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1.
Respiration ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827098

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis, staging, and molecular profiling of lung cancer are mostly carried out with bronchoscopy or CT-guided aspiration/biopsy. However, patients with locally advanced or advanced disease often harbor "superficial" metastases for which a percutaneous, ultrasound-assisted needle aspiration/biopsy (US-NAB) might represent an equally effective yet less invasive and costly alternative. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed a prospectively collected database of consecutive patients with known/suspected lung cancer who underwent a US-NAB of a suspected "superficial" metastasis. Cancer genotyping was carried out with next-generation sequencing using the Oncomine™ Focus DNA and RNA fusion panels. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry was performed with the SP263 antibody. Feasibility, diagnostic yield for tissue diagnosis, sensitivity for malignancy, diagnostic yield for the molecular profiling, and complications were the study endpoints. RESULTS: A total of 98 lesions were evaluated, and 93 were biopsied (95% feasibility). The spectrum of sampled sites included lymph nodes (63 patients), bone (11), subcutaneous tissue (8), muscle (7), and the pleura (4). The diagnostic yield for a tissue diagnosis was 93% (91/98). US-NAB correctly identified 85 of the 87 patients finally diagnosed with malignancy (98% sensitivity). Cancer genotyping and PDL1 testing were successfully completed in 41/42 patients (98%) and in 40/50 patients (80%) for whom these tests were requested, respectively. No complications were observed. CONCLUSION: US-NAB of "superficial" metastasis of lung cancer is safe and is associated with high success for diagnosis and molecular profiling. In this clinical setting, using US-NAB as a first-step technique would significantly limit the use of more invasive and costly diagnostic procedures.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the capability of an IOS (Intra Oral Scanner) device, used in standardized conditions, to detect margins of abutments prepared with knife-edge finishing line located at three different levels in relation to the gingival sulcus. METHODS: sixty abutment teeth for treatment with full crowns were selected and randomly divided in three groups accordingly to the depth of the finishing line: Group A: supragingival margin; Group B: 0.5-1.0 mm into the sulcus; Group C: 1.5-2.0 mm into the sulcus. Temporary crowns were placed for two weeks and then digital impressions (Aadva IOS 100, GC, Japan) were made of each abutment. As controls, analog impressions were taken, poured, and scanned using a laboratory scanner (Aadva lab scanner, GC, Japan). Two standard tessellation language (STL) files were generated for each abutment, subsequently processed, and superimposed by Exocad software (Exocad GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany), applying the "best-fit" algorithm in order to align the scan of the conventional with the digital impressions. The distances between each preparation margin and the adjacent gingival tissue were measured. Four measures were taken, two interproximally and buccally, for a total of six measures of each abutment considering three modes of impressions. The data were statistically evaluated using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each site and the Bonferroni test. RESULTS: there was no difference between the two kinds of impression in Group A in both sites, in Group B a difference of 0.483 mm and 0.682 mm at interproximal and buccal sites, respectively, and in Group C 0.750 mm and 0.964 mm at interproximal and buccal sites, respectively. The analysis performed on a site level (mesial/distal/vestibular) for the depth of both vertical preparations revealed significant differences (p < 0.0001). After a post hoc analysis (Bonferroni), vestibular sites of the shallow vertical preparations resulted in significantly lower values compared to the other sites prepared deeply. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed that the location of the margin is an important factor in making a precise and complete impression when IOS (Intra Oral Scanner) is used. Moreover, deep preparation into the sulcus is not recommended for IOS (Intra Oral Scanner) impressions.

3.
Oral Oncol ; 117: 105269, 2021 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827034

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To present an anatomical cadaver dissection study and our preliminary surgical experience with endoscopic-assisted multi-portal compartmental resection of the masticatory space (MS) in locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of the retromolar area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two fresh-frozen cadaver heads were dissected in the Laboratory of Anatomy to define the surgical steps of an endoscopic-assisted multi-portal compartmental approach to the MS. After this preclinical anatomical study, patients affected by locally advanced OSCC originating from the retromolar area with extension to the MS were prospectively enrolled and operated at two Italian referral centers for head and neck cancer between October 2019 and May 2020. RESULTS: Surgical technique of endoscopic-assisted multi-portal compartmental resection of the MS was preclinically defined step by step in 3 phases: transnasal, transoral/trancervical, and multi-portal. Compartmental resection of the MS was successfully completed in all specimens (4 MSs dissected). The surgical technique was subsequently applied in 3 patients affected by primary OSCC of the retromolar area, providing satisfactory results in terms of negative resection margins and local control. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-portal compartmental resection of the MS combining the transnasal and transoral/transcervical corridors is technically feasible. Such an approach to the MS in locally advanced OSCC provides different angles of incidence to the target and full control of tumor margins.

