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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10520, 2022 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732872

RESUMEN

Quantum sensors based on cold atoms are being developed which produce measurements of unprecedented accuracy. Due to shifts in atomic energy levels, quantum sensors often have stringent requirements on their internal magnetic field environment. Typically, background magnetic fields are attenuated using high permeability magnetic shielding, with the cancelling of residual and introduction of quantisation fields implemented with coils inside the shield. The high permeability shield, however, distorts all magnetic fields, including those generated inside the sensor. Here, we demonstrate a solution by designing multiple coils overlaid on a 3D-printed former to generate three uniform and three constant linear gradient magnetic fields inside the capped cylindrical magnetic shield of a cold atom interferometer. The fields are characterised in-situ and match their desired forms to high accuracy. For example, the uniform transverse field, Bx, deviates by less than 0.2% over more than 40% of the length of the shield. We also map the field directly using the cold atoms and investigate the potential of the coil system to reduce bias from the quadratic Zeeman effect. This coil design technology enables targeted field compensation over large spatial volumes and has the potential to reduce systematic shifts and noise in numerous cold atom systems.

2.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(5): 055002, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486710

RESUMEN

The capabilities of a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer for object detection based on magnetic induction tomography are explored. The determination of object orientation is demonstrated by utilizing the measurement geometry. The self-compensation configuration of the atomic magnetometer is implemented to address the issue of saturation of the sensor response by the radio-frequency primary field that generates the object signature. Three methods of "covert" detection are investigated as a testbed for exploring the functionalities of this sensor, where (1) the operational frequency of the sensor is continuously changed, (2) the primary field has non-monochromatic frequency distribution, and (3) the sensor operates in the so-called spin maser mode. The results of the measurements are also discussed in terms of possible magnetic field communication.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8368, 2018 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849028

RESUMEN

Recent advances in the preparation, control and measurement of atomic gases have led to new insights into the quantum world and unprecedented metrological sensitivities, e.g. in measuring gravitational forces and magnetic fields. The full potential of applying such capabilities to areas as diverse as biomedical imaging, non-invasive underground mapping, and GPS-free navigation can only be realised with the scalable production of efficient, robust and portable devices. We introduce additive manufacturing as a production technique of quantum device components with unrivalled design freedom and rapid prototyping. This provides a step change in efficiency, compactness and facilitates systems integration. As a demonstrator we present an ultrahigh vacuum compatible ultracold atom source dissipating less than ten milliwatts of electrical power during field generation to produce large samples of cold rubidium gases. This disruptive technology opens the door to drastically improved integrated structures, which will further reduce size and assembly complexity in scalable series manufacture of bespoke portable quantum devices.

4.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9070, 2017 08 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831070

RESUMEN

Superfluidity and superconductivity have been widely studied since the last century in many different contexts ranging from nuclear matter to atomic quantum gases. The rigidity of these systems with respect to external perturbations results in frictionless motion for superfluids and resistance-free electric current flow in superconductors. This peculiar behaviour is lost when external perturbations overcome a critical threshold, i.e. above a critical magnetic field or a critical current for superconductors. In superfluids, such as liquid helium or ultracold gases, the corresponding quantities are a critical rotation rate and a critical velocity respectively. Enhancing the critical values is of great fundamental and practical value. Here we demonstrate that superfluidity can be completely restored for specific, arbitrarily large flow velocities above the critical velocity through quantum interference-induced resonances providing a nonlinear counterpart of the Ramsauer-Townsend effect occurring in ordinary quantum mechanics. We illustrate the robustness of this phenomenon through a thorough analysis in one dimension and prove its generality by showing the persistence of the effect in non-trivial 2d systems. This has far reaching consequences for the fundamental understanding of superfluidity and superconductivity and opens up new application possibilities in quantum metrology, e.g. in rotation sensing.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(18): 186603, 2016 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27203338

RESUMEN

We observe a series of sharp resonant features in the differential conductance of graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene tunnel transistors over a wide range of bias voltages between 10 and 200 mV. We attribute them to electron tunneling assisted by the emission of phonons of well-defined energy. The bias voltages at which they occur are insensitive to the applied gate voltage and hence independent of the carrier densities in the graphene electrodes, so plasmonic effects can be ruled out. The phonon energies corresponding to the resonances are compared with the lattice dispersion curves of graphene-boron nitride heterostructures and are close to peaks in the single phonon density of states.

