Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049255

RESUMEN

In Fortaleza, the capital of Ceara State, Brazil, the detection rate of tuberculosis (TB) in 2018 was 65.5/100,000 inhabitants with a cure rate of 59.1%, which is higher than the country average. This study investigated the risk factors associated with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and identified the drug-resistance phenotype and resistance-conferring mutations. The geographic distribution of DR-TB in Fortaleza, Brazil, was also determined. From March 2017 to February 2018, 41 DR-TB isolates and 69 drug-susceptible pulmonary TB isolates were obtained from patients seen at a referral hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. Samples were subjected to phenotypic and genetic analysis of resistance; the spatial distribution of the participants was also analyzed. Primary resistance was high (50.9%) among participants. The following risk factors for DR were identified: being female ( p = 0.03), having diabetes ( p < 0.01), history of previous TB disease ( p < 0.01), and the number of intra-domiciliary contacts ( p < 0.01). Analysis by multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction detected mutations in the genes katG (65.8%) , rpoB (43.9%), inhA promoter (14.6%), and gyrA (9.8%). Sequencing identified mutations in the the genes katG (75.6%), inhA promoter (19.5%), rpoB (85.4%), and gyrA (100%). There was no mutation in the rrs gene. Spatial analysis showed DR-TB isolates distributed in areas of low socioeconomic status in the city of Fortaleza. Our results emphasized the importance of detecting resistance to TB drugs. The resistance found in the gene gyrA is of concern due to the high number of pre-extensive DR-TB cases in Fortaleza.


Asunto(s)
Antituberculosos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Mutación/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efectos de los fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/microbiología , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Genotipo , Geografía Médica , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/aislamiento & purificación , Fenotipo , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
2.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 296-306, jan./fev. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048583

RESUMEN

The essential oil (EO) extracted from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Czey; also known as cinnamon), mostly derives its properties from its major compound trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCin). The present study evaluated the antimycobacterial activity of the essential oil from Czey (CzeyEO) and TCin against sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as the combinatorial effects of CzeyEO and TCin with the anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). The resazurin microtiter assay method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the components tested on the clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The effects of the CzeyEO/RIF, CzeyEO/INH, TCin/RIF, and TCin/INH combinations on the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference strain were evaluated using the checkerboard method to determine the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). CzeyEO and TCin inhibited all bacterial clinical isolates. In the interactive experiment, CzeyEO and TCin were found to be highly effective in reducing the resistance of resistant M. tuberculosis to RIF and INH. All four tested combinations demonstrated synergistic and additive effects, with no antagonistic effects. The synergistic combinations of CzeyEO/RIF and CzeyEO/INH exhibited FICI values of 0.375 and 0.5, respectively, while the TCin/RIF and TCin/INH combinations exhibited FICI values of 0.31 and 0.5, respectively. These results indicate that CzeyEO and TCin are potential candidates for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis in combination therapy with INH and RIF.


O óleo essencial (EO) extraído da casca do Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CzeyEO), conhecido como canela, tem como seu principal composto o trans-cinamaldeído (TCin). O presente estudo avaliou a atividade antimicobacteriana de CzeyEO e do TCin contra isolados clínicos sensíveis e resistentes de Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bem como os efeitos das associações de CzeyEO e do TCin com os fármacos anti-TB, rifampicina (RIF) e isoniazida (INH). A técnica de ensaio de microtitulação da resazurina foi utilizada para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) dos componentes testados nos isolados clínicos de M. tuberculosis. Os efeitos das associações CzeyEO/RIF, CzeyEO/INH, TCin/RIF e TCin/INH contra a cepa de referência H37Rv de M. tuberculosis foram avaliados pelo método Checkerboard, determinando o índice de concentração inibitória fracionária (ICIF). Todos os isolados clínicos bacterianos foram inibidos por CzeyEO e TCin. As interações de CzeyEO e TCin foram altamente eficazes na redução da resistência do M. tuberculosisresistente a RIF e INH. Todas as quatro combinações testadas resultaram em efeitos sinérgicos e aditivos, sem efeito antagônico. Ambas as associações de sinergismo de CzeyEO/RIF e CzeyEO/INH mostraram valores de ICIF de 0,375 e 0,5, enquanto as associações de TCin/RIF e TCin/INH apresentaram valores de ICIF de 0,31 e 0,5. CzeyEO e TCin são potenciais candidatos em terapia combinada com INH e RIF para o tratamento da tuberculose resistente.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Antibacterianos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
3.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e465, 2018 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365827