4.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 29(2): 156-160, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664198

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of the present and future applications of bioengineering for head and neck reconstruction, ranging from the application of Computed Assisted Surgery (CAS) to the most recent advances in 3D printing and tissue engineering. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of CAS in head and neck reconstruction has been demonstrated to provide shorter surgical times, improved reconstructive accuracy of bone reconstruction, and achieves better alignment of bone segments in osteotomized reconstructions. Beyond its classical application in bone reconstructions, CAS has demonstrated reliability in the planning and harvesting of soft tissue flaps. To date, literature regarding bioengineering for head and neck reconstruction is mainly focused on in-vitro and animal model experiments; however, some pioneering reports on human patients suggest the potential feasibility of this technology. SUMMARY: Bioengineering is anticipated to play a key role in the future development of customized flaps for head and neck reconstruction. These technologies are particularly appealing as a new technology to address certain unsolved challenges in head and neck reconstruction.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669002

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to collect long-term restorative and endodontic outcomes of endodontically treated teeth (ETT). METHODS: 298 teeth were included in the study and were recalled up to 18 years with a media of 10.2 years. At baseline, 198 sample teeth (66.44%) showed symptoms and 164 (55%) had periapical radiolucency. The most frequently used obturation techniques were warm gutta-percha in 80% of cases, and by carrier in 20%. A total of 192 ETT were restored by direct resin composite restorations, and 106 posts were luted. Moreover, 75 (25.16%) direct restorations remained as final restorations, 137 single crowns (45.97%), 42 (14.09%) partial adhesive crowns, and 42 (14.09%) abutments of fixed bridges were the final treatments. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed (α = 0.05). A Cox regression model was made. RESULTS: results showed success for 92.6% of ETT up to 18 years, 2.68% (8 ETT) showed irreversible failures, and 14 (4.69%) reversible complications. Four ETT (1.34%) failed because of root fracture and the other four (1.34%) because of endodontic complications. Eight ETT (2.69%) showed non-irreversible periodontal complications and the other six (2.01%) prosthodontic complications. Accordingly, with Kaplan-Meier analysis, the survival rate after 18 years was 97.3% (Interval of Confidence (IC) 95.1-98.3). The presence of a short or long (at least 1 mm related to radiographic apex) quality endodontic filling displayed a statistically significant higher risk of complication (hazard ratio (HR) = 17.00 (IC 5.68-56.84). Furthermore, a clinically detectable not precise coronal margins predicts the presence of any clinical complication with a hazard ratio almost seven times higher than endodontically treated teeth with a proper margin (HR = 6.89 (IC 2.03-23.38), while the presence of lucency at the baseline did not affect the risk of complication (HR = 0.575 (IC 0.205-1.61). The presence of post, tooth position in the arch, and the type of it did not show a high-risk rate (HR = 1.85, 1.98, and 2.24, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: a correct filling (at the apex) of root canals combined with proper coronal margins allow obtaining a long-term high success rate in teeth with a periapical lesion at the baseline. The use of a post or not, when its placement is related to the residual amount of the crown, does not change the final outcome of the ETT.

7.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 33(3): 196-205, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756515

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review provides the reader with the state-of-the-art concepts of sinonasal oncology in view of the latest literature data. RECENT FINDINGS: Most recent publications in sinonasal oncology assessed treatment timing, centralization, surgical approach, margin status, orbit/neck management, salvage strategies, emerging surgical technologies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), particle radiotherapy, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. SUMMARY: Indications to endoscopic surgery for sinonasal cancer have plateaued and are unlikely to further expand. Endoscopic surgery provides noninferior results compared to open surgery and best suits timing constraints imposed by multimodal treatment. Management of orbit-encroaching sinonasal cancer is remarkably improving mostly owing to optimal use of nonsurgical strategies. Prognostic value of the margin status and management of the nodal basin and recurrent sinonasal tumors are far from being fully elucidated. Most promising surgical technologies are surgical navigation, optical imaging, and radiofrequency-aided ablation. IMRT and VMAT have theoretical technical advantages that are in the process of being clinically demonstrated. Pieces of evidence are progressively confirming the physical and radiobiological advantages offered by particle radiotherapy. Systemic therapy is being tested mostly in the neoadjuvant setting with the aim of improving outcomes in locally advanced sinonasal cancers; response to induction chemotherapy could better select a further locoregional approach.

