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1.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e076625, 2024 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331861

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The literature presents complex inter-relationships among individual-factors and organisational-factors and barriers to seeking mental health support after deployment. This study aims to quantify longitudinal associations between such factors and barriers to mental health support. DESIGN: A longitudinal online survey of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel collected data at 3 months post-deployment (T1), 6 months post-deployment (T2) and 1 year post-deployment (T3). SETTING: In 2020, as part of Canada's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, 2595 CAF personnel deployed on Operation LASER to support civilian long-term care facilities in Québec and Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: All Operation LASER personnel were invited to participate: 1088, 582 and 497 responded at T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Most respondents were young, male, non-commissioned members. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Barriers to mental health support were measured using 25 self-reported items and grouped into theory-based factors, including eight factors exploring care-seeking capabilities, opportunities and motivations; and two factors exploring moral issues. Logistic regressions estimated the crude and adjusted associations of individual and organisational characteristics (T1) with barriers (T2 and T3). RESULTS: When adjusting for sex, military rank and mental health status, increased meaningfulness of deployment was associated with lower probability of endorsing barriers related to conflicts with career goals and moral discomfort in accessing support at T2. Higher scores in trust in leadership were associated with lower probability of endorsing four barriers at T2, and five barriers at T3. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several modifiable organisational-level characteristics that may help reduce perceived barriers to mental health support in military and other high-risk occupational populations. Results suggest that promoting individuals' sense of purpose, instilling trust in leadership and promoting relatedness among team members may improve perceptions of access to mental health supports in the months following a domestic deployment or comparable occupational exposure.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Servicios de Salud Mental , Personal Militar , Humanos , Masculino , Personal Militar/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Liderazgo , Pandemias , Confianza , Ontario
2.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 43(10-11): 431-449, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés, Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991887

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: First responders and other public safety personnel (PSP; e.g. correctional workers, firefighters, paramedics, police, public safety communicators) are often exposed to events that have the potential to be psychologically traumatizing. Such exposures may contribute to poor mental health outcomes and a greater need to seek mental health care. However, a theoretically driven, structured qualitative study of barriers and facilitators of help-seeking behaviours has not yet been undertaken in this population. This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify and better understand critical barriers and facilitators of help-seeking and accessing mental health care for a planned First Responder Operational Stress Injury (OSI) clinic. METHODS: We conducted face-to-face, one-on-one semistructured interviews with 24 first responders (11 firefighters, five paramedics, and eight police officers), recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Interviews were analyzed using deductive content analysis. The TDF guided study design, interview content, data collection, and analysis. RESULTS: The most reported barriers included concerns regarding confidentiality, lack of trust, cultural competency of clinicians, lack of clarity about the availability and accessibility of services, and stigma within first responder organizations. Key themes influencing help-seeking were classified into six of the TDF's 14 theoretical domains: environmental context and resources; knowledge; social influences; social/professional role and identity; emotion; and beliefs about consequences. CONCLUSION: The results identified key actions that can be utilized to tailor interventions to encourage attendance at a First Responder OSI Clinic. Such approaches include providing transparency around confidentiality, policies to ensure greater cultural competency in all clinic staff, and clear descriptions of how to access care; routinely involving families; and addressing stigma.


Asunto(s)
Socorristas , Policia , Humanos , Salud Mental , Paramédico , Socorristas/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa
3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 12: e44299, 2023 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37676877