6.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 9(10): 808-13, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25194946

RESUMEN

Recent developments in the technology of van der Waals heterostructures made from two-dimensional atomic crystals have already led to the observation of new physical phenomena, such as the metal-insulator transition and Coulomb drag, and to the realization of functional devices, such as tunnel diodes, tunnel transistors and photovoltaic sensors. An unprecedented degree of control of the electronic properties is available not only by means of the selection of materials in the stack, but also through the additional fine-tuning achievable by adjusting the built-in strain and relative orientation of the component layers. Here we demonstrate how careful alignment of the crystallographic orientation of two graphene electrodes separated by a layer of hexagonal boron nitride in a transistor device can achieve resonant tunnelling with conservation of electron energy, momentum and, potentially, chirality. We show how the resonance peak and negative differential conductance in the device characteristics induce a tunable radiofrequency oscillatory current that has potential for future high-frequency technology.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(11): 116603, 2014 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24702398

RESUMEN

We investigate the effects of a linear resonator on the high-frequency dynamics of electrons in devices exhibiting negative differential conductance. We show that the resonator strongly affects both the dc and ac transport characteristics of the device, inducing quasiperiodic and high-frequency chaotic current oscillations. The theoretical findings are confirmed by experimental measurements of a GaAs/AlAs miniband semiconductor superlattice coupled to a linear microstrip resonator. Our results are applicable to other active solid state devices and provide a generic approach for developing modern chaos-based high-frequency technologies including broadband chaotic wireless communication and superfast random-number generation.

8.
Nat Commun ; 4: 1794, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23653206

RESUMEN

The chemical stability of graphene and other free-standing two-dimensional crystals means that they can be stacked in different combinations to produce a new class of functional materials, designed for specific device applications. Here we report resonant tunnelling of Dirac fermions through a boron nitride barrier, a few atomic layers thick, sandwiched between two graphene electrodes. The resonance occurs when the electronic spectra of the two electrodes are aligned. The resulting negative differential conductance in the device characteristics persists up to room temperature and is gate voltage-tuneable due to graphene's unique Dirac-like spectrum. Although conventional resonant tunnelling devices comprising a quantum well sandwiched between two tunnel barriers are tens of nanometres thick, the tunnelling carriers in our devices cross only a few atomic layers, offering the prospect of ultra-fast transit times. This feature, combined with the multi-valued form of the device characteristics, has potential for applications in high-frequency and logic devices.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 111(10): 105302, 2013 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25166677

RESUMEN

We study topological excitations in spin-one Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in an elongated double-well optical potential. This system hosts a new topological defect, the spin Josephson vortex (SJV), which forms due to the competition between the interwell atomic tunneling and short-range ferromagnetic two-body interaction. We identify the spin structure and formation dynamics of the SJV and determine the phase diagram of the system. By exploiting the intrinsic stability of the SJV, we propose a dynamical method to create SJVs under realistic experimental conditions.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(2): 024102, 2012 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23030163

RESUMEN

We demonstrate, through experiment and theory, enhanced high-frequency current oscillations due to magnetically-induced conduction resonances in superlattices. Strong increase in the ac power originates from complex single-electron dynamics, characterized by abrupt resonant transitions between unbound and localized trajectories, which trigger and shape propagating charge domains. Our data demonstrate that external fields can tune the collective behavior of quantum particles by imprinting configurable patterns in the single-particle classical phase space.

11.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 83(4 Pt 2): 046209, 2011 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21599272

RESUMEN

We use semiclassical Hamiltonian optics to investigate the propagation of light rays through two-dimensional photonic crystals when slow spatial modulation of the lattice parameters induces mixed stable-chaotic ray dynamics. This modulation changes both the shape and frequency range of the allowed frequency bands, thereby bending the resulting semiclassical ray trajectories and confining them within particular regions of the crystal. The curved boundaries of these regions, combined with the bending of the orbits themselves, creates a hierarchy of stable and unstable chaotic trajectories in phase space. For certain lattice parameters and electromagnetic wave frequencies, islands of stable orbits act as a dynamical barrier, which separates the chaotic trajectories into two distinct regions of the crystal, thereby preventing the rays propagating through the structure. We show that changing the frequency of the electromagnetic wave strongly affects the distribution of stable and unstable orbits in both real and phase space. This switches the dynamical barriers on and off and thus modulates the transmission of rays through the crystal. We propose microwave analogs of the photonic crystals as a route to the experimental study of the transport effects that we predict.

12.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 77(2 Pt 2): 026209, 2008 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18352105

RESUMEN

We study the effects of dissipation on electron transport in a semiconductor superlattice with an applied bias voltage and a magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis. In previous work, we showed that, although the applied fields are stationary, they act like a terahertz plane wave, which strongly couples the Bloch and cyclotron motion of electrons within the lowest miniband. As a consequence, the electrons exhibit a unique type of Hamiltonian chaos, which creates an intricate mesh of conduction channels (a stochastic web) in phase space, leading to a large resonant increase in the current flow at critical values of the applied voltage. This phase-space patterning provides a sensitive mechanism for controlling electrical resistance. In this paper, we investigate the effects of dissipation on the electron dynamics by modifying the semiclassical equations of motion to include a linear damping term. We demonstrate that, even in the presence of dissipation, deterministic chaos plays an important role in the electron transport process. We identify mechanisms for the onset of chaos and explore the associated sequence of bifurcations in the electron trajectories. When the Bloch and cyclotron frequencies are commensurate, complex multistability phenomena occur in the system. In particular, for fixed values of the control parameters several distinct stable regimes can coexist, each corresponding to different initial conditions. We show that this multistability has clear, experimentally observable, signatures in the electron transport characteristics.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 100(10): 100402, 2008 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18352165