8.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620600

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Oral surgery morbidity is highly variable based on patients' characteristics and kind of surgical intervention. However, poor data are available in the literature regarding patient outcomes after oral surgery. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate patient-reported outcome and complication rates after maxillary sinus floor elevation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the records of patients undergoing maxillary sinus elevation have been collected from a private dental office. Patient-reported outcome has been assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale to evaluate the post-operative pain (VASpain) experienced in the first week following surgery and visual rating scales to evaluate discomfort level (VRSdiscomfort: 0 to 4) and willingness to repeat the same surgical procedure (VRSwillingness: 0 to 3). Analgesics intake, swelling onset and duration, and ecchymosis have been also recorded. RESULTS: VASpain showed moderate values in the first 2 days (< 50) post-surgery, with a tendency to progressively decrease over the next 2 days. Average assumption of painkillers was 3.93 ± 3.03. Discomfort level (VRSdiscomfort) after surgery was low (median: 1; IR: 1-0), while willingness to undergo the same surgical procedure was very high (77.63% of patients). Swelling and ecchymosis were experienced by 97.36% and 51.32% of patients, respectively, with a mean duration of 4.09 ± 1.43 and 2.21 ± 2.31 days, respectively. Membrane perforation occurred in 4 cases. Other post-operative complications were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Maxillary sinus grafting is a safe procedure, with a low complication rate and moderate morbidity that is well tolerated by patients. Particular attention is needed in case selection, surgical planning and operator expertise. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The analysis of patient-reported outcomes can be of great help in surgical planning and in providing correct and adequate treatment.

9.
Dent Mater J ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612564

RESUMEN

The aim is to evaluate the influence of remaining tooth substance and post-endodontic restoration on fracture strength of endodontically treated maxillary incisors. 150 maxillary central incisors were divided into three groups, Group 0, intact teeth; Group 1, removal of distal wall; Group 2, removal of mesial and distal walls, and further into two subgroups A0,A1,A2 and B0,B1,B2 according to post-endodontic restoration (post/no-post), then loaded to fracture. Interactions among variables and intergroup significance were tested with two-way ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis's tests (p≤0.05). Tukey's test was applied for multiple comparisons. Statistically significant differences were found between groups B1-A1, and B2-A2, but they were not found between B0-A0. Intragroup analysis showed statistically significant differences in both groups post/no-post with decreasing dental substance. Fiber post placement causes an increase in fracture strength and a reduction of irreparable fractures in endodontically treated maxillary central incisors that lost at least one wall.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492630

RESUMEN

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Efficacy of treatments for MS is associated with risk of adverse effects, and effective and well-tolerated drugs remain a major unmet need. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., fam. Cannabaceae) and cannabinoids are popular among MS patients to treat spasticity and pain. Cannabinoids are endowed with remarkable immunomodulating properties, and in particular the non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly recognized as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, nevertheless with excellent tolerability even at high doses. In this systematic review, we retrieved and critically evaluated available evidence regarding the immune and disease-modifying effects of CBD in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in MS. Evidence in rodent models of EAE strongly supports CBD as effective, while clinical evidence is still limited and usually negative, due to paucity of studies and possibly to the use of suboptimal dosing regimens. Better characterization of targets acted upon by CBD in MS should be obtained in ex vivo/in vitro studies in human immune cells, and higher doses should be tested in well-designed clinical trials with clinically relevant efficacy endpoints. Graphical Abstract.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 274, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436561

RESUMEN

The Dawn mission found that the dominant colour variation on the surface of dwarf planet Ceres is a change of the visible spectral slope, where fresh impact craters are surrounded by blue (negative spectral-sloped) ejecta. The origin of this colour variation is still a mystery. Here we investigate a scenario in which an impact mixes the phyllosilicates present on the surface of Ceres with the water ice just below. In our experiment, Ceres analogue material is suspended in liquid water to create intimately mixed ice particles, which are sublimated under conditions approximating those on Ceres. The sublimation residue has a highly porous, foam-like structure made of phyllosilicates that scattered light in similar blue fashion as the Ceres surface. Our experiment provides a mechanism for the blue colour of fresh craters that can naturally emerge from the Ceres environment.

