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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051884

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which racial inequities in tooth loss and functional dentition are explained by individual socioeconomic status, smoking status and frequency/reason for the use of dental services. METHODS: Data came from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling people aged 50 years and over. Tooth loss and functional dentition (ie 20+ natural teeth) were the outcomes. The main explanatory variable was self-classified race. Covariates included dental visits in the past 12 months, dental visits for check-ups only, smoking status, self-reported chronic conditions, depression and cognitive function. Logistic regression and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis were used to estimate the share of each factor in race-related tooth loss inequities. RESULTS: The analytical sample comprised of 7126 respondents. While the prevalence of functional dentition in White Brazilians was 37% (95% CI: 33.5;40.9), it was 29% (95% CI: 26.4;31.6) among Browns and 30% (95% CI: 25.1;35.4) among Blacks. The average number of lost teeth among Whites, Browns and Blacks were 18.7 (95% CI: 17.8;19.6), 20.4 (95% CI: 19.7;21.1) and 20.8 (95% CI: 19.5;22.0), respectively. Decomposition analysis showed that the selected covariates explained 71% of the racial inequalities in tooth loss. Dental visits in the previous year and smoking status explained nearly half of race-related gaps. Other factors, such as per capita income, education and cognitive status, also had an important contribution to the examined inequalities. The proportion of racial inequities in tooth loss that was explained by dental visits (frequency and reason) and smoking status decreased from 40% for those 50-59 years of age to 22% among participants aged 70-79 years. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency and reason for dental visits and smoking status explained nearly half of the racial inequity in tooth loss among Brazilian older adults. The Brazilian Family Health Strategy Program should target older adults from racial groups living in deprived areas.

2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200100, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053093

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The assessment of the degree to which health professionals, workers and organizations are ready to implement changes in health services deserves special attention, especially related to new technologies, public policies and innovation. The objectives of this study were to conduct a Brazilian Portuguese Brazil cross-cultural adaptation of the ORIC questionnaire and to initiate the study of its psychometric properties. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study, the Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) questionnaire, containing 12 questions, was translated and later applied to a sample of workers from traditional primary health care units undergoing transformation to family health units. Statistical analysis included Cronbach's alpha, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis by structural equation model using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. RESULTS: Workers from ten health units participated in the study (n = 150). The analysis confirmed two main factors (Effectiveness and Commitment) with Eigenvalues > 1. Rotation by the orthogonal method showed that the instrument questions confirmed the factors analyzed by the original instrument. The total Cronbach's Alpha of ORIC was 0.94, showing excellent reliability. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese Brazil version of the ORIC-Br questionnaire showed good psychometric properties and can be used in health services to measure organizational readiness, considered as an indicator of the potential success in implementing change.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Innovación Organizacional , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Portugal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985016

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare patterns of dental caries, periodontal disease and dental care among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Central-West Brazilian subpopulations. METHODS: Data were from two population-based cross-sectional studies involving 5-, 12-, 15-19- and 35-44-year-olds. The first examined were the Guarani, Kaiowá, Terena and Kadiwéu Indigenous groups from Mato Grosso do Sul Brazilian state and the second comprised a non-Indigenous population. Mean numbers of sound teeth, decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT), prevalence of poor oral hygiene for adults (35-44 years) and of periodontal disease were estimated. Restorative dental service utilization was measured using the Care Index. RESULTS: The study populations comprised of 1830 Indigenous and 29 395 non-Indigenous people. The Kaiwoá ethnic group had the lowest DMFT among Indigenous groups for ages 12, 15-19 years; 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.9-2.9), respectively. The highest values were observed among the 12-year-old Terena ethnic group and 15- to 19-year-old Kadiwéo groups; 2.2 (95% CI 1.8-2.5) and 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.4), respectively. The mean DMFT values were significantly lower among Indigenous than non-Indigenous people for all age groups. The prevalence of bleeding and calculus was 70.3% (95% CI 64.5%-75.5%) and 80.1% (95% CI 74.8%-84.5%), respectively, for Indigenous people and 43.9% (95% CI 34.4%-50.7%) and 61.5% (95% CI 55.4%-67.2%), respectively, for the non-Indigenous population. Restorative services were higher among 5-year-old non-Indigenous children and adults than for Indigenous groups. Among Indigenous groups, the Terena had the highest level of restored teeth (38.0% at 12 years) and Kadiwéu the lowest level (8.8% at 12 years). CONCLUSION: In our study, Indigenous people had a lower caries burden, but less access to restorative services than their non-Indigenous counterparts. These disparities likely reflect differences in historical, socioeconomic, cultural, environmental and political determinants that both groups have experienced differently over time.