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The earliest days of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada were marked by a significant surge in COVID-19 cases and COVID-19-related deaths among residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). As part of Canada's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel were mobilized for an initial emergency domestic deployment to the hardest-hit LTCFs (Operation LASER LTCF) to support the remaining civilian staff in ensuring the continued delivery of care to residents. Akin to what was observed following past CAF international humanitarian missions, there was an expected increased risk of exposure to multiple stressors that may be psychologically traumatic and potentially morally injurious in nature (ie, related to core values, eg, witnessing human suffering). Emerging data from health care workers exposed to the unprecedented medical challenges and dilemmas of the early pandemic stages also indicated that such experiences were associated with increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify and quantify the individual-, group-, and organizational-level risk and resilience factors associated with moral distress, moral injury, and traditional mental health and well-being outcomes of Operation LASER LTCF CAF personnel. This paper aimed to document the methodology, implementation procedures, and participation metrics. METHODS: A multimethod research initiative was conducted consisting of 2 primary data collection studies (a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews). The quantitative arm was a complete enumeration survey with web-based, self-report questionnaires administered at 3 time points (3, 6, and 12 mo after deployment). The qualitative arm consisted of individual, web-based interviews with a focus on understanding the nuanced lived experiences of individuals participating in the Operation LASER LTCF deployment. RESULTS: CAF personnel deployed to Operation LASER LTCF (N=2595) were invited to participate in the study. Data collection is now complete. Overall, of the 2595 deployed personnel, 1088 (41.93%), 582 (22.43%), and 497 (19.15%) responded to the survey at time point 1 (3 mo), time point 2 (6 mo), and time point 3 (12 mo) after deployment, respectively. The target sample size for the qualitative interviews was set at approximately 50 considering resourcing and data saturation. Interest in participating in qualitative interviews surpassed expectations, with >200 individuals expressing interest; this allowed for purposive sampling across key characteristics, including gender, rank, Operation LASER LTCF role, and province. In total, 53 interviews were conducted. CONCLUSIONS: The data generated through this research have the potential to inform and promote better understanding of the well-being and mental health of Operation LASER LTCF personnel over time; identify general and Operation LASER LTCF-specific risk and protective factors; provide necessary support to the military personnel who served in this mission; and inform preparation and interventions for future missions, especially those more domestic and humanitarian in nature. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/44299.

4.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(3): 100-103, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés, Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262311

RESUMEN

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) deployed 2595 regular and reserve force personnel on Operation (Op) LASER, the CAF's mission to provide support to civilian staff at longterm care facilities in Ontario and in the Centres d'hébergement de soins de longue durée in Quebec. An online longitudinal survey and in-depth virtual discussions were conducted by a multidisciplinary team of researchers with complementary expertise. This paper highlights the challenges encountered in conducting this research and their impact on the design and implementation of the study, and provides lessons learned that may be useful to researchers responding to similar public health crises in the future.


There are a number of challenges involved in conducting longitudinal research in an applied military setting during a global public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic. These challenges include but are not limited to a sudden transition to a distributed remote work environment, tight timelines, the need to obtain approvals from different agencies and departments, having to prioritize multiple study objectives, and survey fatigue. To overcome these challenges in future public health crises, it is important to (1) develop and maintain collaborative networks across government, academia and industry; (2) develop a standard set of pre-deployment demographic and health indicators to establish a baseline; and (3) use mixed methods approaches for a richer understanding of mental health trajectories following stressful events.


La réalisation d'une enquête longitudinale dans un contexte militaire concret pendant une crise mondiale de santé publique, comme la pandémie de COVID-19, vient avec son lot de défis. Parmi ces défis, on peut relever une transition subite vers un environnement de travail à distance, des délais serrés, la nécessité d'obtenir des approbations de différents organismes et ministères, la nécessité de prioriser plusieurs objectifs d'étude et la lassitude à l'égard des enquêtes. Pour relever ces défis au cours des futures crises de santé publique, il sera essentiel : 1) de créer et d'entretenir des réseaux de collaboration qui relieront le gouvernement, le milieu universitaire et les divers secteurs d'activité, 2) de créer un ensemble normalisé d'indicateurs démographiques et sanitaires avant le déploiement, en vue de l'obtention de données de référence et 3) de recourir à des méthodes mixtes pour mieux comprendre les trajectoires en matière de santé mentale à la suite d'événements stressants.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Rayos Láser , Ontario/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Health Serv ; 2: 954914, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36925872