12.
Head Neck ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496052

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A landmark for the identification of the lingual artery (LA) through a transoral perspective can provide surgeons with an easy method to prevent and manage intraoperative bleeding during transoral approach to the base of tongue (BOT). METHODS: Thirteen tongue and five head and neck specimens were dissected to identify and assess the reliability of the lingual point (LP) as a new landmark for the LA at BOT. The pathway of 42 LAs was radiologically evaluated; axial depth and vertical offset were measured for each LA. RESULTS: Dissection study: a description of LP is provided; the LA was easily identified in all specimens (36/36 sides) using LP as a landmark. Radiologic study: the mean depth of the LA was 4.2 mm, the mean vertical offset was 1.3 mm. CONCLUSIONS: LP is a simple and reliable landmark for identification of the LA, potentially helping surgeons to prevent and manage intraoperative bleeding.

13.
Oral Oncol ; 114: 105185, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517131

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Encroachment on the orbital cavity represents a challenge in the management of sinonasal cancer. Criteria guiding orbital preservation lack univocal consensus. Stage of orbital involvement is best assessed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Patients affected by orbit-encroaching sinonasal cancer with available preoperative MRI, receiving surgery-based treatment at the University of Brescia between May 2005 and October 2018 were included. All cases were reviewed by expert radiologists and pathologists. Diagnostic performance of MRI was calculated using pathological information as reference. Survival analysis was performed. RESULTS: The study included 123 patients. The orbit was abutted in 53 (43.1%) patients, whereas orbital invasion reached the periorbit in 18 (14.6%), extraconal fat and/or medial lacrimal sac in 29 (23.6%), extrinsic ocular muscles in 7 (5.7%), intraconal compartment in 4 (3.3%), and orbital apex in 12 (9.8%). Seventy-six (61.8%) patients received orbit-sparing surgery, 47 (38.2%) underwent orbital ablation (OA). Accuracy of MRI in detecting involvement by cancer was ≥80.0% for the orbital wall, extraconal fat, and muscles, and <80.0% for the periorbit and intraconal compartment. Previous surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and perineural invasion decreased MRI accuracy. Age, histology, tumor grade, pT category, N status, perineural invasion, orbital invasion stage, and need for OA were found to affect prognosis. Five-year orbital dysfunction-free survival was 92.8%. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of sinonasal cancers encroaching the orbit is feasible. MRI is essential to preoperatively stage orbital invasion, yet with some limitation. Given the dismal prognosis despite aggressive surgery, neoadjuvant non-surgical therapies should be considered in patients requiring OA.

14.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479806

RESUMEN

Transorbital endoscopic approaches are increasing in popularity as they provide corridors to reach various areas of the ventral skull base through the orbit. They can be used either alone or in combination with different approaches when dealing with the pathologies of the skull base. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the surgical anatomy of transorbital endoscopic approaches by cadaver dissections as well as providing objective clinical data on their actual employment and morbidity through a systematic review of the current literature. Four cadaveric specimens were dissected, and step-by-step dissection of each endoscopic transorbital approach was performed to identify the main anatomic landmarks and corridors. A systematic review with pooled analysis of the current literature from January 2000 to April 2020 was performed and the related studies were analyzed. Main anatomical landmarks are presented based on the anatomical study and systematic review of the literature. With emphasis on the specific transorbital approach used, indications, surgical technique, and complications are reviewed through the systematic review of 42 studies (19 in vivo and 23 anatomical dissections) including 193 patients. In conclusion, transorbital endoscopic approaches are promising and appear as feasible techniques for the surgical treatment of skull base lesions. Surgical anatomy of transorbital endoscopic approaches can be mastered through knowledge of a number of anatomical landmarks. Based on data available in the literature, transorbital endoscopic approaches represent an important complementary that should be included in the armamentarium of a skull base team.