4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200086, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725092

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The adjusted effect of the characteristics of sanitation companies on the provision of fluoridation into public water supply in Brazilian municipalities was evaluated. METHODS: Cross-sectional and ecological study based on the 2010 Demographic Census, 2008 National Survey on Basic Sanitation (PNSB), and 2010 Atlas of Human Development. The independent variables were the characteristics of utilities and municipalities, and the outcome was the lack of provision of fluoridation. Prevalence ratio was estimated with Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: 5,565 Brazilian municipalities were included. In the adjusted analysis, the outcome was independently and positively associated to municipalities in the North, Northeast, Central-West and Southeast macro-regions, with coverage rates for water and sewage services below the median value, with less than 10,000 inhabitants, medium and low/very low in human development. Regarding the independent effect of the utilities' characteristics, they were more likely not to provide fluoridation, all the companies that were not classified as indirect administration of the government or mixed-capital company or mixed-capital company of public character; municipal and intermunicipal (PR=1.21; 95%CI 1.19-1.23); and when the municipal government is the only provider (PR=1.22; 95%CI 1.20-1.25). CONCLUSION: The lack of provision of water fluoridation was greater when the service was mainly provided by municipal administrations and private companies associated or not to public entities, regardless of the characteristics of the municipalities.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruración/estadística & datos numéricos , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 51, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491111

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE To discuss the negative and positive concepts of liberty and postulate its interdependent and complementary relationship in the evaluation of public policy intersectoral actions, taking water fluoridation as a case. METHOD To describe scopes and limits regarding 1950s Isaiah Berlin's distinction, showing its validity in facing the harmful effects of an uncontrolled market economy and an autocratic political regime. RESULTS Both the rights that protect citizens against a powerful state and the rights that protect the state against powerful citizens were equally acknowledged as crucial. CONCLUSION We argued that, in a context in which negative and positive liberties are balanced, regulatory policies have double meaning. Thus, there should be a balance between the establishment of necessary rules for social protection and limits for them not to violate individuals' rights.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruración , Libertad , Política Pública , Derecho a la Salud , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228375, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999780

RESUMEN

We analyzed the association between birthweight, nutritional status and transverse maxillary growth in 7- to 9-year-old schoolchildren. We undertook a cross-sectional survey nested in a population-based cohort study of 158 schoolchildren. The participants lived in the urban area of a small town within the Western Brazilian Amazon. The outcome was represented by the upper intermolar distance given in millimeters (mm), as an indicator of the degree of maxillary bone growth in its transverse dimension. The exposures were sex, birthweight, the bottle-feeding pattern operationalized by a scale corresponding to the age of introduction of the bottle and Body Mass Index-for-age z-score (BAZ) at 4 to 6 ys. Path analysis was employed to estimate standardized direct, indirect and total effects of exposures on the outcome using structural equations model (SEM) supported by Mplus 7 program. The values of standardized coefficients (SC) showed significant direct positive effects of sex (SC = 0.203; p = 0.006), birth weight (SC = 0.155; p = 0.030) and BAZ (SC = 0.165; p = 0.014) on transverse maxillary growth. The indirect effects (SC = 0.057; p = 0.012) and the total effect (SC = 0.261; p<0.001) of sex on the outcome were statistically significant. The indirect effects of birth weight on the outcome were not significant (SC = 0.018; p = 0.488), however, the total effect was significant (SC = 0.174; p = 0.011). In conclusion, sex, birthweight, bottle beginning age and BAZ showed association with the transverse growth of the maxillary bone. In addition to contributing to an adequate birth weight of the child, policies and programs that favor prenatal care and conditions to guarantee a full-term birth can positively affect transverse growth of the maxilla. From a Public Health Surveillance point of view, children with reduced birthweight, inadequate breastfeeding pattern and nutritional deficit for age may be more likely to develop atrophy of the jaws which, depending on the severity, may result in malocclusion with an important impact on quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Peso al Nacer , Alimentación Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Maxilar/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Salud del Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Salud del Lactante , Masculino , Salud Materna , Estado Nutricional , Salud Urbana
7.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200100, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1137766

RESUMEN

RESUMO: Objetivo: Avaliar o grau em que profissionais da atenção primária e organizações de saúde estão prontos para implementar mudanças nos serviços de saúde, principalmente no que se refere à implementação de novas tecnologias, políticas públicas ou programas de inovação, que merecem especial atenção. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: conduzir a adaptação transcultural do questionário Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) para o português (Brasil); e iniciar a mensuração de suas propriedades psicométricas. Métodos: Por meio de estudo transversal, realizou-se a tradução do questionário ORIC, com 12 questões, e posterior aplicação numa amostra de trabalhadores de unidades primárias de saúde tradicionais em transformação para unidades de saúde da família. A análise estatística incluiu o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, análise fatorial exploratória e confirmatória por modelo de equação estrutural e seguiu o checklist Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN). Resultados: Participaram do estudo 150 trabalhadores de 10 unidades de saúde em transformação. A análise confirmou dois fatores principais (Eficácia e Comprometimento), com autovalores > 1. A rotação pelo método ortogonal mostrou que as questões do instrumento confirmaram os fatores analisados pelo instrumento original. O alfa de Cronbach total do ORIC foi 0,94, mostrando ótima confiabilidade. Conclusão: A versão portuguesa (Brasil) do questionário ORIC-Br apresentou boas propriedades psicométricas, podendo ser utilizado em serviços de saúde para medição da prontidão organizacional, considerada um indicador do potencial alcance de sucesso na implementação de mudança em serviços de saúde.


