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1.
Nano Lett ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978824

RESUMEN

Nanoplasmonic systems combined with optically active two-dimensional materials provide intriguing opportunities to explore and control light-matter interactions at extreme subwavelength length scales approaching the exciton Bohr radius. Here, we present room- and cryogenic-temperature investigations of a MoSe2 monolayer on individual gold dipole nanoantennas. By controlling nanoantenna size, the dipolar resonance is tuned relative to the exciton achieving a total tuning of ∼130 meV. Differential reflectance measurements performed on >100 structures reveal an apparent avoided crossing between exciton and dipolar mode and an exciton-plasmon coupling constant of g = 55 meV, representing g/(ℏωX) ≥ 3% of the transition energy. This places our hybrid system in the intermediate-coupling regime where spectra exhibit a characteristic Fano-like shape. We demonstrate active control by varying the polarization of the excitation light to programmably suppress coupling to the dipole mode. We further study the emerging optical signatures of the monolayer localized at dipole nanoantennas at 10 K.

2.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442502

RESUMEN

Visualizing eigenmodes is crucial in understanding the behavior of state-of-the-art micromechanical devices. We demonstrate a method to optically map multiple modes of mechanical structures simultaneously. The fast and robust method, based on a modified phase-lock loop, is demonstrated on a silicon nitride membrane and shown to outperform three alternative approaches. Line traces and two-dimensional maps of different modes are acquired. The high quality data enables us to determine the weights of individual contributions in superpositions of degenerate modes.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3489, 2021 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108469

RESUMEN

Materials combining semiconductor functionalities with spin control are desired for the advancement of quantum technologies. Here, we study the magneto-optical properties of novel paramagnetic Ruddlesden-Popper hybrid perovskites Mn:(PEA)2PbI4 (PEA = phenethylammonium) and report magnetically brightened excitonic luminescence with strong circular polarization from the interaction with isolated Mn2+ ions. Using a combination of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, magneto-absorption and transient optical spectroscopy, we find that a dark exciton population is brightened by state mixing with the bright excitons in the presence of a magnetic field. Unexpectedly, the circular polarization of the dark exciton luminescence follows the Brillouin-shaped magnetization with a saturation polarization of 13% at 4 K and 6 T. From high-field transient magneto-luminescence we attribute our observations to spin-dependent exciton dynamics at early times after excitation, with first indications for a Mn-mediated spin-flip process. Our findings demonstrate manganese doping as a powerful approach to control excitonic spin physics in Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites, which will stimulate research on this highly tuneable material platform with promise for tailored interactions between magnetic moments and excitonic states.

4.
Nano Lett ; 21(2): 959-966, 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428406

RESUMEN

Monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides are a strongly emergent platform for exploring quantum phenomena in condensed matter, building novel optoelectronic devices with enhanced functionalities. Because of their atomic thickness, their excitonic optical response is highly sensitive to their dielectric environment. In this work, we explore the optical properties of monolayer thick MoSe2 straddling domain wall boundaries in periodically poled LiNbO3. Spatially resolved photoluminescence experiments reveal spatial sorting of charge and photogenerated neutral and charged excitons across the boundary. Our results reveal evidence for extremely large in-plane electric fields of ≃4000 kV/cm at the domain wall whose effect is manifested in exciton dissociation and routing of free charges and trions toward oppositely poled domains and a nonintuitive spatial intensity dependence. By modeling our result using drift-diffusion and continuity equations, we obtain excellent qualitative agreement with our observations and have explained the observed spatial luminescence modulation using realistic material parameters.

5.
Nano Lett ; 21(2): 1040-1046, 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433221

RESUMEN

We demonstrate electrostatic switching of individual, site-selectively generated matrices of single photon emitters (SPEs) in MoS2 van der Waals heterodevices. We contact monolayers of MoS2 in field-effect devices with graphene gates and hexagonal boron nitride as the dielectric and graphite as bottom gates. After the assembly of such gate-tunable heterodevices, we demonstrate how arrays of defects, that serve as quantum emitters, can be site-selectively generated in the monolayer MoS2 by focused helium ion irradiation. The SPEs are sensitive to the charge carrier concentration in the MoS2 and switch on and off similar to the neutral exciton in MoS2 for moderate electron doping. The demonstrated scheme is a first step for producing scalable, gate-addressable, and gate-switchable arrays of quantum light emitters in MoS2 heterostacks.