15.
J Prosthet Dent ; 124(6): 761.e1-761.e7, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289647

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Intraoral scanners are promising options for removable prosthodontics. However, analog aids, including occlusion rims, are still used, as a completely digital workflow is challenging and scientific evidence on the topic is scarce. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the trueness and precision of scans obtained from a reference typodont of a completely edentulous maxilla by using an intraoral scanner (TRIOS 3 Pod; 3Shape A/S) with scans obtained by using a laboratory scanner (DScan 3; EGS S.R.L.) from both Type IV stone casts and polysulfide impressions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The polyurethane resin reference typodont was replicated from a clinical cast and was scanned with a metrological machine to obtain a reference scan. Ten digital casts were obtained by applying standardized scanning strategies to the reference typodont with the intraoral scanner. A device was created to make 10 consistent polysulfide impressions, and a scan of each impression was made with the laboratory scanner and then digitally reversed to obtain 10 digital reversed casts. Ten Type IV stone casts were poured and then scanned with the laboratory scanner to obtain 10 digital extraoral scanner casts. The scans in standard tessellation language (STL) format were imported into a dedicated software program, and the trueness and precision were calculated in µm. In addition to descriptive statistics (confidence interval 95%), 1-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni test or the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn tests were used to analyze differences among groups (α=.05). RESULTS: The trueness values (95% confidence interval) were digital intraoral scanner cast=48.7 (37.8-59.5), digital reversed cast=249.9 (121.3-378.5), and digital extraoral scanner cast=308.8 (186.6-430.9); significant differences were detected between digital intraoral scanner cast and digital reversed cast (P<.001) and between digital IOS casts and digital extraoral scanner cast (P<.001). The precision values (95% confidence interval) were digital intraoral scanner cast=46.7 (29.7-63.7), digital reversed cast=271.2 (94.6-447.8), and digital extraoral scanner cast=341.4 (175.5-507.3); significant differences were detected between digital intraoral scanner cast and digital reversed cast (P=.003) and between digital intraoral scanner cast and digital extraoral scanner cast (P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: Directly scanning a solid typodont of a completely edentulous maxilla with the intraoral scanner produced better trueness and precision than scanning the polysulfide impressions or the stone casts with a laboratory scanner.

16.
J Prosthet Dent ; 124(6): 762.e1-762.e8, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289648

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Information about the accuracy of intraoral scanners for the edentulous maxilla is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of 3 different intraoral scanner techniques on a completely edentulous maxilla typodont. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two completely edentulous maxillary typodonts with (wrinkled typodont) and without (smooth typodont) palatal rugae were used as reference and were scanned by using an industrial metrological machine to obtain 2 digital reference scans in standard tessellation language (STL) format (dWT and dST). Three different scanning techniques were investigated: in the buccopalatal technique, the buccal vestibule was scanned with a longitudinal movement ending on the palatal vault with a posteroanterior direction; the S-shaped technique was based on an alternate palatobuccal and buccopalatal scan along the ridge; in the palatobuccal technique, the palate was scanned with a circular movement and then with a longitudinal one along the buccal vestibule. Consecutively, 6 types of scans were obtained (n=10), namely wrinkled typodont/buccopalatal technique, wrinkled typodont/S-shaped technique, wrinkled typodont/palatobuccal technique (wrinkled typodont), smooth typodont/buccopalatal technique, smooth typodont/S-shaped technique, and smooth typodont/palatobuccal technique (smooth typodont). Scans in STL format were imported into a dedicated software program, and trueness and precision were evaluated in µm. In addition to descriptive statistics (95% confidence interval), a 2-factor ANOVA on the data ranks, the Kruskal-Wallis, and the Dunn tests were performed to analyze differences among groups (α=.05). RESULTS: Mean values for trueness (95% confidence interval) were wrinkled typodont/buccopalatal technique=48.7 (37.8-59.5); wrinkled typodont/S-shaped technique=65.9 (54.9-77.4); wrinkled typodont/palatobuccal technique=109.7 (96.1-123.4); smooth typodont/buccopalatal technique=48.1 (42.4-53.7); smooth typodont/S-shaped technique=56.4 (43.9-68.9); smooth typodont/palatobuccal technique=61.1 (53.3-69), with statistically significant differences for wrinkled typodont/buccopalatal technique versus wrinkled typodont/palatobuccal technique (P<.001), buccopalatal technique versus palatobuccal technique (P<.001), and wrinkled typodont versus smooth typodont (P=.002). Mean values for precision (95% confidence interval) were wrinkled typodont/buccopalatal technique=46.7 (29.7-63.7); wrinkled typodont/S-shaped technique=53.6 (37.6-69.7); wrinkled typodont/palatobuccal technique=90 (59.1-120.9); smooth typodont/buccopalatal technique=46 (39.7-52.3); smooth typodont/S-shaped technique=76 (55.5-96.6); smooth typodont/palatobuccal technique=52.9 (41.9-63.8); with statistically significant differences for buccopalatal technique versus palatobuccal technique (P=.032) and wrinkled typodont/buccopalatal technique versus wrinkled typodont/palatobuccal technique (P=.012). CONCLUSIONS: Smooth typodont scans showed better trueness than wrinkled typodont scans. Buccopalatal technique showed better mean values for trueness and precision than palatobuccal technique only in the wrinkled typodont scenario, while the other scanning approaches did not show significant differences in either tested configuration.