RESUMEN

Background: Differences in healthcare delivery systems and pathways to mental healthcare for Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members and Veterans may contribute to variations in mental health services use (MHSU) and the factors associated with it. We: (1) estimated the prevalence of past 12-month MHSU (≥1 visit with a medical or mental health professional); and (2) identified sociodemographic, military-, trauma-, and health-related variables associated with MHSU among CAF members and Veterans. Methods: The current study used data from the 2018 CAF Members and Veterans Mental Health Follow-Up Survey (CAFVMHS). Model variables were selected a priori, and their respective associations with MHSU were estimated among (1) CAF members and (2) Veterans using separate multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Similar proportions of CAF members and Veterans reported past 12-month MHSU (26.9 vs. 27.5%, respectively). For both CAF members and Veterans, meeting criteria for at least one past 12-month MH disorder was associated with past 12-month MHSU [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.18-8.46; and AOR = 11.82, 95% CI: 11.07-12.61, respectively). Past-year suicide ideation, a history of sexual trauma, and endorsement of adverse childhood experiences were also significantly associated with MHSU among CAF members and Veterans. Significance: Similar to previous research, meeting screening criteria for a past 12-month MH disorder was strongly associated with MHSU among both samples. This study extends our existing knowledge about factors associated with MHSU among CAF members and Veterans, and offers direction for future research to increase MHSU.

6.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 91: 102100, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871868

RESUMEN

Military service is associated with increased risk of mental health problems. Previous reviews have pointed to under-utilization of mental health services in military populations. Building on the most recent systematic review, our narrative, critical review takes a complementary approach and considers research across the Five-Eyes nations from the past six years to update and broaden the discussion on pathways to mental healthcare in military populations. We find that at a broad population level, there is improvement in several indicators of mental health care access, with greater gains in initial engagement, time to first treatment contact, and subjective satisfaction with care, and smaller gains in objective indicators of adequacy of care. Among individual-level barriers to care-seeking, there is progress in improving recognition of need for care and reducing stigma concerns. Among organizational-level barriers, there are advances in availability of services and cultural acceptance of care-seeking. Other barriers, such as concerns around confidentiality, career impact, and deployability persist, however, and may account for some remaining unmet need. To address these barriers, new initiatives that are more evidence-based, theoretically-driven, and culturally-sensitive, are therefore needed, and must be rigorously evaluated to ensure they bring about additional improvements in pathways to care.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Servicios de Salud Mental , Personal Militar , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Salud Mental , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Estigma Social
7.
Mil Psychol ; 33(2): 72-79, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536322

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a 14-item mental health self-efficacy scale developed to assess the effectiveness of the Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) - a program aimed at improving the well-being and mental health of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel. The validity of the scale was assessed through an analysis of data collected as part of a pilot study and a larger group randomized control trial (GRCT) on the effectiveness of R2MR administered to CAF noncommissioned member recruits during basic training. Using data collected for the pilot study (N = 276), an initial review of items indicated a need to eliminate two redundant items and two items that were weakly correlated with other scale items. A parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) conducted on the resulting 10-item scale pointed to a one-factor model with all items loading satisfactorily. Using data from the GRCT (N = 1962), a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to further assess the revised scale. This CFA suggested good model fit (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation of .07 and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of .06). The revised scale had an alpha of .88, was very strongly correlated with the full scale (r = .97, p < .001), and significantly predicted perceived control and self-efficacy regarding accessing mental health care and intention to access care.

8.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1729032, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194921

RESUMEN

Objective: Potentially morally injurious experiences (PMIE) (events that transgress an individual's subjective moral standards) have been associated with psychologically distressing moral emotions such as shame and guilt. Military leaders and clinicians have feared that those with PMIEs may be less likely to seek help due to the withdrawing nature of shame/guilt; however, to date, help-seeking patterns of military personnel with PMIEs has not been explored. Our objective is to address this research gap. Method: Data from a nationally-representative mental health survey of active Canadian military personnel were analysed. To assess the association between exposure to three PMIEs and past-year help-seeking across different provider categories (i.e. professionals, para-professionals (those delegated with mental health advisory tasks but are not licenced to practice as medical professionals), non-professionals), a series of logistic regressions were conducted, controlling for exposure to other deployment and non-deployment-related psychological trauma, psychiatric variables, military factors, and sociodemographic variables. Analytical data frame included only personnel with a history of Afghanistan deployment (N = 4854). Results: Deployed members exposed to PMIEs were more likely to seek help from their family doctor/general practitioner (OR = 1.72; 95%CI = 1.25-2.36), paraprofessionals (OR = 1.72; 95%CI = 1.25-2.36), and non-professionals (OR = 1.44; 95%CI = 1.06-1.95) in comparison to members not exposed to PMIEs. Those exposed to PMIEs were also more likely to seek professional care from the civilian health care system (OR = 1.94; 95%CI = 1.27-2.96). Conclusion: Contrary to long-held, but untested, assumptions regarding the impact of PMIEs on help-seeking, we found those with PMIEs are more likely to seek help from gatekeeper professionals (i.e. general practitioners), para-professionals, and non-professionals rather than specialized mental health professionals (e.g. psychologists). Increased utilization of civilian professionals raises concerns that active military members may be avoiding military health services. Clinically, this highlights the need to increase awareness of moral injury to ensure that actively serving military members are provided with appropriate advice and treatment.