6.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 3139-3151, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464815

RESUMEN

Layered, two-dimensional (2D) materials are promising for next-generation photonics devices. Typically, the thickness of mechanically cleaved flakes and chemical vapor deposited thin films is distributed randomly over a large area, where accurate identification of atomic layer numbers is time-consuming. Hyperspectral imaging microscopy yields spectral information that can be used to distinguish the spectral differences of varying thickness specimens. However, its spatial resolution is relatively low due to the spectral imaging nature. In this work, we present a 3D deep learning solution called DALM (deep-learning-enabled atomic layer mapping) to merge hyperspectral reflection images (high spectral resolution) and RGB images (high spatial resolution) for the identification and segmentation of MoS2 flakes with mono-, bi-, tri-, and multilayer thicknesses. DALM is trained on a small set of labeled images, automatically predicts layer distributions and segments individual layers with high accuracy, and shows robustness to illumination and contrast variations. Further, we show its advantageous performance over the state-of-the-art model that is solely based on RGB microscope images. This AI-supported technique with high speed, spatial resolution, and accuracy allows for reliable computer-aided identification of atomically thin materials.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 32(13): 135604, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238260

RESUMEN

We report a comprehensive study of the growth dynamics in highly periodic, composition tunable InAsSb nanowire (NW) arrays using catalyst-free selective area molecular beam epitaxy. Employing periodically patterned SiO2-masks on Si (111) with various mask opening sizes (20-150 nm) and pitches (0.25-2 µm), high NW yield of >90% (irrespective of the InAsSb alloy composition) is realized by the creation of an As-terminated 1 × 1-Si(111) surface prior to NW nucleation. While the NW aspect ratio decreases continually with increasing Sb content (x Sb from 0% to 30%), we find a remarkable dependence of the aspect ratio on the mask opening size yielding up to ∼8-fold increase for openings decreasing from 150 to 20 nm. The effects of the interwire separation (pitch) on the NW aspect ratio are strongest for pure InAs NWs and gradually vanish for increasing Sb content, suggesting that growth of InAsSb NW arrays is governed by an In surface diffusion limited regime even for the smallest investigated pitches. Compositional analysis using high-resolution x-ray diffraction reveals a substantial impact of the pitch on the alloy composition in homogeneous InAsSb NW arrays, leading to much larger x Sb as the pitch increases due to decreasing competition for Sb adatoms. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and associated energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy performed on the cross-sections of individual NWs reveal an interesting growth-axis dependent core-shell like structure with a discontinuous few-nm thick Sb-deficient coaxial boundary layer and six Sb-deficient corner bands. Further analysis evidences the presence of a nanoscale facet at the truncation of the (111)B growth front and {1-10} sidewall surfaces that is found responsible for the formation of the characteristic core-shell structure.

8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(12): 123101, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379948

RESUMEN

We present diffraction-limited photocurrent (PC) microscopy in the visible spectral range based on broadband excitation and an inherently phase-stable common-path interferometer. The excellent path-length stability guarantees high accuracy without the need for active feedback or post-processing of the interferograms. We illustrate the capabilities of the setup by recording PC spectra of a bulk GaAs device and compare the results to optical transmission data.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(23): 233605, 2020 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337175

RESUMEN

We investigate the degree of indistinguishability of cascaded photons emitted from a three-level quantum ladder system; in our case the biexciton-exciton cascade of semiconductor quantum dots. For the three-level quantum ladder system we theoretically demonstrate that the indistinguishability is inherently limited for both emitted photons and determined by the ratio of the lifetimes of the excited and intermediate states. We experimentally confirm this finding by comparing the quantum interference visibility of noncascaded emission and cascaded emission from the same semiconductor quantum dot. Quantum optical simulations produce very good agreement with the measurements and allow us to explore a large parameter space. Based on our model, we propose photonic structures to optimize the lifetime ratio and overcome the limited indistinguishability of cascaded photon emission from a three-level quantum ladder system.