ABSTRACT: Objective: The assessment of the degree to which health professionals, workers and organizations are ready to implement changes in health services deserves special attention, especially related to new technologies, public policies and innovation. The objectives of this study were to conduct a Brazilian Portuguese Brazil cross-cultural adaptation of the ORIC questionnaire and to initiate the study of its psychometric properties. Methods: Through a cross-sectional study, the Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) questionnaire, containing 12 questions, was translated and later applied to a sample of workers from traditional primary health care units undergoing transformation to family health units. Statistical analysis included Cronbach's alpha, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis by structural equation model using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Results: Workers from ten health units participated in the study (n = 150). The analysis confirmed two main factors (Effectiveness and Commitment) with Eigenvalues > 1. Rotation by the orthogonal method showed that the instrument questions confirmed the factors analyzed by the original instrument. The total Cronbach's Alpha of ORIC was 0.94, showing excellent reliability. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese Brazil version of the ORIC-Br questionnaire showed good psychometric properties and can be used in health services to measure organizational readiness, considered as an indicator of the potential success in implementing change.

8.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200086, 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126036

RESUMEN

RESUMO: Introdução: Avaliou-se o efeito ajustado das características das empresas de saneamento na provisão da fluoretação da água de abastecimento público nos municípios brasileiros. Métodos: Estudo ecológico transversal com base no Censo Demográfico 2010, Pesquisa Nacional de Saneamento Básico 2008 e Atlas de Desenvolvimento Humano 2010. As variáveis independentes foram as características das empresas e dos municípios e o desfecho foi a falta de provisão da fluoretação. Estimou-se a razão de prevalência por meio de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: Incluíram-se 5.565 municípios brasileiros. Na análise ajustada, o desfecho foi independente e positivamente associado com municípios das macrorregiões Norte, Nordeste, Centro-Oeste e Sudeste, que tinham taxas de cobertura de serviços de água e esgoto abaixo do valor mediano, menos de 10 mil habitantes e índice médio e baixo/muito baixo de desenvolvimento humano. Quanto ao efeito independente das características das empresas, tiveram maior probabilidade de não ofertar fluoretação todas as empresas classificadas como de administração indireta do poder público, ou sociedade de economia mista, ou economia mista de caráter público; as municipais e intermunicipais (razão de prevalência - RP = 1,21; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 1,19 - 1,23); e a prefeitura, quando única executora (RP = 1,22; IC95% 1,20 - 1,25). Conclusão: A falta de provisão da fluoretação da água foi maior quando o serviço era prestado preponderantemente por administrações municipais e empresas privadas, associadas ou não a entidades públicas, independentemente das características dos municípios.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The adjusted effect of the characteristics of sanitation companies on the provision of fluoridation into public water supply in Brazilian municipalities was evaluated. Methods: Cross-sectional and ecological study based on the 2010 Demographic Census, 2008 National Survey on Basic Sanitation (PNSB), and 2010 Atlas of Human Development. The independent variables were the characteristics of utilities and municipalities, and the outcome was the lack of provision of fluoridation. Prevalence ratio was estimated with Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: 5,565 Brazilian municipalities were included. In the adjusted analysis, the outcome was independently and positively associated to municipalities in the North, Northeast, Central-West and Southeast macro-regions, with coverage rates for water and sewage services below the median value, with less than 10,000 inhabitants, medium and low/very low in human development. Regarding the independent effect of the utilities' characteristics, they were more likely not to provide fluoridation, all the companies that were not classified as indirect administration of the government or mixed-capital company or mixed-capital company of public character; municipal and intermunicipal (PR=1.21; 95%CI 1.19-1.23); and when the municipal government is the only provider (PR=1.22; 95%CI 1.20-1.25). Conclusion: The lack of provision of water fluoridation was greater when the service was mainly provided by municipal administrations and private companies associated or not to public entities, regardless of the characteristics of the municipalities.

9.
Saúde Soc ; 29(1): e190048, 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094486

RESUMEN

Resumo O objetivo foi identificar princípios invocados numa política intersetorial de saúde, tomando como caso uma proposta legislativa de revogação da fluoretação da água no Brasil apresentada em 2003. Realizou-se estudo descritivo por meio de pesquisa documental, na qual foram selecionados registros gerados na tramitação do Projeto de Lei nº 510/2003 na Câmara dos Deputados. Buscou-se destacar estratégias discursivas utilizadas pelos atores conforme o jogo de interesses e o contexto conflitivo, utilizando-se o institucionalismo histórico como referencial teórico. O Projeto de Lei tramitou 13 meses, passando pelo Plenário, por três comissões, e sendo arquivado. Três deputados de partidos distintos, órgãos do Poder Executivo federal, agências reguladoras e entidades representativas da categoria odontológica, da saúde pública/coletiva, da engenharia sanitária e das empresas de saneamento participaram diretamente do debate em que emergiram os princípios da segurança da intervenção, dos custos econômicos e do direito à saúde. Em relação às estratégias discursivas utilizadas, os principais elementos invocados no debate da política intersetorial de saúde foram o princípio da incerteza, criando-se falsas categorias científicas a fim de sobrevalorizar os efeitos desfavoráveis e sustentar a implementação de medidas individualizantes; e os princípios morais que definem diferentes tipos de bens econômicos e dimensões de liberdade associadas ao exercício de direitos.