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of human papillomavirus DNA and genotypes in breast cancer and normal breast tissue samples obtained from women from the northeast region of Brazil. METHOD: One hundred three breast cancer samples and 95 normal breast samples, as the non-malignant controls, were studied. DNA extraction was verified by human beta-globin gene amplification, and polymerase chain reaction was conducted based on HPV L1-specific consensus primers MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+, followed by nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers for the E6/E7 consensus region. RESULTS: Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 51 (49.5%) breast carcinoma samples and 15 (15.8%) normal breast samples (p<0.0001). Human papillomavirus genotypes 6 and 11 were identified in 15.2% of all samples. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of human papillomavirus infection in breast cancer samples indicates a potential role of this virus in breast carcinogenesis in the studied participants.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/virología , ADN Viral/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa
4.
Pathog Glob Health ; 112(2): 79-85, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405082

RESUMEN

This study analyzed the genetic diversity by MIRU-VNTR of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from nasal cavities and related to epidemiological and clinical data. The sample consisted of 48 newly diagnosed leprosy cases that tested positive for M. leprae PCR in nasal secretion (NS) attending to the National Reference Center of Dermatology Dona Libania (CDERM), Fortaleza, Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from NS of each patient and used for amplification of four M. leprae VNTR loci. Four clusters of M. leprae isolates were formed with identical genotypes. In the spatial analysis, 12 leprosy cases presented similar genotypes organized into 4 clusters. The most common genotypes in the current study was AC8b: 8, AC9: 7, AC8a: 8, GTA9: 10, which may represent a genotype of circulating strains most often in Ceará. A minimum set of four MIRU-VNTR loci was demonstrated to study the genetic diversity of M. leprae isolates from NS.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Genotipo , Técnicas de Genotipaje/métodos , Lepra/microbiología , Repeticiones de Minisatélite , Mycobacterium leprae/clasificación , Cavidad Nasal/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Líquidos Corporales/microbiología , Brasil , Niño , Análisis por Conglomerados , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
5.
Pathog Glob Health ; 112(2): 72-78, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279044

RESUMEN

Mycobacterium leprae bacilli are mainly transmitted by the dissemination of nasal aerosols from multibacillary (MB) patients to susceptible individuals through inhalation. The upper respiratory tract represents the main entry and exit routes of M. leprae. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in detecting M. leprae in nasal secretion (NS) and skin biopsy (SB) samples from MB and paucibacillary (PB) cases. Fifty-four NS samples were obtained from leprosy patients at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology in Ceará, Brazil. Among them, 19 MB cases provided both NS and SB samples. Bacilloscopy index assays were conducted and qPCR amplification was performed using specific primers for M. leprae 16S rRNA gene, generating a 124-bp fragment. Primer specificity was verified by determining the amplicon melting temperature (Tm = 79.5 °C) and detection limit of qPCR was 20 fg of M. leprae DNA. Results were positive for 89.7 and 73.3% of NS samples from MB and PB cases, respectively. SB samples from MB patients were 100% positive. The number of bacilli detected in NS samples were 1.39 × 103-8.02 × 105, and in SB samples from MB patients were 1.87 × 103-1.50 × 106. Therefore, qPCR assays using SYBR Green targeting M. leprae 16S rRNA region can be employed in detecting M. leprae in nasal swabs from leprosy patients, validating this method for epidemiological studies aiming to identify healthy carriers among household contacts or within populations of an endemic area.


Asunto(s)
Biopsia , Líquidos Corporales/microbiología , Lepra/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Cavidad Nasal/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Piel/microbiología , Brasil , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Humanos , Lepra/microbiología , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
6.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 48(6): e20170697, 2018. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045142