10.
Adv Mater ; 32(50): e2006320, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175433

RESUMEN

Janus crystals represent an exciting class of 2D materials with different atomic species on their upper and lower facets. Theories have predicted that this symmetry breaking induces an electric field and leads to a wealth of novel properties, such as large Rashba spin-orbit coupling and formation of strongly correlated electronic states. Monolayer MoSSe Janus crystals have been synthesized by two methods, via controlled sulfurization of monolayer MoSe2 and via plasma stripping followed thermal annealing of MoS2 . However, the high processing temperatures prevent growth of other Janus materials and their heterostructures. Here, a room-temperature technique for the synthesis of a variety of Janus monolayers with high structural and optical quality is reported. This process involves low-energy reactive radical precursors, which enables selective removal and replacement of the uppermost chalcogen layer, thus transforming classical transition metal dichalcogenides into a Janus structure. The resulting materials show clear mixed character for their excitonic transitions, and more importantly, the presented room-temperature method enables the demonstration of first vertical and lateral heterojunctions of 2D Janus TMDs. The results present significant and pioneering advances in the synthesis of new classes of 2D materials, and pave the way for the creation of heterostructures from 2D Janus layers.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(17): 170402, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156681

RESUMEN

Resonance fluorescence has played a major role in quantum optics with predictions and later experimental confirmation of nonclassical features of its emitted light such as antibunching or squeezing. In the Rayleigh regime where most of the light originates from the scattering of photons with subnatural linewidth, antibunching would appear to coexist with sharp spectral lines. Here, we demonstrate that this simultaneous observation of subnatural linewidth and antibunching is not possible with simple resonant excitation. Using an epitaxial quantum dot for the two-level system, we independently confirm the single-photon character and subnatural linewidth by demonstrating antibunching in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss type setup and using high-resolution spectroscopy, respectively. However, when filtering the coherently scattered photons with filter bandwidths on the order of the homogeneous linewidth of the excited state of the two-level system, the antibunching dip vanishes in the correlation measurement. Our observation is explained by antibunching originating from photon-interferences between the coherent scattering and a weak incoherent signal in a skewed squeezed state. This prefigures schemes to achieve simultaneous subnatural linewidth and antibunched emission.

12.
Nature ; 580(7802): 205-209, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269353

RESUMEN

Silicon crystallized in the usual cubic (diamond) lattice structure has dominated the electronics industry for more than half a century. However, cubic silicon (Si), germanium (Ge) and SiGe alloys are all indirect-bandgap semiconductors that cannot emit light efficiently. The goal1 of achieving efficient light emission from group-IV materials in silicon technology has been elusive for decades2-6. Here we demonstrate efficient light emission from direct-bandgap hexagonal Ge and SiGe alloys. We measure a sub-nanosecond, temperature-insensitive radiative recombination lifetime and observe an emission yield similar to that of direct-bandgap group-III-V semiconductors. Moreover, we demonstrate that, by controlling the composition of the hexagonal SiGe alloy, the emission wavelength can be continuously tuned over a broad range, while preserving the direct bandgap. Our experimental findings are in excellent quantitative agreement with ab initio theory. Hexagonal SiGe embodies an ideal material system in which to combine electronic and optoelectronic functionalities on a single chip, opening the way towards integrated device concepts and information-processing technologies.