Abstract The objective was to identify principles invoked in a population-based health policy, taking as case a legislative proposal aimed at revoking water fluoridation in Brazil presented in 2003. We conducted a descriptive study through documentary research on records generated in the course of the Bill proposal No. 510/2003 in the Federal Chamber of Deputies. We highlighted discourse strategies used by the actors as per their own interests and the conflicting context by utilizing historical institutionalism as theoretical ground. The proposal was debated for 13 months, going through the House Plenary, three committees, and was finally filed. Three deputies from different parties, federal executive agencies, regulatory agencies, and entities representing dental, public/collective health, sanitary engineering, and sanitation companies participated directly in the debate in which the principles of intervention security, economic costs and the right to health emerged. Regarding the discourse strategies used, the main elements invoked in the debate on population-based health policy were: the principle of uncertainty, creating false scientific categories in order to overvalue unfavorable effects and to support the implementation of individualizing measures; and the moral principles that define different types of economic goods and dimensions of freedom associated with the exercise of rights.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Política Pública , Saneamiento , Fluoruración , Colaboración Intersectorial , Derecho a la Salud , Política de Salud
10.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1101863

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To discuss the negative and positive concepts of liberty and postulate its interdependent and complementary relationship in the evaluation of public policy intersectoral actions, taking water fluoridation as a case. METHOD To describe scopes and limits regarding 1950s Isaiah Berlin's distinction, showing its validity in facing the harmful effects of an uncontrolled market economy and an autocratic political regime. RESULTS Both the rights that protect citizens against a powerful state and the rights that protect the state against powerful citizens were equally acknowledged as crucial. CONCLUSION We argued that, in a context in which negative and positive liberties are balanced, regulatory policies have double meaning. Thus, there should be a balance between the establishment of necessary rules for social protection and limits for them not to violate individuals' rights.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Discutir os conceitos negativo e positivo de liberdade e postular sua relação de interdependência e complementariedade na avaliação da política pública intersetorial, tomando como caso a fluoretação da água. MÉTODO Descrevem-se os alcances e limites relativos à distinção formulada por Isaiah Berlin nos anos 1950, demonstrando sua validade para enfrentar os efeitos nocivos decorrentes tanto de uma economia de mercado sem controle quanto de um regime político autocrático. RESULTADOS Reconhece-se que são igualmente cruciais tanto os direitos que protegem os cidadãos contra um Estado poderoso quanto os direitos que protegem o Estado contra os cidadãos poderosos. CONCLUSÃO Argumenta-se que, em um contexto de equilíbrio entre a liberdade negativa e positiva, a política regulatória tem duplo sentido, e deve buscar um balanço entre o estabelecimento de regras necessárias para a proteção do público e de limites além dos quais as regras não devem violar os direitos dos indivíduos.

11.
Saúde debate ; 43(spe3): 51-62, dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059063

RESUMEN

RESUMO Os trabalhadores da vigilância da água exercem importante papel na implementação do Programa Nacional de Vigilância da Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano e detêm informações sugestivas do grau de estruturação e da institucionalidade das práticas no âmbito local das organizações sanitárias. O estudo objetivou descrever as potencialidades e as limitações relativas à vigilância da fluoretação da água em uma região metropolitana brasileira segundo a visão dos trabalhadores. Realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas com profissionais de sete municípios da região metropolitana do estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, que foram gravadas, transcritas na íntegra e interpretadas segundo a Análise de Conteúdo Temática. Os resultados permitiram a elaboração das categorias: recomendações da legislação e a prática do heterocontrole da concentração do fluoreto; dificuldades e potencialidades do processo de trabalho; disseminação das informações para a sociedade. A maioria dos trabalhadores seguia as recomendações da legislação vigente no período das entrevistas (Portaria MS nº 2.914/2011), porém, notou-se a necessidade de adequações estruturais e organizacionais. O processo de vigilância do fluoreto enfrenta problemas que envolvem a coleta da amostra, as análises e a divulgação dos resultados. É nítida a necessidade de maior priorização e alocação de recursos para ampliação e qualificação da vigilância dessa medida de saúde pública.


ABSTRACT Water surveillance workers play a key role in the implementation of the National Water Quality Surveillance Program for Human Consumption and hold information suggesting the degree of structuring and institutionality of practices at the local level of health organizations. The objective was to describe the potentialities and difficulties related to the water fluoridation surveillance in a Brazilian metropolitan region according to the workers' view. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with professionals from seven cities in metropolitan region of Espírito Santo, Brazil, which were recorded, transcribed and interpreted in full according to the Thematic Content Analysis. The results allowed the elaboration of categories: recommendations of the legislation and the practice of fluoride concentration external control; difficulties and potential of the work process; dissemination of information to society. Most of the workers followed the current recommendations of the current legislation in force in the period of the interviews (Ordinance MS nº 2.914/2001), however, the need for structural and organizational adjustments was noted. The fluoride surveillance process faces problems, involving sample collection, analysis and dissemination of results. It's clear the need for greater prioritization and allocation of resources for expansion and qualification of the surveillance of this public health measure.

