in the high positive end-expiratory pressure group (1000 mL vs 800 mL, P = 0.042). Estimated blood loss in robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy was lower in the high positive end-expiratory pressure group (150 mL vs 250 mL, P = 0.015). After adjusting for other factors known to influence blood loss, a 5-cmH2 O increase in positive end-expiratory pressure was associated with a 34.9% increase in estimated blood loss (P = 0.030) for radical retropubic prostatectomy, and a 33.0% decrease for robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: In radical retropubic prostatectomy, high positive end-expiratory pressure was associated with higher estimated blood loss, and the benefits of positive end-expiratory pressure should be weighed against the risk of increased estimated blood loss. In robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, high positive end-expiratory pressure was associated with lower estimated blood loss, and might have more than just pulmonary benefits.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Sangre Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Respiración con Presión Positiva , Prostatectomía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Humanos , Laparoscopía , Masculino
10.
J Endourol ; 30(7): 771-7, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24251429

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Struvite stones have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, yet there has not been a report on the medical management of struvite stones in almost 20 years. We report on the contemporary outcomes of the surgical and medical management of struvite stones in a contemporary series. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for struvite stones at Duke University Medical Center between January 2005 and September 2012 identified a total of 75 patients. Of these, 43 patients had adequate follow-up and were included in this analysis. Stone activity, defined as either stone recurrence or stone-related events, and predictors of activity were evaluated after combined surgical and medical treatment. RESULTS: The study included 43 patients with either pure (35%) or mixed (65%) struvite stones with a median age of 55±15 years (range 21-89 years). The stone-free rate after PCNL was 42%. Stone recurrence occurred in 23% of patients. Postoperatively, 30% of patients had a stone-related event, while 60% of residual stones remained stable with no growth after a median follow-up of 22 months (range 6-67 mos). Kidney function remained stable during follow-up. Independent predictors of stone activity included the presence of residual stones >0.4 cm(2), preoperative large stone burden (>10 cm(2)), and the presence of medical comorbidities (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Struvite stones can be managed safely with PCNL followed by medical therapy. The majority of patients with residual fragments demonstrated no evidence of stone growth on medical therapy. With careful follow-up and medical management, kidney function can be maintained and stone morbidity can be minimized. Initial large stone burden, residual stones after surgery, and associated medical comorbidities may have deleterious effect on stone recurrence or residual stone-related events.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos Renales/terapia , Nefrostomía Percutánea/métodos , Estruvita , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Citrato de Calcio , Clortalidona , Comorbilidad , Diuréticos/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxámicos/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Citrato de Potasio/uso terapéutico , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Bicarbonato de Sodio , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
11.
J Endourol ; 30(1): 57-62, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26414769

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of obesity on radiation exposure during simulated ureteroscopy. METHODS: A validated anthropomorphic adult male phantom with a body mass index (BMI) of approximately 24 kg/m(2), was positioned to simulate ureteroscopy. Padding with radiographic characteristics of human fat was placed around the phantom to create an obese model with BMI of 30 kg/m(2). Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were placed at 20 organ locations in both models to measure organ dosages. A portable C-arm was used to provide fluoroscopic x-ray radiation to simulate ureteroscopy. Organ dose rates were calculated by dividing organ dose by fluoroscopy time. Effective dose rate (EDR, mSv/sec) was calculated as the sum of organ dose rates multiplied by corresponding ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors. RESULTS: The mean EDR was significantly increased during left ureteroscopy in the obese model at 0.0092 ± 0.0004 mSv/sec compared with 0.0041 ± 0.0003 mSv/sec in the nonobese model (P < 0.01), as well as during right ureteroscopy at 0.0061 ± 0.0002 and 0.0036 ± 0.0007 mSv/sec in the obese and nonobese model, respectively (P < 0.01). EDR during left ureteroscopy was significantly greater than right ureteroscopy in the obese model (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Fluoroscopy during ureteroscopy contributes to the overall radiation dose for patients being treated for nephrolithiasis. Obese patients are at even higher risk because of increased exposure rates during fluoroscopy. Every effort should be made to minimize the amount of fluoroscopy used during ureteroscopy, especially with obese patients.