13.
Adv Mater ; 32(4): e1905458, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814176

RESUMEN

Nanowires (NWs) hold great potential in advanced thermoelectrics due to their reduced dimensions and low-dimensional electronic character. However, unfavorable links between electrical and thermal conductivity in state-of-the-art unpassivated NWs have, so far, prevented the full exploitation of their distinct advantages. A promising model system for a surface-passivated one-dimensional (1D)-quantum confined NW thermoelectric is developed that enables simultaneously the observation of enhanced thermopower via quantum oscillations in the thermoelectric transport and a strong reduction in thermal conductivity induced by the core-shell heterostructure. High-mobility modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell NWs with thin (sub-40 nm) GaAs NW core channel are employed, where the electrical and thermoelectric transport is characterized on the same exact 1D-channel. 1D-sub-band transport at low temperature is verified by a discrete stepwise increase in the conductance, which coincided with strong oscillations in the corresponding Seebeck voltage that decay with increasing sub-band number. Peak Seebeck coefficients as high as ≈65-85 µV K-1 are observed for the lowest sub-bands, resulting in equivalent thermopower of S2 σ ≈ 60 µW m-1 K-2 and S2 G ≈ 0.06 pW K-2 within a single sub-band. Remarkably, these core-shell NW heterostructures also exhibit thermal conductivities as low as ≈3 W m-1 K-1 , about one order of magnitude lower than state-of-the-art unpassivated GaAs NWs.

14.
Nano Lett ; 19(5): 3336-3343, 2019 05 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013103

RESUMEN

We report a comprehensive study of the impact of the structural properties in radial GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As nanowire-quantum well heterostructures on the optical recombination dynamics and electrical transport properties, emphasizing particularly the role of the commonly observed variations of the quantum well thickness at different facets. Typical thickness fluctuations of the radial quantum well observed by transmission electron microscopy lead to pronounced localization. Our optical data exhibit clear spectral shifts and a multipeak structure of the emission for such asymmetric ring structures resulting from spatially separated, yet interconnected quantum well systems. Charge carrier dynamics induced by a surface acoustic wave are resolved and prove efficient carrier exchange on native, subnanosecond time scales within the heterostructure. Experimental findings are corroborated by theoretical modeling, which unambiguously show that electrons and holes localize on facets where the quantum well is the thickest and that even minute deviations of the perfect hexagonal shape strongly perturb the commonly assumed 6-fold symmetric ground state.

15.
Nano Lett ; 19(4): 2404-2410, 2019 04 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862165

RESUMEN

Photonic quantum technologies call for scalable quantum light sources that can be integrated, while providing the end user with single and entangled photons on demand. One promising candidate is strain free GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots obtained by aluminum droplet etching. Such quantum dots exhibit ultra low multi-photon probability and an unprecedented degree of photon pair entanglement. However, different to commonly studied InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots obtained by the Stranski-Krastanow mode, photons with a near-unity indistinguishability from these quantum emitters have proven to be elusive so far. Here, we show on-demand generation of near-unity indistinguishable photons from these quantum emitters by exploring pulsed resonance fluorescence. Given the short intrinsic lifetime of excitons and trions confined in the GaAs quantum dots, we show single photon indistinguishability with a raw visibility of [Formula: see text], without the need for Purcell enhancement. Our results represent a milestone in the advance of GaAs quantum dots by demonstrating the final missing property standing in the way of using these emitters as a key component in quantum communication applications, e.g., as quantum light sources for quantum repeater architectures.

16.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 1172-1178, 2019 02 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608702

RESUMEN

We demonstrate that prestructured metal nanogaps can be shaped on-chip to below 10 nm by femtosecond laser ablation. We explore the plasmonic properties and the nonlinear photocurrent characteristics of the formed tunnel junctions. The photocurrent can be tuned from multiphoton absorption toward the laser-induced strong-field tunneling regime in the nanogaps. We demonstrate that a unipolar ballistic electron current is achieved by designing the plasmonic junctions to be asymmetric, which allows ultrafast electronics on the nanometer scale.