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The rise in cases of antibiotic-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become a major obstacle to the effective control of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Essential oils (EO) are complex mixtures that may contain between 20 and 60 components, with two or three major compounds at relatively high concentrations (20-70%) that are responsible for their pharmacological properties. The objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of the EOs, bushy lippia (Lippia alba), rosemary pepper (Lippia sidoides), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), Mexican mint or Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus), and true cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Chemical characterization of the EOs was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution-based resazurin microtiter assay. Four EOs were able to inhibit the growth of M. tuberculosis, with MICs of 286.5±130.2μg/mL (C. zeylanicum), 299.5±117.2μg/mL (L. sidoides), 351.6±39.06μg/mL (P. amboinicus), and 1,250μg/mL (C. citratus). Only the EO of L. alba showed no antimycobacterial activity at the tested concentrations, with an MIC greater than 1,250µg/mL. Results of this study suggested that C. zeylanicum, L. sidoides, and P. amboinicus could be important sources of bactericidal compounds against M. tuberculosis and require further investigation. The activity against M. tuberculosis of these three EOs has not been reported previously. The results show the high potential of the tested antimycobacterial EOs, making them a promising alternative for TB treatment. This data also confirms the importance of bioprospecting studies for active substances with antimycobacterial activity, which are still scarce.


RESUMO: O aumento no número de casos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistentes tem se tornado um grande obstáculo no controle efetivo da tuberculose (TB) mundialmente. Os óleos essenciais (OE), que são misturas complexas que podem conter entre 20 a 60 componentes, apresentam dois ou três compostos principais, em concentrações relativamente elevadas, 20 a 70%, que são responsáveis pelas suas propriedades farmacológicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicobacteriana dos seguintes óleos essenciais (OEs) em Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: erva-cidreira (Lippia alba), alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides), capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus), orégano (Plectranthus amboinicus) e canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum). A caracterização química dos OEs foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. A Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) foi determinada pela técnica de microdiluição da resazurina. Quatro OEs foram capazes de inibir o crescimento de M. tuberculosis, com CIM de 286,5±130,2μg/mL (C. zeylanicum), 299,5±117,2μg/mL (L. sidoides), 351,6±39,06μg/mL (P. amboinicus) e 1250μg/mL (C. citratus). Somente o OE de L. alba não mostrou atividade antimicobacteriana nas conscentrações testadas, considerando CIM maiores que 1250µg/mL. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que L. sidoides, C. zeylanicum e P. amboinicus podem ser fontes importantes de compostos bactericidas contra M. tuberculosis e prováveis candidatos a serem investigados. A atividade contra M. tuberculosis desses três OEs não foi relatada em estudos anteriores. Os resultados mostram o elevado potencial antimicobacteriano dos OEs analisados, fazendo deles uma alternativa promissora para o tratamento da TB. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a importância de pesquisas para bioprospecção de substâncias ativas com ação antimicobacteriana, que ainda são escassas.

7.
Clinics ; 73: e465, 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-974922

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of human papillomavirus DNA and genotypes in breast cancer and normal breast tissue samples obtained from women from the northeast region of Brazil. METHOD: One hundred three breast cancer samples and 95 normal breast samples, as the non-malignant controls, were studied. DNA extraction was verified by human beta-globin gene amplification, and polymerase chain reaction was conducted based on HPV L1-specific consensus primers MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+, followed by nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers for the E6/E7 consensus region. RESULTS: Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 51 (49.5%) breast carcinoma samples and 15 (15.8%) normal breast samples (p<0.0001). Human papillomavirus genotypes 6 and 11 were identified in 15.2% of all samples. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of human papillomavirus infection in breast cancer samples indicates a potential role of this virus in breast carcinogenesis in the studied participants.

8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(12): 805-811, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211240

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. FINDINGS: M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7%) of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Agua , Brasil , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Genotipo , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , ARN Bacteriano/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(12): 805-811, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-894856

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. METHODS Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. FINDINGS M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7%) of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ARN Bacteriano/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Microbiología del Agua , Brasil , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Genotipo
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 50(2): 216-222, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562758

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION:: This study quantified Mycobacterium leprae bacilli in environmental water samples from five municipalities in the State of Ceará by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and compared the identified genotypes with those obtained from leprosy patient biopsies. METHODS:: We collected five replicas from each of the 30 selected reservoirs and skin lesion biopsies from 25 new leprosy cases treated at a reference center in Fortaleza, Ceará from 2010 to 2013. The 16S rRNA gene region of M. leprae was amplified by qPCR and a standard curve was created with the pIDTBlue 16SrRNAMlep plasmid. The Juazeiro do Norte water samples and the biopsies were genotyped (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] 1 to 4) and the SNP 4 genotypes were subtyped. RESULTS:: Of the 149 water samples analyzed, 54.4% were positive for the M. leprae DNA. The M. leprae bacilli copy number ranged from 1.42 × 10 -1 to 1.44 × 10 + 2 . Most biopsies showed SNP type 4 (64%), while all samples from Juazeiro do Norte were SNP type 4, with subtype 4-N appearing at the highest frequency. CONCLUSIONS:: We suggest that environmental waters containing M. leprae bacilli play an important role in disease transmission, justifying PGL-1 seropositivity in individuals living in areas where there is no reported case, and in leprosy cases individuals who report no previous contact with other case. Therefore, further investigation is needed to clarify disease transmission in this region and to explore the role of the environment. We also suggest that in this area surveillance for leprosy cases should be intensified.