Objetivo: Las experiencias potencialmente dañinas para la moral (PMIE por sus siglas en inglés), definidas como eventos que transgreden los estándares morales subjetivos de un individuo, han sido asociadas con emociones angustiantes relacionadas con la moral, como la vergüenza y la culpa. Los líderes militares y los clínicos han temido que aquellos que experimentan PMIEs tienen menos probabilidades de buscar ayuda debido a la naturaleza aislante de la vergüenza y la culpa, sin embargo a la fecha, los patrones de búsqueda de ayuda del personal militar con PMIEs no han sido explorados. Nuestro objetivo es abordar esta brecha.Método: se analizaron datos de una encuesta de salud mental para personal militar canadiense en servicio activo. La encuesta era representativa de todo el país y de corte transversal. Para evaluar la asociación entre exposición a tres PMIEs y búsqueda de ayuda durante el último año a través de diferentes categorías de proveedores (tales como no profesionales o aquellos militares delegados con tareas de salud mental), se realizó una serie de regresiones logísticas, controlando para exposición a otros despliegues y trauma no relacionado a los despliegues, variables psiquiátricas, factores militares y variables sociodemográficas. El marco de datos analítico incluyó solo personal CAF activo con una historia de despliegue en Afganistán (n=4854).Resultados: Los sujetos en despliegue expuestos a PMIEs tenían más probabilidad de buscar ayuda de parte de su médico de familia/médico general (OR=1.72; 95% CI=1.25-2.36), paraprofesionales (OR=1.72; 95%CI=1.25-2.36), y no profesionales (OR=1.44; 95%CI=1.06-1.95) en comparación con aquellos sujetos no expuestos a PMIEs. Aquellos expuestos a PMIEs también tenían más probabilidad de buscar ayuda profesional en el sistema de salud civil (OR=1.94; 95%CI=1.27-2.96).Conclusión: Al contrario de la creencia por largo tiempo sostenida, pero no probada en relación al impacto de las PMIEs en la búsqueda de ayuda, encontramos que aquellos con PMIEs tienen más probabilidades de buscar ayuda de profesionales de puerta de entrada (como médicos generales) y de no profesionales en vez de profesionales especializados en salud mental (como psicólogos). El aumento de la consulta en profesionales civiles plantea la preocupación de que militares activos puedan estar evitando los servicios de salud militares. Clínicamente, esto destaca la necesidad de aumentar la concientización sobre el daño moral para asegurar que los militares en servicio activo sean proveídos con apropiada consejería y tratamiento.

9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 326, 2019 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664960