12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(6): e00250118, 2019 07 04.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291432

RESUMEN

Sanitation data for 2008 indicated that 74.4% of Brazilian municipalities (counties) with more than 50,000 inhabitants were receiving fluoridated water, but no criteria were adopted to validate the information. The study aimed to verify the accuracy of information on water fluoridation, using as the reference water surveillance data from municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in 2008 and during 2010-2015. Data from different sources were used, comparing the information pertaining to the period. Water samples were collected, and fluoride concentration was obtained by the electrometric method. Verification was performed by comparing the data obtained from different sources. Data were compared for 601 (97.9%) municipalities. The proportion of municipalities that performed surveillance based on external control increased from 39.4% to 48.5%. There was a high rate of false positives and false negatives (15.1%) in the data for 2008. Municipal coverage was 70.2%, or 4.2 percentage points below the published estimate (74.4%) for 2008. Surveillance records were observed in 54.3% of the fluoridated municipalities whose population coverage reached at least 50% of the population receiving treated water. There was an important improvement in fluoridation surveillance data, despite a high percentage of false positives and negatives. There are still wide interregional differences in the surveillance of water fluoridation in this sample of Brazilian municipalities, raising important public health challenges.


Asunto(s)
Exactitud de los Datos , Fluoruración/estadística & datos numéricos , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Brasil , Recolección de Datos , Humanos , Salud Pública , Política Pública , Características de la Residencia , Saneamiento , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e180012, 2019 Feb 04.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726357

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The use of dental prosthesis and the tooth loss in elderly people are associated with significant impact on the overall health and quality of life. Continuous assessment of oral health profile in this population is important for planning the actions and policies of the area. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of tooth loss and use of dental prosthesis among the elderly people in different periods, to evaluate the association between functional dentition (20 teeth or more) and socioeconomic factors, and to evaluate the impact of tooth loss and use of dental prosthesis on self-rated oral health. METHODS: Thesample consisted of people aged 60 years and older who participated in the Health, Well-Being, and Aging Study (SABE). Data from the years 2000, 2006, and 2010 were used to assess the prevalence of tooth loss and use of dental prosthesis. Analysis of the factors associated with the functional dentition and self-rated oral health was based on the data collected in 2010. Comparison of oral health profile over the 3 years was done through descriptive analysis and comparison of confidence intervals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with functional dentition and self-rated oral health. RESULTS: The prevalence of tooth loss and use of dental prosthesis remained constant over the three periods analyzed. Functional dentition was significantly associated with education, sex, and race/gender. Individuals in need of dental prosthesis and with periodontal pocket were more likely to report poor oral health. CONCLUSION: There was no reduction in the prevalence of tooth loss and in the use of dental prosthesis over 10 years. Functional dentition is associated with socioeconomic inequalities. Self-rated oral health is associated with the need of dental prosthesis.


Asunto(s)
Prótesis Dental/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Vida Independiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Bucal/estadística & datos numéricos , Pérdida de Diente/epidemiología , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas de Salud Bucal/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Distribución por Sexo , Perfil de Impacto de Enfermedad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(6): e00250118, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011688

RESUMEN

Resumo: Dados de saneamento para 2008 indicavam que 74,4% dos municípios com mais de 50 mil habitantes recebiam água fluoretada, entretanto, critérios para a validação desta informação não foram adotados. O estudo objetivou verificar a acurácia da informação sobre a fluoretação da água, tomando-se por referência dados de vigilância da água em municípios com mais de 50 mil habitantes no ano de 2008 e no período de 2010-2015. Dados de diferentes fontes foram empregados comparando-se as informações relativas ao período. Amostras da água foram coletadas e a concentração de fluoreto foi obtida pelo método eletrométrico. O processo de verificação ocorreu pela confrontação dos dados obtidos por diferentes fontes. Seiscentos e um municípios (97,9%) tiveram os dados confrontados. A taxa de municípios que realizam vigilância com base no heterocontrole passou de 39,4% para 48,5%. Observou-se elevada taxa de falsos positivos ou negativos (15,1%) em relação aos dados de 2008. A cobertura municipal foi de 70,2%, 4,2 pontos abaixo da estimativa (74,4%) divulgada para 2008. Registros da prática da vigilância foram observados em 54,3% dos municípios fluoretados, cuja cobertura populacional alcança 50% ou mais da população que recebe água tratada. Houve sensível melhoria nos dados de vigilância em relação ao fluoreto, embora com porcentual importante de falsos positivos e negativos. Ainda são largas as diferenças inter-regionais relacionadas tanto à provisão da fluoretação da água quanto à implementação da vigilância nos municípios pesquisados, trazendo importantes desafios para a saúde pública.


Abstract: Sanitation data for 2008 indicated that 74.4% of Brazilian municipalities (counties) with more than 50,000 inhabitants were receiving fluoridated water, but no criteria were adopted to validate the information. The study aimed to verify the accuracy of information on water fluoridation, using as the reference water surveillance data from municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in 2008 and during 2010-2015. Data from different sources were used, comparing the information pertaining to the period. Water samples were collected, and fluoride concentration was obtained by the electrometric method. Verification was performed by comparing the data obtained from different sources. Data were compared for 601 (97.9%) municipalities. The proportion of municipalities that performed surveillance based on external control increased from 39.4% to 48.5%. There was a high rate of false positives and false negatives (15.1%) in the data for 2008. Municipal coverage was 70.2%, or 4.2 percentage points below the published estimate (74.4%) for 2008. Surveillance records were observed in 54.3% of the fluoridated municipalities whose population coverage reached at least 50% of the population receiving treated water. There was an important improvement in fluoridation surveillance data, despite a high percentage of false positives and negatives. There are still wide interregional differences in the surveillance of water fluoridation in this sample of Brazilian municipalities, raising important public health challenges.