17.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 40(5): 377-382, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299228

RESUMEN

Objective: Congenital nasolacrimal duct cyst (NLDC) is a rare disorder, which can present with ophthalmological and nasal signs and symptoms. The authors analyse their personal experience to identify diagnostic criteria for NLDC, which were treated by endoscopic transnasal procedure. Methods: Clinical records of patients with a diagnosis of NLDC were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent rhinoscopy and ophthalmologist evaluation before surgery, whereas imaging was performed in selected cases. All neonates underwent transnasal endoscopic marsupialisation after failure of conservative medical therapy. Results: Five patients were included in the study. One patient presented bilateral NLDC. In 3 cases, CT scan of the sinus was carried out. A total of 6 marsupialisation procedures were performed and a bi-canalicular lacrimal stent was positioned in 1 case. Complete remission of symptoms was observed in all cases. Conclusions: Nasal endoscopy is mandatory to diagnose NLDCs, and, in some cases, it can be complemented by radiological procedures. When symptoms persist after systemic and topical therapy, nasal endoscopic marsupialisation is the treatment of choice. This surgical procedure is effective, safe and can be repeated if needed.

19.
J Neurosurg Sci ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320465

RESUMEN

Skull base cephaloceles (SBCs) are defined as herniation of intracranial content through the skull base and are classified based on composition, etiology, and topographic location. Anterior SBCs frequently protrude in the sinonasal cavity, and consequently are at potential risk of infection. Therefore, the current recommendation is to treat SBCs with the primary intent of preventing meningitis, and surgery represents the mainstay of treatment. Anterior SBCs may display a wide spectrum of severity and complexity, and in each case the risks and benefits of surgical approaches are to be carefully weighted based on thorough assessment of symptoms, age, general conditions, location and size of the lesion, as well as expertise of the surgeon. In the last 30 years, the evolution and diffusion of transnasal endoscopic surgery have substantially changed the surgical management of the majority of SBC. In the past, they were treated exclusively with open transcranial approaches that may be burdened by relevant morbidity and risk for severe complications. The transnasal endoscopic corridor now provides easy access to the lesion and different reconstructive strategies using endonasal pedicled flaps, without any external incision, cranioplasty or brain manipulation. However, there are still scenarios in which an exclusive transnasal endoscopic route is contraindicated. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview on the comprehensive management of anterior SBC, with a particular focus on lesions suitable for endoscopic surgery. Furthermore, special aspects of SBC management in children and adults will be highlighted.

20.
J Oral Sci ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239485

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the influence of the number of coronal walls and post-endodontic restorations on the mechanical strength of 165 recently extracted endodontically treated maxillary premolars. METHODS: The teeth were divided into 3 control (no post) and 3 test groups according to the number of residual walls. Each test group was divided into subgroups according to the type of post-endodontic restoration (single, oval, and multi-post techniques). Samples were prepared conforming to the assigned subgroup. A universal loading machine applied a load parallel to the longitudinal axis of the teeth, thus simulating physiological occlusion. ANOVA and the Kruskal Wallis test were used for comparisons (P ≤ 0.05), and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: For intact teeth, significant differences were found among all 3 subgroups, with single post showing the highest values. For 3 residual walls, oval post resulted in significantly lower values than single and multi-post systems. For 2 residual walls, the multi-post technique showed almost twice the resistance of oval post restorations. CONCLUSION: In oval canals the use of a single or multi-post technique increased post-and-core resistance even in intact teeth, whereas oval fiber posts showed no improvements. Multi-post design improved fracture resistance mostly in maxillary premolars lacking both marginal ridges.

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