Asunto(s)
Agua Dulce/microbiología , Lepra/microbiología , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Agua , Biopsia , Brasil , Genotipo , Humanos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 216-222, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-842831

RESUMEN

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study quantified Mycobacterium leprae bacilli in environmental water samples from five municipalities in the State of Ceará by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and compared the identified genotypes with those obtained from leprosy patient biopsies. METHODS: We collected five replicas from each of the 30 selected reservoirs and skin lesion biopsies from 25 new leprosy cases treated at a reference center in Fortaleza, Ceará from 2010 to 2013. The 16S rRNA gene region of M. leprae was amplified by qPCR and a standard curve was created with the pIDTBlue 16SrRNAMlep plasmid. The Juazeiro do Norte water samples and the biopsies were genotyped (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] 1 to 4) and the SNP 4 genotypes were subtyped. RESULTS: Of the 149 water samples analyzed, 54.4% were positive for the M. leprae DNA. The M. leprae bacilli copy number ranged from 1.42 × 10 -1 to 1.44 × 10 + 2 . Most biopsies showed SNP type 4 (64%), while all samples from Juazeiro do Norte were SNP type 4, with subtype 4-N appearing at the highest frequency. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that environmental waters containing M. leprae bacilli play an important role in disease transmission, justifying PGL-1 seropositivity in individuals living in areas where there is no reported case, and in leprosy cases individuals who report no previous contact with other case. Therefore, further investigation is needed to clarify disease transmission in this region and to explore the role of the environment. We also suggest that in this area surveillance for leprosy cases should be intensified.

12.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 898-905, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26560980

RESUMEN

A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Portador Sano/microbiología , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Lepra/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Mucosa Nasal/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Endémicas , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacial , Adulto Joven
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 898-905, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-764588

RESUMEN

A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Portador Sano/microbiología , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Lepra/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Mucosa Nasal/microbiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Lepra/epidemiología , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacial
14.
Acta Trop ; 152: 74-79, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26232656

RESUMEN

Several factors suggest that armadillos present an important risk for human leprosy infection. This study uses semi-structured interviews to better illustrate how human interaction with armadillos may increase the risk of leprosy transmission. The participants were all residents of the state of Ceará, in northeastern Brazil, all acknowledged contact with armadillos either through hunting, through cooking, or through consumption of its meat. This study raises important issues about contact between human beings and armadillos. The interviews provide evidence of numerous situations in which leprosy transmission via the armadillo is possible. At a minimum, people who hunt armadillos need to be made aware of the risk of infection.


Asunto(s)
Armadillos/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Lepra/transmisión , Mycobacterium leprae , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo
15.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 49(6): 410-414, Dec. 2013. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-697116

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: It is estimated that over two billion individuals are infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis worldwide. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important cytokine whose serum levels are commonly high in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). IL-6 screening in contacts of patients with TB may be useful to monitor the progress of the infectious process and to infer the risk of progression to active disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-6 in contacts of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and to compare them with two other groups: a) patients affected by active pulmonary tuberculosis; b) non-contacts of tuberculosis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 15 contacts of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, selected according to the protocol recommended by the Ministry of Health. The serum levels of interleukin-6 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The same test was also applied in the two comparison groups: 38 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (confirmed by clinical examination, X-rays of the chest and baciloscopy) and 63 non-contacts (healthy blood donors). RESULTS: In the contact group, the median IL-6 concentration was 1.7 pg/ml (0.96-4.8 pg/ml). For those affected by active pulmonary tuberculosis and non-contact individuals, these values corresponded to 4.3 pg/ml (0.5-24 pg/ml) and 0.5 pg/ml (0-2.8 pg/ml), respectively (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Contacts of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis had significantly higher IL-6 serum levels (3.4 times higher) in relation to non-contact individuals, but on a lower level (2.5 times lower) when compared to those affected by active disease.