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite increased interest in workplace mental health interventions, the evidence for beneficial effects is mixed. Furthermore, many existing studies lack methodological rigor. We report results from a group randomized control trial to test the efficacy of a vastly popular intervention in Canada, the Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) program, which has been widely disseminated in military, first responder, and civilian settings. METHODS: The trial took place among Canadian Armed Forces military recruits completing their basic military qualification (BMQ) training, and randomized 65 platoons (N = 2831) into either (a) an Intervention (R2MR at week 2 of BMQ), or (b) a delayed Intervention Control (R2MR at week 9 of BMQ) condition. The principal investigator, participants, and data collection staff were blinded to platoon condition. Individual-level psychological functioning, resilience, mental health service use attitudes, intentions, and behaviours, and additional covariates were assessed with questionnaires around week 2 (a day or two before Intervention platoons received R2MR), at week 5, and at week 9 (a day or two before the Control platoons received R2MR). Military performance outcomes were obtained from administrative databases. RESULTS: The full trial results were mixed; for some outcomes (psychological functioning, resilience, and military performance), we saw no evidence of beneficial effects; where we did see benefits (mental health service use attitudes, intentions, behaviours), the effects were very small, or disappeared over time. Analyses among two subsamples (Group 1: Intervention platoons with a Fidelity Check and their Controls, and Group 2: Intervention platoons without Fidelity Check and their Controls) indicated that for some outcomes (attitudes and help-seeking), under high fidelity conditions, the beneficial effects of R2MR were increased and better sustained; Conversely, under poor fidelity conditions, decreased beneficial effects or even iatrogenic effects were observed. Analyses across three training divisions indicated the larger organizational climate further influences efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings paint a very complex picture in which it is made evident that sensible, evidence-informed workplace mental health interventions such as R2MR may work under high fidelity conditions, but may yield no discernable benefit or even inadvertent iatrogenic effects if implemented poorly or without sufficient consideration to the larger organizational context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 52557050 Registered 13 October 2016.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Servicios de Salud Mental , Personal Militar/psicología , Servicios de Salud del Trabajador/métodos , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Canadá , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Resiliencia Psicológica , Método Simple Ciego , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Rendimiento Laboral
10.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e028849, 2019 09 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537560

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to explore differences in perceived need for care (PNC), mental health services use (MHSU) and perceived sufficiency of care (PSC) between Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force (RegF) and Reserve Force (ResF) personnel with an objective need for mental health services. DESIGN: Data came from the 2013 Canadian Armed Forces Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of serving personnel (n=72 629). Analyses were among those with an Afghanistan deployment and an identified mental disorder (population n=6160; sampled n=868). Logistic regression compared PNC, MHSU and PSC between RegF and ResF. Covariate-adjusted marginal prevalence difference estimates were computed. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcomes were PNC, MHSU and PSC. Each had three service categories, including an aggregate 'any' of the three: (1) information about problems, treatments or services; (2) medication and (3) counselling. RESULTS: ResF had an 10.5% (95% CI -16.7% to -4.4%) lower perceived need for medication services but PNC differences were not significant for other service categories. MHSU tended to be lower for ResF; 9.1% (95%CI -15.5% to -2.6%) lower for medication, 5.4% (95% CI -11.5% to 0.7%) lower, with marginal significance, for counselling and 11.3% (95% CI -17.3% to -5.2%) lower for the 'any' service category. Additionally, ResF tended to have a lower fully met need for care; 13.4% (95% CI -22.1% to -4.6%) lower for information, 15.3% (95% CI -22.9% to -7.6%) lower for counselling and 14.6% (95% CI -22.4% to -6.8%) lower for the 'any' service category. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest MHSU and PSC differences between Canadian RegF and ResF personnel that are not fully accounted for by PNC differences. Deficits in ResF members' perceptions of the sufficiency of information services and counselling services suggest perceived, or experienced, barriers to care beyond any PNC barriers. Additional research assessing barriers to mental healthcare is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal Militar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Campaña Afgana 2001- , Alcoholismo/terapia , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastorno de Pánico/terapia , Satisfacción del Paciente , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Adulto Joven
11.
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e018735, 2018 03 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530906

