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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326133

RESUMEN

Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) is a regular state in people with primary hypertension (HTN), obesity, and who are physically inactive. To achieve and maintain a metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) state should be a main treatment goal. The aims of the study were (1) to determine differences in metabolic profiles of overweight/obese, physically inactive individuals with HTN following a 16-week (POST) supervised aerobic exercise training (SupExT) intervention with an attentional control (AC) group, and (2) to determine whether the changes observed were maintained following six months (6 M) of unsupervised time. Participants (n = 219) were randomly assigned into AC or SupExT groups. All participants underwent a hypocaloric diet. At POST, all participants received diet and physical activity advice for the following 6 M, with no supervision. All measurements were assessed pre-intervention (PRE), POST, and after 6 M. From PRE to POST, MUO participants became MHO with improved (p < 0.05) total cholesterol (TC, ∆ = -12.1 mg/dL), alanine aminotransferase (∆ = -8.3 U/L), glucose (∆ = -5.5 mg/dL), C-reactive protein (∆ = -1.4 mg/dL), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) compared to unhealthy optimal cut-off values. However, after 6 M, TC, glucose, and SBP returned to unhealthy values (p < 0.05). In a non-physically active population with obesity and HTN, a 16-week SupExT and diet intervention significantly improves cardiometabolic profile from MUO to MHO. However, after 6 M of no supervision, participants returned to MUO. The findings of this study highlight the need for regular, systematic, and supervised diet and exercise programs to avoid subsequent declines in cardiometabolic health.

2.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932699

RESUMEN

The aims of the present study were to analyze the effects of 16 weeks of different aerobic exercise training (ExT) programs with diet on cardiac autonomic modulation and hemodynamics in nonphysically active and overweight/obese adults (n = 249, 53.7 ± 8.0 years) with primary hypertension, and the possible differences among ExT programs and their effects on heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and long-term BP variability (BPV). Participants were randomly assigned into an attention control (AC) group (physical activity recommendations) or one of three supervised ExT groups: high volume of moderate-intensity continuous training, high-volume and high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and low-volume-HIIT. Twenty-four hours of ambulatory BP monitoring was used to analyze systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, HR, and BPV. A cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Following intervention, resting and submaximal exercise (HR, SBP, and DBP), along with diurnal and nocturnal SBP and DBP values decreased (P < 0.05) in all groups with no differences between groups. When the ExT groups were combined, submaximal SBP (P = 0.048) and DBP (P = 0.004), VO2peak (P = 0.014) and HR reserve (P = 0.030) were significantly improved compared with AC. Intervention did not have significant effects on BPV. In the present study better improvements in the autonomic nervous system were seen when the aerobic ExT was individually designed and supervised with pari passu effects irrespective of exercise intensity and volume. Low-volume-HIIT ExT combined with a healthy diet should be considered as a time efficient and safe mechanism for reducing the cardiovascular risk in hypertensive individuals.

3.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647384

RESUMEN

Purpose: To determine whether improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure (BP) and body composition previously seen after a 16-week exercise intervention (POST) with hypocaloric diet are maintained following six months (6M) of unsupervised exercise time. Methods: Overweight/obese, physically inactive participants with primary hypertension (HTN) (n = 190) were randomly assigned into an attention control group (physical activity recommendations) or one of three supervised exercise groups. After POST, all participants received diet and physical activity advice for the following 6M but no supervision. All anthropometric and physiological measurements were taken pre and post the 16-week supervised intervention period, as well as after 6M of no supervision. Results: After 6M: 1) body mass (BM) (Δ = 2.5%) and waist circumference (Δ = 1.8%) were higher (P < .005) than POST, but lower (P < .005) than pre-intervention (BM, Δ = -5.1%; waist circumference, Δ = -4.7%), with high-volume and high-intensity interval training group revealing a higher BM reduction (Δ = -6.4 kg) compared to control group (Δ = -3.5 kg); 2) BP variables were higher (P < .001) compared to POST with no change from pre-intervention; and 3) CRF was higher compared to pre-intervention (Δ = 17.1%, P < .001) but lower than POST (Δ = -5.7%, P < .001). Conclusions: When an overweight/obese population with HTN attains significant improvements in cardiometabolic health POST intervention with diet restriction, there is a significant reduction following 6M when exercise and diet supervision is removed, and only recommendations were applied. These results suggest the need for a regular, systematic and supervised diet and exercise programs to avoid subsequent declines in cardiometabolic health.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(2): 260-266, 2019 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409414

RESUMEN

Prolonged, uninterrupted sitting negatively impacts markers of peripheral vascular health, particularly, vasodilatory function of leg arteries. Whether sitting can similarly impact measures of central vascular health, as well as overall leg vasoreactivity (i.e., vasodilatory and vasoconstrictor function) remains unknown. To address this, measurements were made in relatively healthy participants (i.e., free of overt disease; n = 20, age = 26 ± 7; body mass index = 30 ± 7 kg/m2; 7 female) pre, during and post 3 hours of uninterrupted sitting. Measures of central vascular health included arterial wave reflection (augmentation index and Reflection Magnitude-RM%) and aortic vascular stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity). Local vasoreactivity of the distal, posterior tibial artery was measured using flow-mediated dilation-FMD, coupled with low-flow mediated constriction, and microvascular function was assessed through the total hyperemic blood velocity (area-under-curve) response during FMD. After sitting, there was a significant increase in aortic pulse wave velocity (pre sit = 5.7 ± 0.3 vs post sit = 6.1 ± 0.3 m/s; p = 0.009, d = 0.36), whereas, augmentation index decreased (pre sit = 13 ± 3 vs post sit = 3 ± 1%; p < 0.001, d = 0.71). Albeit a moderate effect for decrease, RM% was not significantly altered during sitting (p = 0.13, d = 0.3). Vasodilatory (i.e., FMD pre sit = 0.5 ± 0.04 vs post sit = 0.3 ± 0.04 mm; p = 0.014, d = 0.29) and microvascular function (i.e., Microvascular area-under-curve: pre sit = 2,196 ± 333 vs 1,157±172 AU; p = 0.003, d = 0.31) decreased, but vasoconstrictor function (low-flow mediated constriction; p = 0.85, d = 0.005) was unaffected by sitting. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that a prolonged bout of uninterrupted sitting negatively impacts markers of peripheral and central vascular health in relatively healthy adults.


Asunto(s)
Sedestación , Adulto , Aorta/fisiología , Velocidad del Flujo Sanguíneo/fisiología , Electrocardiografía , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior/anatomía & histología , Masculino , Microcirculación/fisiología , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Arterias Tibiales/diagnóstico por imagen , Arterias Tibiales/fisiología , Ultrasonografía Doppler Dúplex , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Vasodilatación/fisiología
5.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 78(7-8): 613-620, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474427

RESUMEN

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is positively associated with enhanced cardiovascular health. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine associations between CRF and the biochemical profile of overweight/obese adults diagnosed with primary hypertension (HTN). Does cardiorespiratory fitness (exposure) positively affect the biochemical profile (outcome) in overweight/obese individuals suffering from HTN? Assessment with anthropometric, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24 h), CRF (peak oxygen uptake, V̇O2peak) and biochemical analysis was performed on 214 participants (138 men, 76 women). A series of linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Participants were divided into CRF tertiles (classified as low, moderate and high CRF). The CRF was independently and inversely associated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST; ß = -0.328, p < .05) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT; ß = -0.376, p < .01) concentrations. C-reactive protein, AST/ALT ratio, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), were all associated, but not independently, with CRF in linear and/or unadjusted logistic regression models. However, independently, logistic regression revealed that glucose was associated with the moderate CRF group. Findings suggest that a lower CRF is associated with an unhealthy biochemical profile in non-physically active and overweight/obese individuals with HTN. As such, this population should look to increase physical activity in order to improve their CRF and biochemical profile.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Modelos Lineales , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidad/complicaciones , Consumo de Oxígeno
6.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 25(4): 343-353, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313359

RESUMEN

Background Both exercise training and diet are recommended to prevent and control hypertension and overweight/obesity. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different 16-week aerobic exercise programmes with hypocaloric diet on blood pressure, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness and pharmacological treatment. Methods Overweight/obese, sedentary participants ( n = 175, aged 54.0 ± 8.2 years) with hypertension were randomly assigned into an attention control group (physical activity recommendations) or one of three supervised exercise groups (2 days/week: high-volume with 45 minutes of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-volume and high-intensity interval training (HIIT), alternating high and moderate intensities, and low-volume HIIT (20 minutes)). All variables were assessed pre- and post-intervention. All participants received the same hypocaloric diet. Results Following the intervention, there was a significant reduction in blood pressure and body mass in all groups with no between-group differences for blood pressure. However, body mass was significantly less reduced in the attention control group compared with all exercise groups (attention control -6.6%, high-volume MICT -8.3%, high-volume HIIT -9.7%, low-volume HIIT -6.9%). HIIT groups had significantly higher cardiorespiratory fitness than high-volume MICT, but there were no significant between-HIIT differences (attention control 16.4%, high-volume MICT 23.6%, high-volume HIIT 36.7%, low-volume HIIT 30.5%). Medication was removed in 7.6% and reduced in 37.7% of the participants. Conclusions The combination of hypocaloric diet with supervised aerobic exercise 2 days/week offers an optimal non-pharmacological tool in the management of blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight/obese and sedentary individuals with hypertension. High-volume HIIT seems to be better for reducing body mass compared with low-volume HIIT. The exercise-induced improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness is intensity dependent with low-volume HIIT as a time-efficient method in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov Registration: NCT02283047.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Reductora/métodos , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Obesidad/rehabilitación , Sobrepeso/rehabilitación , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/etiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Método Simple Ciego
7.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(12): 3534-3541, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301444

RESUMEN

Fryer, SM, Giles, D, Garrido Palomino, I, de la O Puerta, A, and España-Romero, V. Hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory predictors of sport rock climbing performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(12): 3543-3550, 2018-Rock climbing performance has been suggested to involve a notable contribution from aerobic metabolism. Previously, it has been shown that forearm oxygenation kinetics can be used to distinguish ability groups and predict red-point sport climbing performance. Currently, it is not known if forearm oxygenation kinetics or a sport-specific assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness best predicts sport rock climbing performance. The aim of the study was to determine whether forearm oxidative capacity index, maximal deoxygenation (Δ score) during a treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak test, treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, or running V[Combining Dot Above]O2max best predicts self-reported sport climbing performance. Twenty-one male sport rock climbers completed a treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, running V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and an assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy-derived oxidative capacity index. Linear regression, adjusted for age and experience (years), revealed that forearm oxidative capacity index, treadwall maximal deoxygenation (Δ), and treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak all significantly predicted self-reported red-point sport climbing ability (Adj R = -0.398, -0.255, and 0.374, respectively), whereas treadmill running V[Combining Dot Above]O2max did not (Adj R = -0.052). Additionally, multiple regression suggested that the combined significant aerobic predictors accounted for 67% of the variance in red-point climbing ability. Findings suggest that training for sport rock climbing performance should look to incorporate modalities that focus on (a) improving local forearm aerobic capacity and (b) improving whole-body aerobic capacity using sport-specific apparatus, such as treadwalls.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Capacidad Cardiovascular , Antebrazo/fisiología , Hemodinámica , Montañismo/fisiología , Adulto , Atletas , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Tolerancia al Ejercicio , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno , Carrera , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta
8.
Blood Press Monit ; 22(3): 154-160, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28240685

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Hypertension (HTN), obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with an increased risk for a cardiovascular event. Enrolling overweight/obese individuals with HTN, the current study aimed to estimate cardiovascular risk (CVR) and vascular age (VA) profiles analyzing potential sex differences, determine whether VA is higher than chronological age, and whether CVR is associated with a low level of CRF. METHODS: Overweight/obese non-Hispanic White participants (n=209; 141 men and 68 women) with primary HTN had their CVR and VA determined using the New Pooled Cohort Risk Equations and The Framingham method, respectively. Considering values of peak oxygen uptake, participants were divided into tertiles for each sex. RESULTS: The CVR, but not VA (P=0.339), was higher (P<0.001) in men compared with women irrespective of age. Irrespective of sex, VA was higher than chronological age (P<0.001). Age and BMI were higher (P<0.05) in the low CRF group compared with that in other groups. There were no differences in CVR (P=0.907) and VA (P=1.643) when values were separated into CRF groups. CONCLUSION: Pooled Cohort Equations could underestimate the risk of suffering a cardiovascular event in the following 10 years in overweight/obese non-Hispanic White women with HTN compared with men. The VA appears to be a useful tool in communicating CVR in this population irrespective of sex. The CRF alone may not be enough to moderate the CVR.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
9.
Am J Lifestyle Med ; 11(3): 243-251, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202339

RESUMEN

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth has steadily increased over the last decade, although it appears to have currently stabilized. Physical inactivity is a major contributor to this obesity epidemic, and more than half of American youth do not meet physical activity recommendations. Rock climbing and bouldering require both aerobic and anaerobic fitness, with the metabolic cost comparable to moderate to vigorous physical activity in adults. Minimal data on youth climbers exist, yet climbing is extremely popular with youth, and thus the sport may be a viable option for decreasing the prevalence of obesity. Available data show that rock climbing can provide youth with muscular strength and endurance building exercise, and possibly improve flexibility. In addition, rock climbing has the potential to provide youth with moderate levels of physical activity according to recommended guidelines. Nine peer reviewed articles are included in this review, as these are the articles specifically associated with youth climbing and health-related fitness. Due to limited research in this area, no articles were excluded if they were related to health-related fitness and youth and rock climbing/bouldering. This review aims to systematically address the impact of rock climbing and bouldering on health-related fitness in youth.

10.
Atherosclerosis ; 251: 234-239, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27415611

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can potentially be used to assess the cardiovascular autonomic system by monitoring orthostatic challenge-induced shifts in lower limb blood volume. However, in order to be of clinical utility the test must be valid, reliable, and relatively simple to conduct. PURPOSE: To induce lower limb blood volume shifts using a 10 min 70° head-up tilt, and: (1) in the soleus, determine the validity of an inexpensive continuous wave (cw)-NIRS device by comparing to a criterion frequency-domain (fd-) NIRS device, (2) determine the between-day reliability of soleus assessments obtained from cw-NIRS and fd-NIRS; and, (3) compare the between-day reliability for fd-NIRS assessments obtained at the soleus (standard) and gastrocnemius (simpler alternative). METHODS: Fifteen non-smoking healthy adults were tested on 3 different mornings, under standardized conditions, separated by a maximum of 7 days. Total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) was continuously monitored bi-laterally in the medial soleus using cw-NIRS and fd-NIRS. For site comparison, tHb was measured in the medial gastrocnemius using fd-NIRS. RESULTS: (1) The area under the curve (AUC) for cw-NIRS and fd-NIRS assessments at the soleus were not significantly different (p = 0.619). (2) The criterion (0.75) intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was exceeded for both cw-NIRS and fd-NIRS. (3) The criterion ICC was exceeded for both soleus and gastrocnemius assessments. CONCLUSION: Continuous-wave NIRS can be used to monitor orthostatic stress-induced shifts in lower leg blood volume with acceptable validity and reliability. This orthostatic test may present a relatively simple and inexpensive approach for assessing the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system.


Asunto(s)
Volumen Sanguíneo , Músculo Esquelético/patología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta/métodos , Adulto , Área Bajo la Curva , Encéfalo/fisiología , Circulación Cerebrovascular/fisiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Voluntarios Sanos , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior , Masculino , Postura , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 29(6): 1633-9, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25536538

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to determine muscle tissue oxidative capacity and recovery in intermediate, advanced, and elite rock climbers. Forty-four male participants performed (a) sustained and (b) intermittent contractions at 40% of maximal volitional contraction (MVC) on a sport-specific fingerboard until volitional fatigue. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to assess muscle tissue oxygenation during both the exercise and the 5-minutes passive recovery period, in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR). During the sustained contraction only, muscle tissue deoxygenation (O2 debt) in the FDP and FCR was significantly greater in elite climbers compared with the control, intermediate, and advanced groups (FDP: 32 vs. 15, 19, 22%; FCR: 19 vs. 11, 8, 15%, respectively). However, elite climbers had a significantly quicker time to half recovery (T1/2) than the control and intermediate groups in the FDP (8 vs. 95 and 47 seconds, respectively) and the FCR (7 vs. 30 and 97 seconds, respectively) because the O2% recovered per second being significantly greater (FDP: 4.2 vs. 0.7 and 0.3; FCR: 4.8 vs. 0.1 and 0.2, respectively). Furthermore, during the intermittent contraction, T1/2 in elite climbers was significantly quicker compared with the control and intermediate groups in the FDP (8 vs. 93 and 83 seconds, respectively) and FCR (16 vs. 76 and 50 seconds, respectively). Consequently, lower-level climbers should focus training on specific intermittent fatigue protocols. Competition or elite climbers should make use of appropriate rests on route to aid recovery and increase the chances of reaching the next hold.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Montañismo/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Adulto , Dedos , Antebrazo , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Montañismo/clasificación , Contracción Muscular , Fatiga Muscular , Consumo de Oxígeno , Recuperación de la Función , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Adulto Joven
12.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 9(6): 973-7, 2014 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24622735

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: Venipuncture is expensive, invasive, and impractical for many sport-science and clinical-based settings. Salivary free cortisol is often cited as a noninvasive practical alternative. However, when cortisol concentrations exceed the corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) point of 500 nmol/L, a lack of agreement between salivary and venous blood cortisol has been found. Alternatively, capillary blood may present a minimally invasive, cost-effective, and practical surrogate for determining cortisol concentration. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether cortisol concentrations sampled from capillary blood and saliva accurately reflect those found in venous blood across a large range of concentrations after intense exercise. METHODS: Eleven healthy aerobically trained male subjects were recruited. Capillary, salivary, and venous blood samples were collected before and after (immediately and 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after) a treadmill VO(2) max test. RESULTS: Capillary and venous concentrations increased at a similar rate after exercise (Cohen d.14-.33), increasing up to 15 min postexercise before a decline was seen. Salivary cortisol values increased at a slower rate than venous and capillary cortisol but continued to increase 15 min postexercise (Cohen d .19-.47 and .09-.72, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Capillary cortisol accurately reflects concentrations assayed from venous blood across a range of values below and above the CBG binding point. Capillary sampling provides a minimally invasive, cost-effective, practical surrogate for assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-gland function.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Salvia/química , Adulto , Capilares , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Masculino , Venas , Adulto Joven
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