17.
Nano Lett ; 18(6): 3911-3919, 2018 06 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781624

RESUMEN

Core-shell semiconductor nanowires (NW) with internal quantum heterostructures are amongst the most complex nanostructured materials to be explored for assessing the ultimate capabilities of diverse ultrahigh-resolution imaging techniques. To probe the structure and composition of these materials in their native environment with minimal damage and sample preparation calls for high-resolution electron or ion microscopy methods, which have not yet been tested on such classes of ultrasmall quantum nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate that scanning helium ion microscopy (SHeIM) provides a powerful and straightforward method to map quantum heterostructures embedded in complex III-V semiconductor NWs with unique material contrast at ∼1 nm resolution. By probing the cross sections of GaAs-Al(Ga)As core-shell NWs with coaxial GaAs quantum wells as well as short-period GaAs/AlAs superlattice (SL) structures in the shell, the Al-rich and Ga-rich layers are accurately discriminated by their image contrast in excellent agreement with correlated, yet destructive, scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography analysis. Most interestingly, quantitative He-ion dose-dependent SHeIM analysis of the ternary AlGaAs shell layers and of compositionally nonuniform GaAs/AlAs SLs reveals distinct alloy composition fluctuations in the form of Al-rich clusters with size distributions between ∼1-10 nm. In the GaAs/AlAs SLs the alloy clustering vanishes with increasing SL-period (>5 nm-GaAs/4 nm-AlAs), providing insights into critical size dimensions for atomic intermixing effects in short-period SLs within a NW geometry. The straightforward SHeIM technique therefore provides unique benefits in imaging the tiniest nanoscale features in topography, structure and composition of a multitude of diverse complex semiconductor nanostructures.

18.
Nano Lett ; 18(6): 3651-3660, 2018 06 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792713

RESUMEN

Solid-state quantum emitters embedded in a semiconductor crystal environment are potentially scalable platforms for quantum optical networks operated at room temperature. Prominent representatives are nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond showing coherent entanglement and interference with each other. However, these emitters suffer from inefficient optical outcoupling from the diamond and from fluctuations of their charge state. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of regular n-type gallium nitride nanowire arrays on diamond as photonic waveguides to tailor the emission direction of surface-near NV centers and to electrically control their charge state in a p-i-n nanodiode. We show that the electrical excitation of single NV centers in such a diode can efficiently replace optical pumping. By the engineering of the array parameters, we find an optical read-out efficiency enhanced by a factor of 10 and predict a lateral NV-NV coupling 3 orders of magnitude stronger through evanescently coupled nanowire antennas compared to planar diamond not covered by nanowires, which opens up new possibilities for large-scale on-chip quantum-computing applications.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(25): 7803-7809, 2018 06 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779378

RESUMEN

Among organic electronic materials, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) offer extraordinary versatility as next-generation semiconducting materials for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics due to their tunable properties, including charge-carrier mobility, optical absorption, and electronic bandgap, which are uniquely defined by their chemical structures. Although planar GNRs have been predominantly considered until now, nonplanarity can be an additional parameter to modulate their properties without changing the aromatic core. Herein, we report theoretical and experimental studies on two GNR structures with "cove"-type edges, having an identical aromatic core but with alkyl side chains at different peripheral positions. The theoretical results indicate that installment of alkyl chains at the innermost positions of the "cove"-type edges can "bend" the peripheral rings of the GNR through steric repulsion between aromatic protons and the introduced alkyl chains. This structural distortion is theoretically predicted to reduce the bandgap by up to 0.27 eV, which is corroborated by experimental comparison of thus synthesized planar and nonplanar GNRs through UV-vis-near-infrared absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. Our results extend the possibility of engineering GNR properties, adding subtle structural distortion as a distinct and potentially highly versatile parameter.

20.
Nano Lett ; 18(4): 2725-2732, 2018 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558797

RESUMEN

The electronic and optical properties of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and van der Waals heterostructures are strongly subject to their dielectric environment. In each layer, the field lines of the Coulomb interaction are screened by the adjacent material, which reduces the single-particle band gap as well as exciton and trion binding energies. By combining an electrostatic model for a dielectric heteromultilayered environment with semiconductor many-particle methods, we demonstrate that the electronic and optical properties are sensitive to the interlayer distances on the atomic scale. An analytic treatment is used to provide further insight into how the interlayer gap influences different excitonic transitions. Spectroscopical measurements in combination with a direct solution of a three-particle Schrödinger equation reveal trion binding energies that correctly predict recently measured interlayer distances and shed light on the effect of temperature annealing.

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