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to explore differences in mental health problems (MHP) between serving Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) components (Regular Force (RegF); Reserve Force (ResF)) with an Afghanistan deployment and to assess the contribution of both component and deployment experiences to MHP using covariate-adjusted prevalence difference estimates. Additionally, mental health services use (MHSU) was descriptively assessed among those with a mental disorder. DESIGN: Data came from the 2013 CAF Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of serving personnel (n=72 629). Analyses were limited to those with an Afghanistan deployment (population n=35 311; sampled n=4854). Logistic regression compared MHP between RegF and ResF members. Covariate-adjusted prevalence differences were computed. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcomes were MHP, past-year mental disorders, identified using the WHO's Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and past-year suicide ideation. RESULTS: ResF personnel were less likely to be identified with a past-year anxiety disorder (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.90)), specifically both generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder, but more likely to be identified with a past-year alcohol abuse disorder (AOR=1.63 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.58)). The magnitude of the covariate-adjusted disorder prevalence differences for component was highest for the any anxiety disorder outcome, 2.8% (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6); lower for ResF. All but one deployment-related experience variable had some association with MHP. The 'ever felt responsible for the death of a Canadian or ally personnel' experience had the strongest association with MHP; its estimated covariate-adjusted disorder prevalence difference was highest for the any (of the six measured) mental disorder outcome (11.2% (95% CI 6.6 to 15.9)). Additionally, ResF reported less past-year MHSU and more past-year civilian MHSU. CONCLUSIONS: Past-year MHP differences were identified between components. Our findings suggest that although deployment-related experiences were highly associated with MHP, these only partially accounted for MHP differences between components. Additional research is needed to further investigate MHSU differences between components.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastornos de Combate/psicología , Trastornos Mentales , Personal Militar/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Adulto , Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Campaña Afgana 2001- , Canadá/epidemiología , Trastornos de Combate/complicaciones , Trastornos de Combate/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Ideación Suicida , Adulto Joven
12.
Can J Psychiatry ; 63(9): 602-609, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders constitute a significant public health problem worldwide. Ensuring that those who need mental health services access them in an appropriate and timely manner is thus an important public health priority. We used data from 4 cross-sectional, nationally representative population health surveys that employed nearly identical methods to compare MHSU trends in the Canadian military versus comparable civilians. METHOD: The surveys were all conducted by Statistics Canada, approximately a decade apart (Military-2002, Military-2013, Civilian-2002, and Civilian-2012). The sample size for the pooled data across the surveys was 35,984. Comparisons across the 4 surveys were adjusted for differences in need in the 2 populations at the 2 time points. RESULTS: Our findings suggested that first, in the Canadian military, there was a clear and consistent pattern of improvement (i.e., increase) in MHSU over the past decade across a variety of provider types. The magnitudes of the changes were large, representing an absolute increase of 7.15% in those seeking any professional care, corresponding to an 84% relative increase. Second, in comparable Canadian civilians, MHSU remained either unchanged or increased only slightly. Third, the increases in MHSU over time were consistently greater in the military than in the comparable civilian sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to advantages with respect to MHSU of the military mental health system over the civilian system in Canada; these advantages have widened substantially over time. These findings speak strongly to the potential impact of analogous changes in other health systems, both military and civilian.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Servicios de Salud Mental/economía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
13.
Can J Psychiatry ; 61(1 Suppl): 36S-45S, 2016 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27270740

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Failure to perceive need for care (PNC) is the leading barrier to accessing mental health care. After accessing care, many individuals perceive that their needs were unmet or only partially met, an additional problem related to perceived sufficiency of care (PSC). The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) invested heavily in workplace mental health in the past decade to improve PNC/PSC; yet, the impact of these investments remains unknown. To assess the impact of these investments, this study 1) captures changes in PNC/PSC over the past decade in the CAF and 2) compares current PNC/PSC between the CAF and civilians. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 2013 and 2002 CAF surveys and the 2012 civilian mental health survey (total N = ∼40 000), conducted by Statistics Canada using similar methodology. Exclusions were applied to the civilian sample to make them comparable to the military sample. Prevalence rates for No need, Need met, Need partially met, and Need unmet categories across service types (Information, Medication, Counselling and therapy, Any services) were calculated and compared between 1) the 2 CAF surveys and 2) the 2013 CAF and 2012 civilian surveys after sample matching. RESULTS: Reports of Any need and Need met were higher in the CAF in 2013 than in 2002 by approximately 6% to 8% and 2% to 8%, respectively, and higher in the CAF than in civilians by 3% to 10% and 2% to 8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that investments in workplace mental health, such as those implemented in the CAF, can lead to improvements in recognizing the need for care (PNC) and subsequently getting those needs met (PSC).