Resumen: Los datos de saneamiento en 2008 indicaban que un 74,4% de los municipios con más de 50 mil habitantes recibían agua fluorada, no obstante, no se adoptaron criterios para la validación de esta información. El estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la exactitud de la información sobre la fluorización del agua, tomando como referencia datos de vigilancia del agua en municipios con más de 50 mil habitantes en el año 2008, y durante el período de 2010-2015. Se emplearon datos de diferentes fuentes comparando la información relativa a este período. Se recogieron muestras de agua y la concentración de fluoruro se obtuvo mediante un método electrométrico. El proceso de verificación se produjo por el contraste de datos obtenidos de diferentes fuentes. Se compararon los datos de 601 (97,9%) municipios. La tasa de municipios que realizan vigilancia en base al heterocontrol pasó de un 39,4% a un 48,5%. Se observó una elevada tasa de falsos positivos o negativos (15,1%), en relación con los datos de 2008. La cobertura municipal fue de un 70,2%, 4,2 puntos por debajo de la estimativa (74,4%) divulgada en 2008. Se observaron registros de la práctica de vigilancia en un 54,3% de los municipios fluorados, cuya cobertura poblacional alcanza a un 50% o más de la población que recibe agua tratada. Hubo una sensible mejoría en los datos de vigilancia respecto al fluoruro, a pesar de que había un porcentaje importante de falsos positivos y negativos. Todavía son grandes las diferencias interregionales relacionadas tanto respecto a la fluorización del agua, como a la implementación de vigilancia en los municipios investigados, implicando importantes desafíos para la salud pública.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Fluoruración/estadística & datos numéricos , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Exactitud de los Datos , Política Pública , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil , Características de la Residencia , Saneamiento , Salud Pública , Recolección de Datos
15.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 27(4): e2018015, 2018 11 08.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427401

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to describe the characteristics of Brazilian sanitation utilities and municipalities according to the water supply system fluoridation situation. METHODS: this was an ecological study using data from the National Survey of Basic Sanitation 2008, the Demographic Census 2010 and the Atlas of Human Development 2010. RESULTS: of the 5,565 Brazilian municipalities, 60% had a fluoridation service; there was variation in fluoridation provision depending on the characteristics of the service providers and the municipality; the greater the coverage of water supply and sewerage and the higher the level of human development, the greater the provision of fluoridation (p<0.001); fluoridation provision was higher in municipalities where the sanitation utilities were mixed-capital companies (75%) and lower when the companies were private (27%) and also when the service was provided only by the municipal government (40%). CONCLUSION: there was an important dependence relationship between the characteristics of the companies and the provision of water fluoridation in Brazilian municipalities.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruración/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Ciudades , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Salud Pública , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
16.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 16(2): 407-430, maio-ago. 2018.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-963014

RESUMEN

Resumo A expansão da influência da medicina sobre problemas sociais e questões morais tem sido objeto de intensas discussões, mas muitos especialistas reclamam que a análise tem perdido rigor. Neste ensaio, recuperamos os sentidos mais profundos do termo medicalização e discutimos duas hipóteses inter-relacionadas: se as políticas públicas com impacto positivo sobre os níveis de saúde populacional cumpririam um papel desmedicalizante e se o aprofundamento da democracia poderia ser considerado uma condição imprescindível para enfrentar os processos medicalizantes. Com base na literatura, identificam-se conceitos nucleares relacionados às principais forças motrizes dos processos de medicalização e também mudanças associadas ao controle aumentado sobre a natureza que modifica a vida como a conhecemos, e destaca-se o avanço da ordem econômica capitalista sobre outras esferas como o Estado e a comunidade. Diante deste contexto, argumenta-se que qualquer perspectiva desmedicalizante de longo alcance dependeria ao menos de duas hipóteses inter-relacionadas que correspondem ao modelo que orienta a resposta às necessidades de saúde e à força da democracia em seu duplo sentido, seja como categoria política capaz de colocar os setores majoritários da sociedade no centro das decisões do Estado, seja como categoria econômica capaz de alterar os efeitos econômicos do capitalismo nas relações Estado-sociedade.


Abstract The expansion of the influence of medicine on social demands and moral issues has been the subject of intense discussions, but many experts claim that the analysis has lost rigor. By this essay, we recover the deeper senses of the term medicalization and discuss two interrelated assumptions: if public policies with a positive impact on the population health levels would meet a demedicalizing role and if the deepening of democracy could be considered an essential condition to face the medicalizing processes. We summarize core concepts related to the main driving forces of medicalization processes and also changes associated with increased control over nature transforming life as we know it, highlighting the advance of capitalist economic order on other spheres as the state and the community. We argue that any long-range demedicalizing perspective would depend at least two hypotheses interrelated, corresponding to the model that guides the response to health needs, and the strength of democracy in its double meaning, either as a politics category able to put the majority sectors of society at the heart of state decisions, either as an economic category able to change the economic effects of capitalism in the state-society relations.


