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Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 187, 2020 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243302


OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE: The costs attributable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remain theoretical and largely unspecified. Current figures fail to capture the full health and economic burden caused by AMR across human, animal, and environmental health; historically many studies have considered only direct costs associated with human infection from a hospital perspective, primarily from high-income countries. The Global Antimicrobial Resistance Platform for ONE-Burden Estimates (GAP-ON€) network has developed a framework to help guide AMR costing exercises in any part of the world as a first step towards more comprehensive analyses for comparing AMR interventions at the local level as well as more harmonized analyses for quantifying the full economic burden attributable to AMR at the global level. METHODS: GAP-ON€ (funded under the JPIAMR 8th call (Virtual Research Institute) is composed of 19 international networks and institutions active in the field of AMR. For this project, the Network operated by means of Delphi rounds, teleconferences and face-to-face meetings. The resulting costing framework takes a bottom-up approach to incorporate all relevant costs imposed by an AMR bacterial microbe in a patient, in an animal, or in the environment up through to the societal level. RESULTS: The framework itemizes the epidemiological data as well as the direct and indirect cost components needed to build a realistic cost picture for AMR. While the framework lists a large number of relevant pathogens for which this framework could be used to explore the costs, the framework is sufficiently generic to facilitate the costing of other resistant pathogens, including those of other aetiologies. CONCLUSION: In order to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses to choose amongst different AMR-related interventions at local level, the costing of AMR should be done according to local epidemiological priorities and local health service norms. Yet the use of a common framework across settings allows for the results of such studies to contribute to cumulative estimates that can serve as the basis of broader policy decisions at the international level such as how to steer R&D funding and how to prioritize AMR amongst other issues. Indeed, it is only by building a realistic cost picture that we can make informed decisions on how best to tackle major health threats.

BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967980


There is increasing concern globally about the enormity of the threats posed by antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to human, animal, plant and environmental health. A proliferation of international, national and institutional reports on the problems posed by AMR and the need for antibiotic stewardship have galvanised attention on the global stage. However, the AMR community increasingly laments a lack of action, often identified as an 'implementation gap'. At a policy level, the design of internationally salient solutions that are able to address AMR's interconnected biological and social (historical, political, economic and cultural) dimensions is not straightforward. This multidisciplinary paper responds by asking two basic questions: (A) Is a universal approach to AMR policy and antibiotic stewardship possible? (B) If yes, what hallmarks characterise 'good' antibiotic policy? Our multistage analysis revealed four central challenges facing current international antibiotic policy: metrics, prioritisation, implementation and inequality. In response to this diagnosis, we propose three hallmarks that can support robust international antibiotic policy. Emerging hallmarks for good antibiotic policies are: Structural, Equitable and Tracked. We describe these hallmarks and propose their consideration should aid the design and evaluation of international antibiotic policies with maximal benefit at both local and international scales.

Nature ; 581(7806): 94-99, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376956


Vaccines may reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance, in part by preventing infections for which treatment often includes the use of antibiotics1-4. However, the effects of vaccination on antibiotic consumption remain poorly understood-especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the burden of antimicrobial resistance is greatest5. Here we show that vaccines that have recently been implemented in the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization reduce antibiotic consumption substantially among children under five years of age in LMICs. By analysing data from large-scale studies of households, we estimate that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and live attenuated rotavirus vaccines confer 19.7% (95% confidence interval, 3.4-43.4%) and 11.4% (4.0-18.6%) protection against antibiotic-treated episodes of acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea, respectively, in age groups that experience the greatest disease burden attributable to the vaccine-targeted pathogens6,7. Under current coverage levels, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines prevent 23.8 million and 13.6 million episodes of antibiotic-treated illness, respectively, among children under five years of age in LMICs each year. Direct protection resulting from the achievement of universal coverage targets for these vaccines could prevent an additional 40.0 million episodes of antibiotic-treated illness. This evidence supports the prioritization of vaccines within the global strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance8.

Antibacterianos , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Utilización de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/economía , Preescolar , Diarrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Diarrea/prevención & control , Diarrea/virología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Utilización de Medicamentos/economía , Humanos , Incidencia , Vacunas Neumococicas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Neumococicas/inmunología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/inmunología , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas/economía , Vacunas/inmunología , Organización Mundial de la Salud/organización & administración
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(4): e51-e60, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059790


In 2013, a Lancet Infectious Diseases Commission described the state of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Since then, greater awareness of the public health ramifications of antimicrobial resistance has led to national actions and global initiatives, including a resolution at the high-level meeting of the UN General Assembly in 2016. Progress in addressing this issue has ranged from a ban on irrational drug combinations in India to commitments to ban colistin as a growth promoter in animals, improve hospital infection control, and implement better antimicrobial stewardship. Funds have been mobilised, and regulatory barriers to new antibiotic development have been relaxed. These efforts have been episodic and uneven across countries, however. Sustained funding for antimicrobial resistance and globally harmonised targets to monitor progress are still urgently needed. Except for in a few leading countries, antimicrobial resistance has not captured the sustained focus of national leaders and country-level actors, including care providers.

Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos/organización & administración , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Utilización de Medicamentos/normas , Salud Pública , Animales , Colistina/efectos adversos , Países Desarrollados , Países en Desarrollo , Salud Global , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración
J Travel Med ; 26(8)2019 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115466


BACKGROUND: Rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to modern medicine, and increasing international mobility facilitates the spread of AMR. Infections with resistant organisms have higher morbidity and mortality, are costlier to treat, result in longer hospital stays and place a greater burden on health systems than infections caused by susceptible organisms. Here we review the role of travel in the international dissemination of AMR and consider actions at the levels of travelers, travel medicine practitioners and policymakers that would mitigate this threat. RESULTS: Resistant pathogens do not recognize international borders; travelers to areas with high AMR prevalence are likely to be exposed to resistant bacteria and return to their home countries colonized. Medical tourists go between health facilities with drastically different rates of AMR, potentially transmitting highly resistant strains.Drug-resistant bacteria have been found in every continent; however, differences between countries in the prevalence of AMR depend on multiple factors. These include levels of antibiotic consumption (including inappropriate use), access to clean water, adequate sanitation, vaccination coverage, the availability of quality healthcare and access to high-quality medical products. CONCLUSIONS: Travelers to areas with high levels of AMR should have vaccines up to date, be aware of ways of treating and preventing travelers' diarrhea (other than antibiotic use) and be informed on safe sexual practices. The healthcare systems of low- and middle-income countries require investment to reduce the transmission of resistant strains by improving access to clean water, sanitation facilities and vaccines. Efforts are needed to curb inappropriate antibiotic use worldwide. In addition, more surveillance is needed to understand the role of the movement of humans, livestock and food products in resistance transmission. The travel medicine community has a key role to play in advocating for the recognition of AMR as a priority on the international health agenda. KEY POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS: AMR is a threat to modern medicine, and international travel plays a key role in the spread of highly resistant strains. It is essential that this is addressed at multiple levels. Individual travelers can reduce antibiotic consumption and the likelihood of infection. Travelers should have up-to-date vaccines and be informed on methods of preventing and treating travelers' diarrhea, other than use of antibiotics and on safe sexual practices, such as condom use. Healthcare facilities need to be aware of the travel history of patients to provide appropriate treatment to those who are at high risk of exposure and to prevent further spread. Internationally, in countries without reliable and universal access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene, investment is needed to reduce the emergence and spread of resistance and ensure the antimicrobials available are of assured quality. High-income countries must ensure their use of antimicrobials is appropriate to reduce selection for AMR. Surveillance across all countries is needed to monitor and respond to this emerging threat.

Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Salud Global/tendencias , Medicina del Viajero/métodos , Viaje , Animales , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Campylobacter/efectos de los fármacos , Utilización de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos
ISME J ; 12(6): 1582-1593, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563570


Bacteria commonly live in dense and genetically diverse communities associated with surfaces. In these communities, competition for resources and space is intense, and yet we understand little of how this affects the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains. Here, we study interactions between antibiotic-resistant and susceptible strains using in vitro competition experiments in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in silico simulations. Selection for intracellular resistance to streptomycin is very strong in colonies, such that resistance is favoured at very low antibiotic doses. In contrast, selection for extracellular resistance to carbenicillin is weak in colonies, and high doses of antibiotic are required to select for resistance. Manipulating the density and spatial structure of colonies reveals that this difference is partly explained by the fact that the local degradation of carbenicillin by ß-lactamase-secreting cells protects neighbouring sensitive cells from carbenicillin. In addition, we discover a second unexpected effect: the inducible elongation of cells in response to carbenicillin allows sensitive cells to better compete for the rapidly growing colony edge. These combined effects mean that antibiotic treatment can select against antibiotic-resistant strains, raising the possibility of treatment regimes that suppress sensitive strains while limiting the rise of antibiotic resistance. We argue that the detailed study of bacterial interactions will be fundamental to understanding and overcoming antibiotic resistance.

Antibacterianos/farmacología , Carbenicilina/química , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , Simulación por Computador , Plásmidos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiología , Estreptomicina/farmacología , beta-Lactamasas/metabolismo