Asunto(s)
Fluoroscopía/métodos , Nefrolitiasis/cirugía , Obesidad , Fantasmas de Imagen , Dosis de Radiación , Exposición a la Radiación/estadística & datos numéricos , Ureteroscopía/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Radiometría
12.
J Urol ; 194(4): 878-85, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26055822

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: There is rising concern over the increasing amount of patient radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging and medical procedures. Patients with nephrolithiasis are at potentially significant risk for radiation exposure due to the need for imaging to manage recurrent stone disease. We reviewed the literature in an attempt to better characterize actual risks and discussed methods to reduce radiation exposure for adult patients with nephrolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search was performed using the key words nephrolithiasis, stones, radiation, fluoroscopy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, computerized tomography and shock wave lithotripsy. Additional citations were identified by reviewing reference lists of pertinent articles. RESULTS: A total of 50 relevant articles were included in this review. Patients with a first time acute stone event are exposed to a significant amount of radiation. Most radiation is from computerized tomography. Patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy are exposed to an equal or greater amount of radiation than they received from computerized tomography. Risk factors for increased exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy include obesity, multiple tracts and a larger stone burden. Ureteroscopy exposes patients to approximately the same amount of radiation as plain x-ray of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Risk factors for increased exposure during ureteroscopy include obesity and ureteral dilation. During shock wave lithotripsy the amount of radiation exposure is not well characterized. Interventions to reduce exposure to patients include using ultrasound when possible and implementing low dose computerized tomography protocols. The as low as reasonably achievable principle of radiation exposure should always be followed when fluoroscopy is performed. The use of an air retrograde pyelogram may also reduce exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Fluoroscopy time during ureteroscopy may be decreased by a laser guided C-arm, a dedicated C-arm technician, stent placement under direct vision and tactile feedback to help guide wire placement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with nephrolithiasis are at significant risk for increased radiation exposure from the imaging and fluoroscopy used during treatment. The true risks of low radiation exposure remain uncertain. It is important to be aware of these risks to provide better counseling for patients. Urologists must also be familiar with techniques to decrease radiation exposure for patients with nephrolithiasis.


Asunto(s)
Nefrolitiasis/diagnóstico , Nefrolitiasis/terapia , Exposición a la Radiación , Diagnóstico por Imagen/efectos adversos , Humanos , Dosis de Radiación , Exposición a la Radiación/prevención & control , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/efectos adversos
13.
J Urol ; 194(2): 413-7, 2015 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728906

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: During ureteroscopy ureteral balloon dilation may be necessary to allow for passage of endoscopic instruments or access sheaths. We assessed the efficacy and complications associated with ureteral balloon dilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records at 2 institutions from 2000 to 2012 to identify patients who underwent ureteral balloon dilation during ureteroscopic treatment of upper tract stones. An 18Fr balloon dilator was used in all cases. Patients with documented ureteral stricture, radiation therapy or urothelial cancer were excluded from analysis. Primary outcomes were the stone-free rate, operative complications, balloon dilation failure and the postoperative ureteral stricture rate. Complications were divided into intraoperative and postoperative groups according to the Satava and Clavien-Dindo classifications, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 151 patients fulfilled study criteria. Median followup was 12 months. The stone-free rate was 72% and median time to first postoperative imaging was 2.8 months. Balloon dilation failed in only 8 patients (5%). Eight intraoperative ureteral perforations (5%) were identified, which were managed by a ureteral stent in 7 patients and a percutaneous tube in 1. Endoscopic re-treatment was required in 4 patients with Satava 2b postoperative complications. The postoperative complication rate was 8% (11 cases). A single ureteral stricture was attributable to balloon dilation. CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary review balloon dilation of the ureter before endoscopic treatment of stone disease was associated with a high success rate and few complications. Ureteral balloon dilation may decrease the need for a secondary procedure in patients undergoing ureteroscopy to manage proximal ureteral and intrarenal stones.


Asunto(s)
Dilatación/métodos , Obstrucción Ureteral/terapia , Ureteroscopía/métodos , Cálculos Urinarios/terapia , Cateterismo Urinario , Adulto , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Uréter , Obstrucción Ureteral/etiología , Cálculos Urinarios/complicaciones
14.
J Urol ; 193(4): 1270-4, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25261805

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The management of upper urinary tract stones in patients with spina bifida is challenging but poorly described in the literature. We compared urolithiasis interventions and related complications in patients with spina bifida to those in other stone formers using a national database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the NIS to identify hospital admissions for renal and ureteral stones from 1998 to 2011. We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify urological interventions, including shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteral stent placement. NSQIP data were used to identify postoperative complications. RESULTS: We identified 4,287,529 weighted stone hospital admissions, including 12,315 (0.3%) of patients with spina bifida. Compared to those without spina bifida the patients with spina bifida who had urolithiasis were significantly younger (mean age 34 vs 53 years), more likely to have public insurance (72% vs 44%) and renal vs ureteral calculi (81% vs 58%), and undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy (27% vs 8%). After adjusting for age, insurance, comorbidity, treatment year, surgery type, stone location and hospital factors patients with spina bifida were more likely to have urinary tract infections (OR 2.5), urinary complications (OR 3.1), acute renal failure (OR 1.9), respiratory complications (OR 2.0), pneumonia (OR 1.5), respiratory insufficiency (OR 3.2), prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR 3.2), sepsis (OR 2.7), pulmonary embolism (OR 3.0), cardiac complications (OR 2.4) and bleeding (OR 1.6). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to those without spina bifida the patients with spina bifida who were hospitalized for urolithiasis were younger, and more likely to have renal stones and undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Urolithiasis procedures in patients with spina bifida were associated with a significantly higher risk of in-hospital postoperative complications.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos Renales/complicaciones , Cálculos Renales/cirugía , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Disrafia Espinal/complicaciones , Cálculos Ureterales/complicaciones , Cálculos Ureterales/cirugía , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos
15.
J Endourol ; 28(12): 1439-43, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25479184