Asunto(s)
Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfacción del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
CMAJ ; 188(11): E261-E267, 2016 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the context of the Canadian mission in Afghanistan, substantial media attention has been placed on mental health and lack of access to treatment among Canadian Forces personnel. We compared trends in the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and the use of mental health services between Canadian military personnel and the general population from 2002 to 2012/13. METHODS: We obtained data for respondents aged 18-60 years who participated in 4 nationally representative surveys by Statistics Canada designed to permit comparisons between populations and trends over time. Surveys of the general population were conducted in 2002 (n = 25 643) and 2012 (n = 15 981); those of military personnel were conducted in 2002 (n = 5153) and 2013 (n = 6700). We assessed the lifetime and past-year prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, as well as use of mental health services. RESULTS: In 2012/13, but not in 2002, military personnel had significantly higher odds of both lifetime and past-year suicidal ideation than the civilian population (lifetime: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.50; past year: adjusted OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.66). The same was true for suicidal plans (lifetime: adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.35-1.99; past year: adjusted OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.18-2.33). Among respondents who reported past-year suicidal ideation, those in the military had a significantly higher past-year utilization rate of mental health services than those in the civilian population in both 2002 (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.31-3.13) and 2012/13 (adjusted OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.86-5.28). INTERPRETATION: Canadian Forces personnel had a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans in 2012/13 and a higher use of mental health services in 2002 and 2012/13 than the civilian population.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal Militar/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Intento de Suicidio/tendencias , Adulto , Canadá , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 50(5): 739-46, 2015 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25367680

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, few individuals with a new-onset mental disorder access treatment in a timely manner. While barriers to mental health treatment have been studied among prevalent cases, few studies have focused specifically on incident cases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of perceived barriers to mental health treatment among incident cases. METHODS: Data came from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 1.2 (CCHS 1.2), which represents a nationally representative sample of 36,984 Canadians. We used descriptive analyses to estimate the prevalence of different types of perceived barriers to treatment and logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between potential correlates and the probability of endorsing each type of barrier. RESULTS: The most frequently reported type of barrier was acceptability. Coping efficacy and psychological well-being were negatively associated with the likelihood of reporting accessibility barriers. Education was negatively associated with reporting acceptability barriers but positively associated with reporting availability barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with a recent disorder onset, acceptability barriers are the most frequently reported. Perceived accessibility barriers may be open to influence from current clinical functioning and current perceptions of internal coping resources. These findings contribute to an important discussion about the complexity of pathways to care and point to the need for comprehensive approaches to overcoming barriers to care.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental , Percepción , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicoterapia , Adulto Joven
16.
Can J Psychiatry ; 60(11): 488-96, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26720506

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a representative, active military sample, and to identify demographic and military variables that modulate rates of trauma exposure as well as PTSD rates and duration. METHOD: A cross-sectional weighted sample of 5155 regular members and 3957 reservists (n = 8441) of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) was face-to-face interviewed using a lay-administered structured interview that generates Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, psychiatric diagnoses. RESULTS: Within this sample, 85.6% reported 1 or more trauma exposure, with a median number of 3 or more exposures. Compared with males, females were less likely (P < 0.05) to be exposed to warlike trauma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.40), disasters (AOR 0.43), assaultive violence (AOR 0.52), and witnessing trauma (AOR 0.75). However, they were more likely to report sexual assault (AOR 7.36). The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 6.6% and the conditional rate was 7.7%. Both lifetime and conditional PTSD rates were higher among female soldiers, but lower among the reserve forces, both male and female. Finally, the median duration of PTSD was negatively influenced by younger age of onset, but not influenced by whether the event occurred during deployment. CONCLUSIONS: Active members of the CAF report a high degree of trauma exposure but a moderate rate of lifetime PTSD.


Asunto(s)
Desastres/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Guerra , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personal Militar/psicología , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Distribución por Sexo , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
17.
Int Psychiatry ; 11(4): 85-87, 2014 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507774

RESUMEN

In the past 15 years in Canada, as in other nations, the mental health of veterans has emerged as a key concern for both government and the public. As mental health service enhancement unfolded, the need for wider population studies became apparent. This paper describes the renewal of services and key findings from national surveys of serving personnel and veterans.