INTRODUÇÃO: Estima-se em mais de dois bilhões o número de infectados pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis no mundo. A interleucina-6 (IL-6) é uma importante citocina, cujos níveis séricos estão comumente elevados na tuberculose pulmonar ativa. A dosagem dessa citocina em contatos de pacientes com tuberculose pode ser útil para se acompanhar a evolução do processo infeccioso, bem como para inferir o risco de progressão da doença ativa. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis séricos de IL-6 em contatos de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar ativa e compará-los com os de dois outros grupos: a) pacientes acometidos por tuberculose pulmonar ativa; b) não contatos de tuberculose. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 15 contatos de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar ativa, selecionados de acordo com protocolo preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os níveis séricos de IL-6 foram mensurados por meio de ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). O mesmo ensaio também foi empregado nos dois grupos de comparação: 38 pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar ativa (confirmada por exame clínico, raios X de tórax e baciloscopia) e 63 não contatos, doadores saudáveis de sangue. RESULTADOS: Para o grupo de contatos, a mediana de concentração de IL-6 foi de 1,7 pg/ml (0,96-4,8 pg/ml); para os acometidos por tuberculose pulmonar ativa e indivíduos não contatos, esses valores foram 4,3 pg/ml (0-12 pg/ml) e 0,5 pg/ml (0-2,8 pg/ml), respectivamente (p < 0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: Contatos de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar ativa apresentaram níveis séricos de IL-6 significativamente aumentados (3,4 vezes mais), em relação aos indivíduos não contatos, mas em um patamar inferior (2,5 vezes menos), quando comparados com os acometidos pela doença ativa.

16.
RBM rev. bras. med ; 70(10)out. 2013.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-704890

RESUMEN

Cytokines play a key role in the regulation of the immune response against infectious diseases. In leprosy, the polymorphisms of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes may contribute to host susceptibility to Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and BCG protection against leprosy in Brazilian leprosy cases and controls. DNA samples were obtained from 46 patients with leprosy and 83 healthy controls (not leprosy contacts). All genotyping (TNF alpha, IFN gamma, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF beta) measurements were taken using sequence-specific primers (SSP) - PCR. When compared to the healthy controls, no significant associations were observed between the cytokine gene polymorphisms studied and their susceptibility to leprosy. The most frequent genotypes in this population were TNF alpha ?G? allele and G/G genotype at position -308, ?A? allele of IFN gamma at position +874, G allele in the IL-6 at position -174, G allele (codon 25) and T/C-G/G genotype in TGF beta, and ?A? allele in IL-10 at position -1082. For those individuals that had a BCG scar, the TGF beta and IFN gamma genotype polymorphisms did not show difference among leprosy patients compared to healthy controls. Polymorphisms of the cytokine genes studied were not associated with an increased occurrence of leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Citocinas , Lepra , Mycobacterium bovis
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(3): 338-345, May-June 2013. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-676871

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study has used a combination of clinical information, spoligotyping, and georeferencing system to elucidate the genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in a TB-prevalent municipality of Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A total of 115 M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January 2007 to March 2008 in Fortaleza. Drug susceptibility and spoligotyping assays were performed and place of residence of the patients were georeferenced. RESULTS: Of the M. tuberculosis strains studied, 51 (44.3%) isolates were resistant to at least one drug (R-TB) and 64 (55.7%) were sensitive to all the drugs tested (S-TB). A high frequency of resistance was found in previously treated cases (84%) and among new cases (16%; p < 0.001). a total of 74 (64%) isolates were grouped into 22 spoligotyped lineages, while 41 (36%) isolates were identified as new. among the predominant genotypes, 33% were latim american mediterranean (lam), 12% haarlem (h), and 5% u. there was no association of geographic distribution of rt-tb patients as compared to the controls and also the geographic location to the spoligotype patterns. the geospatial analysis revealed that 24 (23%) patients (hot spot zones) either shared the same residence or lived in a close neighborhood of a case. among these concentration zones, the patients lived in the same residence and shared a common genotype pattern and resistance pattern. DISCUSSION: it was observed that the spoligopatterns family distribution was similar to that reported for south america, prevailing the lam and h lineages. a high rate-case among the resistant TB group occurs as a result of transmitted and acquired resistance. A more effective surveillance program is needed in order to succeed in reducing tuberculosis in Northeast Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Variación Genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efectos de los fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología , Antituberculosos/farmacología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Genotipo , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología
18.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 17(3): 338-45, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23607922