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The outcomes of ureteroscopy (URS) after urgent decompression and antibiotics for patients who initially present with urosepsis because of obstructive urolithiasis have not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes and complications of URS in patients with a recent history of sepsis with those without sepsis. METHODS: The study included 138 patients who underwent URS for stone removal from January 2004 to September 2011 at a university medical center. A matched-pair analysis was performed using three parameters (age, sex, and race) to compare outcomes and complications between 69 patients who had sepsis vs a matched cohort who did not have sepsis before URS. RESULTS: The study included 138 patients, 88 (64%) females and 50 (36%) males with a median age of 57.5 years (range 18-88 years). Patients with previous sepsis had similar patient characteristics and stone-free rates (81% vs 77%) compared with patients without previous sepsis (P>0.05). Patients with previous sepsis, however, had a significantly higher complications rate (20% vs 7%), longer hospital length of stay (LOS), and longer courses of postoperative antibiotics after URS (P<0.05). Sepsis developed postoperatively in two patients with diabetes (one with and one without previous sepsis), and postoperative fever developed in five patients with previous sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: URS after decompression for urolithiasis-related sepsis has similar success but higher complication rates, greater LOS, and longer course of postoperative antibiotics. This is important in counseling patients who present for definitive URS after urgent decompression for urolithiasis-related sepsis.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Litotricia , Sepsis/terapia , Obstrucción Ureteral/cirugía , Ureterolitiasis/cirugía , Ureteroscopía , Infecciones Urinarias/terapia , Centros Médicos Académicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Análisis por Apareamiento , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sepsis/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Obstrucción Ureteral/complicaciones , Ureterolitiasis/complicaciones , Infecciones Urinarias/etiología , Adulto Joven
16.
BJU Int ; 114(3): 404-11, 2014 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24712851

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether body mass index (BMI) has an impact on the outcomes of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent tubeless PCNL at our institution from 2006 to 2011. Specifically, stone-free rates, complications, and hospital length of stay (LOS) were assessed. Patients were divided into four groups based on BMI: <25, 25-29.9, 30-34.9 and ≥35 kg/m(2) . Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared between BMI groups. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to evaluate the independent contribution of BMI as a predictor of outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 268 patients who fulfilled study requirements. The overall stone-free and complication rates were 52.5% and 19.0%, respectively. Minor and severe complication comprised 10.4% and 8.6%, respectively. Univariate and multivariable analyses showed no association between BMI and stone-free or complication rates. However, patients with a normal BMI had significantly higher transfusion rates (P = 0.005), and were significantly more likely to have a prolonged LOS (≥2 days), when compared with an overweight BMI (P = 0.032) CONCLUSIONS: BMI did not impact the stone-free, or complication rates of tubeless PCNL. Normal BMI was found to be a risk factor for prolonged LOS, which may be due to an increase in clinically significant bleeding in this patient population. Tubeless PCNL appears to be a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of complex renal calculi, independent of BMI.


Asunto(s)
Transfusión Sanguínea/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Hemostáticos/uso terapéutico , Cálculos Renales/cirugía , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Nefrostomía Percutánea/efectos adversos , Sobrepeso , Hemorragia Posoperatoria/etiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nefrostomía Percutánea/métodos , Hemorragia Posoperatoria/prevención & control , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Eur Urol ; 65(5): 852-5, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24315706

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major adverse effect of radical prostatectomy (RP). We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of aerobic training (AT) compared with usual care (UC) on ED prevalence in 50 men (n=25 per group) after RP. AT consisted of five walking sessions per week at 55-100% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 30-60 min per session following a nonlinear prescription. The primary outcome was change in the prevalence of ED, as measured by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), from baseline to 6 mo. Secondary outcomes were brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), VO2peak, cardiovascular (CV) risk profile (eg, lipid profile, body composition), and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The prevalence of ED (IIEF score ≤ 21) decreased by 20% in the AT group and by 24% in the UC group (difference: p=0.406). There were no significant between-group differences in any erectile function subscale (p>0.05). Significant between-group differences were observed for changes in FMD and VO2peak, favoring AT. There were no group differences in other markers of CV risk profile or PROs. In summary, nonlinear AT does not improve ED in men with localized prostate cancer in the acute period following RP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00620932.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Eréctil/terapia , Terapia por Ejercicio , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Caminata/fisiología , Glucemia/metabolismo , Composición Corporal , Arteria Braquial/fisiología , Disfunción Eréctil/sangre , Disfunción Eréctil/fisiopatología , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiología
18.
Urology ; 83(2): 282-7, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24246323