18.
Phys Ther ; 93(9): 1163-74, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23043148

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some veterans, and especially those with mental disorders, have difficulty reintegrating into the civilian workforce. PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to describe the scope of the existing literature on mental disorders and unemployment and to identify factors potentially associated with reintegration of workers with mental disorders into the workforce. DATA SOURCES: The following databases were searched from their respective inception dates: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index Nursing Allied Health (CINAHL), and PsycINFO. STUDY SELECTION: In-scope studies had quantitative measures of employment and study populations with well-described mental disorders (eg, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance-use disorders). DATA EXTRACTION: A systematic and comprehensive search of the relevant published literature up to July 2009 was conducted that identified a total of 5,195 articles. From that list, 81 in-scope studies were identified. An update to July 2012 identified 1,267 new articles, resulting in an additional 16 in-scope articles. DATA SYNTHESIS: Three major categories emerged from the in-scope articles: return to work, supported employment, and reintegration. The literature on return to work and supported employment is well summarized by existing reviews. The reintegration literature included 32 in-scope articles; only 10 of these were conducted in populations of veterans. LIMITATIONS: Studies of reintegration to work were not similar enough to synthesize, and it was inappropriate to pool results for this category of literature. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive literature review found limited knowledge about how to integrate people with mental disorders into a new workplace after a prolonged absence (>1 year). Even more limited knowledge was found for veterans. The results informed the next steps for our research team to enhance successful reintegration of veterans with mental disorders into the civilian workplace.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/rehabilitación , Reinserción al Trabajo , Ajuste Social , Veteranos/psicología , Humanos
19.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 47(8): 1359-66, 2012 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22124662

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Since its inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, there has been skepticism over the validity of delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Paucity of research on the correlates and the clinical consequences of delayed-onset PTSD have historically added to this skepticism. The objective of this study was to address an important gap in the literature by examining the prevalence, the correlates, and the clinical consequences of delayed-onset PTSD using data from a large epidemiological survey. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Canadian Forces Supplement (N = 8,441), a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of mental health in the Canadian Forces. Logistic regressions were used to identify correlates of delayed onset. Cox regressions were used to examine the impact of delayed onset on symptom duration. RESULTS: The prevalence of delayed-onset PTSD in this Canadian population was less than 1%. Delayed-onset cases accounted for 8.5% of all PTSD cases. Experiencing trauma in early childhood, experiencing a repeated trauma, and serving in the land troops were all associated with greater likelihood of developing delayed-onset PTSD. Delayed onset, after controlling for important sociodemographic, military, and clinical variables, was associated with greater symptom duration. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomenon of delayed-onset PTSD, albeit uncommon, does exist. Certain trauma characteristics may increase the risk for developing delayed-onset PTSD. Delayed onset may be associated with more chronic forms of this disorder.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Canadá/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personal Militar/psicología , Oportunidad Relativa , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 11: 86, 2011 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21586149

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In this chart review, we attempted to evaluate the benefits of adding aripiprazole in veterans with military-related PTSD and comorbid depression, who had been minimally or partially responsive to their existing medications. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who received an open-label, flexible-dose, 12- week course of adjunctive aripiprazole was conducted in 27 military veterans meeting DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and comorbid major depression. Concomitant psychiatric medications continued unchanged, except for other antipsychotics which were discontinued prior to initiating aripiprazole. The primary outcome variable was a change from baseline in the PTSD checklist-military version (PCL-M) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). RESULTS: PTSD severity (Total PCL scores) decreased from 56.11 at baseline to 46.85 at 12-weeks (p < 0.0001 from Wilcoxon signed rank test) and the depression severity decreased from 30.44 at baseline to 20.67 at 12-weeks (p < 0.0001 from Wilcoxon signed rank test). Thirty seven percent (10/27) were considered responders, as defined by a decrease in total PCL scores of at least 20 percent and 19% (5/27) were considered as responders as defined by a decrease in total BDI score of at least 50%. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of aripiprazole contributed to a reduction in both PTSD and depression symptomatology in a population that has traditionally demonstrated poor pharmacological response. Further investigations, including double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, are essential to confirm and further demonstrate the benefit of aripiprazole augmentation in the treatment of military related PTSD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/tratamiento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos/efectos de los fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada/psicología , Piperazinas/uso terapéutico , Quinolonas/uso terapéutico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/tratamiento farmacológico , Veteranos/psicología , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Aripiprazol , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/complicaciones
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