Resumen La expansión de la influencia de la medicina sobre problemas sociales y cuestiones morales ha sido objeto de intensas discusiones, pero muchos expertos reclaman que el análisis ha perdido rigor. En este ensayo, recuperamos los sentidos más profundos del término medicalización y discutimos dos hipótesis interrelacionadas: si las políticas públicas con impacto positivo sobre los niveles de salud poblacional cumplieran un papel desmedicalizante y si la profundización de la democracia podría considerarse una condición imprescindible para enfrentar los procesos medicalizantes. Con base en la literatura, se identifican conceptos nucleares relacionados a las principales fuerzas motrices de los procesos de medicalización y también cambios asociados al control creciente sobre la naturaleza que modifica la vida como la conocemos, y se destaca el avance del orden económico capitalista sobre otras esferas como el Estado y la comunidad. En este contexto, se argumenta que cualquier perspectiva desmedicalizante de largo alcance, dependería al menos de dos hipótesis interrelacionadas que corresponden al modelo que orienta la respuesta a las necesidades de salud, y a la fuerza de la democracia en su doble sentido, sea como categoría política capaz de colocar a los sectores mayoritarios de la sociedad en el centro de las decisiones del Estado, sea como categoría económica capaz de alterar los efectos económicos del capitalismo en las relaciones Estado-sociedad.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud Pública , Medicalización , Política de Salud
17.
Saúde debate ; 42(117): 392-407, abr.-jun. 2018. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-962663

RESUMEN

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a aplicação do método ZOPP (Planejamento de Projetos Orientado por Objetivos) em duas unidades de atenção básica, levando em consideração o desenvolvimento de competências para o trabalho interprofissional e a produção de um protocolo de organização de serviço voltado à atenção ao pré-natal. Aplicou-se o método da observação participante durante doze sessões gravadas em vídeo. Participaram oito profissionais de saúde e duas usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde. O método foi avaliado positivamente ao trazer questões nucleares para problematização e pela capacidade de manter o envolvimento dos participantes, tendo se mostrado flexível e adequado, além de ter favorecido a indissociabilidade entre analisar, planejar e implementar ações, o que despertou compromissos éticos e recuperou comportamentos inovadores no encaminhamento da solução de problemas, fortalecendo a colaboração interprofissional.


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe the utilization of the ZOPP (Goal-Oriented Project Planning) method in two primary healthcare units, taking into account the development of skills for interprofessional work and the production of a service organization protocol focused on prenatal care. Participant observation method was applied during twelve videotaped sessions. Participants were eight health professionals and two users of the Unified Health System. The method was evaluated positively by bringing nuclear issues to problematization and by the ability to maintain the involvement of the participants, showing flexibility and adequacy, as well as favoring the inseparability between analyzing, planning and implementing actions, which aroused ethical commitments and regained innovative behaviors in the direction of solving problems, strengthening interprofessional collaboration.

18.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129855

RESUMEN

Objetivou-se desvelar os sentidos que graduados em odontologia participantes de programas de residência multiprofissional em saúde da família (RMSF) atribuem a esta modalidade de formação. Realizou-se entrevista semiestruturada com residentes de oito programas de diferentes regiões do país e as narrativas sobre o significado da RMSF para sua formação foram examinadas com base na análise de conteúdo do tipo temática. A maio-ria dos entrevistados declarou-se do sexo feminino (29/37) e tinha entre 20 e 30 anos de idade (33/37). A interpretação do material resultou em quatro categorias: formação para o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS); Estratégia Saúde da Família; colaboração interprofissional; integralidade da atenção, subcategorizada em humanização do cuidado e rede de aten-ção. Indicaram-se evidências empíricas de que esses programas são muito relevantes para complementar a formação dos profissionais de odontologia que pretendem atuar no SUS.


The objective of this research was to unveil the meanings that undergraduates in dentistry participating in multiprofessional residency programs in family health (MRFH) attribute to this training modality. A semi-structured interview was conducted with residents of eight programs from different regions of the country and the narratives about the meaning of the MRFH for their formation were examined based on the thematic content analysis. Most participants were between 20 and 30 years of age (33/37). The interpretation of the material resulted in four categories: formation for Brazilian Health System (SUS); Family Health Strategy; interprofessional collaboration; integrality of care, subcategorized in humanization of care and care network, indicating by empirical evidences that these programs are very relevant to complement the training of dentistry professionals who intend to work in SUS.


Se objetivó desvelar los sentidos que graduados en Odontología, participantes de programas de residencia multiprofesional en salud de la familia (RMSF), atribuyen a esta modalidad de formación. Se realizó una entrevista semiestructurada con residentes de ocho programas de diferentes regiones del país, y las narrativas sobre el significado de la RMSF para su formación se examinaron con base en el análisis de contenido de tipo temático. La mayoría tenía entre 20 y 30 años de edad (33/37) y era del sexo femenino (29/37). La interpretación del material resultó cuatro categorías: formación para el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS); Estrategia Salud de la Familia; colaboración interprofesional; e integralidad de la atención, subcategorizada en humanización del cuidado y red de atención. Las evidencias empíricas indicaron que esos programas son muy relevantes para complementar la formación de los profesionales de Odontología que pretenden actuar en el SUS.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Sistema Único de Salud , Odontología en Salud Pública , Salud de la Familia , Personal de Salud
19.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(4): e00079317, 2018 03 29.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617487

RESUMEN

In 2011, the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy redefined its model of care for indigenous peoples, recommending the use of epidemiology and follow-up of the impact of activities using adequate indicators. The current study aimed to analyze trends in these indicators, proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, in the Xingu Indigenous Park, Brazil, from 2004 to 2013. This was a quantitative study using secondary data from the Xingu Special Indigenous Health District and the Xingu Project of the Federal University of São Paulo. The coverage rate for first dental visit exceeded 60% in all the years analyzed except 2009 and 2010 (44.7% and 53.4%, respectively). The basic dental treatment indicator showed a significant increase, from 44.9% to 79.9%, between 2006 and 2008. The proportion of tooth extractions decreased from 24.3% in 2004 to 3.8% in 2011. Mean coverage of supervised collective toothbrushing showed the highest variation (1.2 to 23.3%). Access to oral health showed good coverage, and the indicator for completed treatment showed a higher percentage when compared to other indigenous peoples during the same period. Better performance on the tooth extractions indicator may have been due to the change in focus of care through partnerships with universities, although the indicators for supervised toothbrushing suggest the need to prioritize preventive measures. Changes in indigenous healthcare management, with weakening or absence of partnerships, may have negatively influenced the program's indicators.


Asunto(s)
Atención Odontológica/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud del Indígena/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Bucal/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Femenino , Política de Salud , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Grupos de Población , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud
20.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 16(1): 57-78, jan.-abr. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Repositorio RHS | ID: biblio-904481

RESUMEN

Resumo No Brasil, a expressão 'gestão do trabalho' passou a ser utilizada após a 12a Conferência Nacional de Saúde em substituição a 'recursos humanos'. O objetivo foi analisar, com base no contexto histórico brasileiro, os sentidos atribuídos à expressão 'gestão do trabalho em saúde' na literatura científica brasileira, por meio de scoping review na base Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs), entre 1990 e 2010. De 436 estudos identificados, 34 foram incluídos. Houve crescimento absoluto das publicações após a 3a Conferência Nacional de Gestão do Trabalho e Educação em Saúde, 2006. O conteúdo foi sintetizado em cinco unidades temáticas: conceitos de gestão do trabalho em saúde, formulação de políticas, participação dos trabalhadores nos processos de trabalho, precarização do trabalho e novos desafios. Observou-se consenso sobre a complexidade da expressão e os aspectos distintos foram explorados dependendo das características políticas, sociais e econômicas no momento da construção do pensamento. As discussões teóricas deveriam estimular mudanças nas práticas de gestão e cultura dos modelos de produção, porém as mudanças são escassas, restando um questionamento não desvelado: gestão do trabalho em saúde, uma mudança terminológica ou de paradigma?


Abstract The expression 'work management in healthcare' began to be used in Brazil after the 12a National Conference of Health, replacing 'human resource'. The aim was analyze the meanings attributed to the use of the term 'work management in healthcare' based on the Brazilian historical context. This research developed a scoping review in the Lilacs database, between 1990 and 2010. Among 436 eligible studies, 34 were included. These publications presented numerical growth especially after the 3rd National Conference of Work Management and Education in Healthcare at 2006. The content was synthetized in five main topics: conceptualizing of work management in healthcare, policy formulation, and participation of workers in the work process, labor precarization and new challenges. Despite the consensus about the complexity of the expression, distinct aspects are explored by the authors depending of political, social and economic contexts during the construction of thought. The theoretical discussions should support changes on practices of management and on culture of production modeling, but practical changes are scarce, generating a question that was not completely answered: does work management in healthcare represent a simple terminology exchange or paradigm shift?


Resumen En Brasil, el término 'gestión del trabajo' pasó a ser utilizado después de la 12a Conferencia Nacional de Salud en sustitución a los 'recursos humanos'. El objetivo fue analizar, con base en el contexto histórico brasileño, los sentidos atribuidos a la expresión 'gestión del trabajo en salud' en la literatura científica brasileña. Esta encuesta ha desarrollado un scoping review en la base Lilacs, entre 1990 y 2010. De 436 estudios identificados, 34 fueron incluidos. Hubo crecimiento absoluto de las publicaciones después de la 3a Conferencia Nacional de Gestión del Trabajo y Educación en Salud, 2006. El contenido fue sintetizado en cinco unidades temáticas: conceptos de gestión del trabajo en salud, formulación de políticas, participación de los trabajadores en los procesos de trabajo, precariedad del trabajo y nuevos desafíos. Se observó consenso sobre la complejidad de la expresión y se exploraran aspectos distintos dependiendo de las características políticas, sociales y económicas al momento de la construcción del pensamiento. Las discusiones teóricas deberían estimular cambios en las prácticas de gestión y en la cultura de los modelos de producción, sin embargo los cambios son escasos, restando un cuestionamiento no dado a conocer: gestión del trabajo en salud, un cambio terminológica o de paradigma?


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Administración de Personal , Personal de Salud
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