RESUMEN

We show that the decay of a soliton into vortices provides a mechanism for measuring the initial phase difference between two merging Bose-Einstein condensates. At very low temperatures, the mechanism is resonant, operating only when the clouds start in antiphase. But at higher temperatures, phase fluctuations trigger vortex production over a wide range of initial relative phase, as observed in recent experiments at MIT. Choosing the merge time to maximize the number of vortices created makes the interferometer highly sensitive to spatially varying phase patterns and hence atomic movement.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 95(7): 073201, 2005 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16196780

RESUMEN

We investigate the effect of interatomic interactions on the quantum-mechanical reflection of Bose-Einstein condensates from regions of rapid potential variation. The reflection process depends critically on the density and incident velocity of the condensate. For low densities and high velocities, the atom cloud has almost the same form before and after reflection. Conversely, at high densities and low velocities, the reflection process generates solitons and vortex rings that fragment the condensate. We show that this fragmentation can explain the anomalously low reflection probabilities recently measured for low-velocity condensates incident on a silicon surface.

15.
Nature ; 428(6984): 726-30, 2004 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15085125

RESUMEN

Understanding how complex systems respond to change is of fundamental importance in the natural sciences. There is particular interest in systems whose classical newtonian motion becomes chaotic as an applied perturbation grows. The transition to chaos usually occurs by the gradual destruction of stable orbits in parameter space, in accordance with the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem--a cornerstone of nonlinear dynamics that explains, for example, gaps in the asteroid belt. By contrast, 'non-KAM' chaos switches on and off abruptly at critical values of the perturbation frequency. This type of dynamics has wide-ranging implications in the theory of plasma physics, tokamak fusion, turbulence, ion traps, and quasicrystals. Here we realize non-KAM chaos experimentally by exploiting the quantum properties of electrons in the periodic potential of a semiconductor superlattice with an applied voltage and magnetic field. The onset of chaos at discrete voltages is observed as a large increase in the current flow due to the creation of unbound electron orbits, which propagate through intricate web patterns in phase space. Non-KAM chaos therefore provides a mechanism for controlling the electrical conductivity of a condensed matter device: its extreme sensitivity could find applications in quantum electronics and photonics.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 90(11): 110404, 2003 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12688920

RESUMEN

We study the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice and harmonic trap. The condensates are set in motion by displacing the trap and initially follow simple semiclassical paths, shaped by the lowest energy band. Above a critical displacement, the condensate undergoes Bragg reflection. For high atom densities, the first Bragg reflection generates a train of solitons and vortices, which destabilize the condensate and trigger explosive expansion. At lower densities, soliton and vortex formation requires multiple Bragg reflections, and damps the center-of-mass motion.

17.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 64(4 Pt 2): 047701, 2001 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11690185

RESUMEN

We present a fourth-order finite difference (FD) method for solving two-dimensional partial differential equations. The FD operator uses a compact nine-point stencil on a regular square grid. Despite the regular grid, Dirichlet boundary conditions can be applied on an arbitrarily shaped boundary without resorting to the usual stepped approximation. We demonstrate the superior convergence of the method over second-order techniques by solving the Schrödinger equation for an electron in a semiconductor quantum dot with a smoothly varying potential which generates classically chaotic dynamics.

18.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 64(2 Pt 2): 026203, 2001 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11497673

RESUMEN

Electromagnetic analogies of quantum chaos are investigated in two-dimensional optical cavities which have reflective surfaces and contain a gradient refractive index medium. As the shape of the cavity is transformed continuously from a rectangle to a parallelogram, the geometrical ray paths undergo a transition from stable to chaotic dynamics. In the chaotic regime, the spectral statistics of the cavity are accurately described by random matrix theory. In addition, the electromagnetic mode spectrum of the cavity is modulated by both real and ghost periodic ray paths. These paths also "scar" the electric field intensity distributions of regular subsets of cavity eigenmodes.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 87(3): 036802, 2001 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11461579

RESUMEN

We investigate how fractals evolve into nonfractal behavior as the generation process is gradually suppressed. Fractals observed in the conductance of semiconductor billiards are of particular interest because the generation process is semiclassical and can be suppressed by transitions towards either fully classical or fully quantum-mechanical conduction. Investigating a range of billiards, we identify a "universal" behavior in the changeover from fractal to nonfractal conductance, which is described by a smooth evolution rather than deterioration in the fractal scaling properties.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 87(4): 046803, 2001 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11461635

RESUMEN

We investigate chaotic electron transport in the lowest miniband of a semiconductor superlattice with a tilted magnetic field. This experimentally accessible non-Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser system involves only stationary electric and magnetic fields, but is dynamically equivalent to a time-dependent kicked harmonic oscillator. The onset of chaos strongly delocalizes the electron orbits, thus raising the electrical conductivity. When the cyclotron and Bloch frequencies are commensurate, the phase space is threaded by a stochastic web, which produces a further resonant increase in the conductivity.

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