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine organ-specific doses (ODs) and effective dose (ED) for digital tomosynthesis (DT) and compare it with our institutional renal stone protocol noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT). METHODS: A validated anthropomorphic male phantom was placed supine on a digital GE Definium 8000 radiological scanner. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed in 256 locations and used to measure OD. A routine DT study was performed consisting of 2 scout images and 1 tomographic sweep in a 14.2-degree arc over the phantom. Software is used to recreate a series of coronal images from the sweep. ODs were determined as the sum of the doses for the study. Equivalent doses were calculated by multiplying OD with the appropriate tissue weighting factor. ED is the summation of the equivalent doses. OD and ED were determined in a similar fashion (using dosimeters) for a renal stone protocol NCCT and doses were compared. RESULTS: ODs for DT are significantly lower compared with NCCT. The ED for NCCT is 3.04 ± 0.34 mSv. The calculated ED for DT is 0.87 ± 0.15 mSv (2 scouts at 0.17 mSv and 0.14 mSv and 1 sweep at 0.56 mSv), P <.0001. CONCLUSION: DT exposes patients to substantially less radiation than NCCT. This is particularly true for radiation-sensitive organs. Further studies are needed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of DT as compared with NCCT. However, its low overall radiation dose makes it an ideal study for the follow-up of recurrent stone formers in the office setting.


Asunto(s)
Nefrolitiasis/diagnóstico por imagen , Dosis de Radiación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fantasmas de Imagen , Intensificación de Imagen Radiográfica/métodos
19.
BJU Int ; 113(6): 854-63, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24119037

RESUMEN

To discuss the use of renal mass biopsy (RMB) for small renal masses (SRMs), formulate technical aspects, outline potential pitfalls and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. The meeting was conducted as an informal consensus process and no scoring system was used to measure the levels of agreement on the different topics. A moderated general discussion was used as the basis for consensus and arising issues were resolved at this point. A consensus was established and lack of agreement to topics or specific items was noted at this point. Recommended biopsy technique: at least two cores, sampling different tumour regions with ultrasonography being the preferred method of image guidance. Pathological interpretation: 'non-diagnostic samples' should refer to insufficient material, inconclusive and normal renal parenchyma. For non-diagnostic samples, a repeat biopsy is recommended. Fine-needle aspiration may provide additional information but cannot substitute for core biopsy. Indications for RMB: biopsy is recommended in most cases except in patients with imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology (syndromes, imaging characteristics) and cases whereby conservative management is not contemplated. RMB is recommended for active surveillance but not for watchful-waiting candidates. We report the results of an international consensus meeting on the use of RMB for SRMs, defining the technique, pathological interpretation and indications.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Renales/patología , Neoplasias Renales/patología , Biopsia con Aguja/métodos , Biopsia con Aguja/normas , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
20.
Urol Int ; 91(3): 340-4, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23942388

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the risks of fever from different lithotrites after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PNL database is a prospective, multi-institutional, international PNL registry. Of 5,803 total patients, 4,968 received preoperative antibiotics, were supplied with complete information and included in this analysis. The lithotrites assessed included no fragmentation, ultrasonic, laser, pneumatic and combination ultrasonic/pneumatic. Risk of fever was estimated using multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for diabetes, steroid use, a history of positive urine culture, the presence of staghorn calculi or preoperative nephrostomy, stone burden and lithotrite. RESULTS: The overall fever rate was 10%. Pneumatic lithotrites were used in 43% of the cohort, followed by ultrasonic (24%), combination ultrasonic/pneumatic (17.3%), no fragmentation (8.4%) and laser (7.3%). Fever rates were no different between patients who underwent no or any fragmentation (p = 0.117), nor among patients when stratified by lithotrite (p = 0.429). On multivariate analysis, fragmentation was not significantly associated with fever [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.17, p = 0.413], while diabetes (OR 1.32, p = 0.048), positive urine culture (OR 2.08, p < 0.001), staghorn calculi (OR 1.80, p < 0.001) and nephrostomy (OR 1.65, p < 0.001) increased fever risk. Fever risk among lithotrites did not differ (p ≥ 0.128). CONCLUSIONS: Risk of post-PNL fever was not significantly different among the various lithotrites used in the CROES PNL study.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre/etiología , Cálculos Renales/cirugía , Litotricia/instrumentación , Litotricia/métodos , Nefrostomía Percutánea/métodos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Adulto , Profilaxis Antibiótica , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Fiebre/epidemiología , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Oportunidad Relativa , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Análisis de Regresión , Riesgo
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