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study has used a combination of clinical information, spoligotyping, and georeferencing system to elucidate the genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in a TB-prevalent municipality of Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A total of 115 M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January 2007 to March 2008 in Fortaleza. Drug susceptibility and spoligotyping assays were performed and place of residence of the patients were georeferenced. RESULTS: Of the M. tuberculosis strains studied, 51 (44.3%) isolates were resistant to at least one drug (R-TB) and 64 (55.7%) were sensitive to all the drugs tested (S-TB). A high frequency of resistance was found in previously treated cases (84%) and among new cases (16%; p<0.001). A total of 74 (64%) isolates were grouped into 22 spoligotyped lineages, while 41 (36%) isolates were identified as new. Among the predominant genotypes, 33% were Latim American Mediterranean (LAM), 12% Haarlem (H), and 5% U. There was no association of geographic distribution of RT-TB patients as compared to the controls and also the geographic location to the spoligotype patterns. The geospatial analysis revealed that 24 (23%) patients (hot spot zones) either shared the same residence or lived in a close neighborhood of a case. Among these concentration zones, the patients lived in the same residence and shared a common genotype pattern and resistance pattern. DISCUSSION: It was observed that the spoligopatterns family distribution was similar to that reported for South America, prevailing the LAM and H lineages. A high rate-case among the resistant TB group occurs as a result of transmitted and acquired resistance. A more effective surveillance program is needed in order to succeed in reducing tuberculosis in Northeast Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efectos de los fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antituberculosos/farmacología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(supl.1): 209-213, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-659760

RESUMEN

Human beings are the main reservoir of the causative agent of leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae. In the Americas, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) also act as a reservoir for the bacillus. In the state of Ceará (CE), which is located in Northeast Brazil and is an endemic area of leprosy, there are several species of armadillos, including D. novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus (six-banded armadillo). Contact between humans and armadillos occur mainly through hunting, cleaning, preparing, cooking and eating. This study identified M. leprae DNA in the two main species of armadillos found in Northeast Brazil. A total of 29 wild armadillos (27 D. novemcinctus and 2 E. sexcinctus) were captured in different environments of CE countryside. Samples from the ear, nose, liver and spleen from each of these animals were tested by a nested M. leprae-specific repetitive element polymerase chain reaction assay. The samples that tested positive were confirmed by DNA sequencing. M. leprae was detected in 21% (6/29) of the animals, including five D. novemcinctus and one E. sexcinctus. This is the first Brazilian study to identify the presence of a biomarker of M. leprae in wild armadillos (D. novemcinctus and E. sexcinctus) in a leprosy hyperendemic area where there is continuous contact between humans and armadillos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Armadillos/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Armadillos/clasificación , ADN Bacteriano/análisis , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa
20.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 107 Suppl 1: 209-13, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23283473

RESUMEN

Human beings are the main reservoir of the causative agent of leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae. In the Americas, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) also act as a reservoir for the bacillus. In the state of Ceará (CE), which is located in Northeast Brazil and is an endemic area of leprosy, there are several species of armadillos, including D. novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus (six-banded armadillo). Contact between humans and armadillos occur mainly through hunting, cleaning, preparing, cooking and eating. This study identified M. leprae DNA in the two main species of armadillos found in Northeast Brazil. A total of 29 wild armadillos (27 D. novemcinctus and 2 E. sexcinctus) were captured in different environments of CE countryside. Samples from the ear, nose, liver and spleen from each of these animals were tested by a nested M. leprae-specific repetitive element polymerase chain reaction assay. The samples that tested positive were confirmed by DNA sequencing. M. leprae was detected in 21% (6/29) of the animals, including five D. novemcinctus and one E. sexcinctus. This is the first Brazilian study to identify the presence of a biomarker of M. leprae in wild armadillos (D. novemcinctus and E. sexcinctus) in a leprosy hyperendemic area where there is continuous contact between humans and armadillos.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Armadillos/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Armadillos/clasificación , ADN Bacteriano/análisis , Femenino , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA